TyphoonHaiyan - RW Updates
En 2014, plus de 527 400 personnes ont pu être aidées dans nos 14 programmes de développement.
Autant de vies changées, comme celle d’Aye qui a pu retrouver le chemin de l’école au Myanmar. Elle bénéficie des cours du soir mis en place par Vision du Monde, pour les enfants qui travaillent la journée afin d’aider leurs parents. Ce programme est une véritable opportunité pour Aye. Elle apprend à écrire, lire, compter, et peut maintenant espérer un avenir meilleur.
Chaque année, grâce à vos dons, vous redonnez espoir à des milliers d’enfants. Découvrez dans notre rapport annuel les actions menées en 2014 ainsi que les témoignages des enfants qui, chaque jour, voient leur destin changer grâce à vous.
The global climate is warming and there is growing evidence that climate variability is increasing in many places; extremes are becoming more frequent and intense in some parts of the world.
Three detailed case studies – on drought risk in Mali, heatwaves in India and typhoons in Philippines – illustrate the relationship between climate change, climate extremes, disasters and poverty impacts.
Read the full report
The Asia-Pacific region is one of the most disaster-prone areas in the world, with frequently occurring natural disasters including earthquakes, tsunamis, tropical storms, flooding, landslides and volcanic eruptions affecting millions of people every year.
Although countries in the region have developed varying capacities to reduce risk and respond to disasters, many communities are still vulnerable. The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) provides support to governments, the United Nations system and other partners in Asia-Pacific through a network of offices which collectively cover 36 UN member countries and an additional 16 countries and territories totaling over 3 billion people.
Mandated by UN General Assembly Resolution 46/182, OCHA aims to facilitate national disaster preparedness, advocate for policy change in favor of vulnerable communities, strengthen UN/IASC agency coordination and capacity, and promote regional cooperation for enhanced emergency response.
Since 2005, the OCHA Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (ROAP) has provided support and assistance in response to major emergencies including the Pakistan earthquake, Indonesia (Yogyakarta & Padang earthquakes), Timor-Leste political unrest, Philippines typhoons (Ketsana & Haiyan) and the Solomon Islands tsunami.
OCHA ROAP is also working with key partners to support the implementation of the Cluster approach; roll out the Emergency Response Preparedness (ERP); facilitate use of the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF); support Humanitarian Coordinators and build partnerships (including the Regional IASC Humanitarian Network).
OCHA ROAP offers a wide range of technical expertise including disaster response coordination, humanitarian reporting, funding mobilization, civil-military coordination, communication with communities, information management, public information and advocacy coordination. For more information on OCHA ROAP or to see more reports and maps, the office maintains a regionally-focused website (http://www.unocha.org/roap/).
Philippines: Pintakasi: A Review of Shelter/WASH Delivery Methods in Post-disaster Recovery Interventions
Catholic Relief Services conducted an in‑depth study to assess the efficiency, effectiveness and appropriateness of the modalities for delivering shelter and WASH assistance in its Typhoon Haiyan Recovery Program. This study, Pintakasi1, hopes to contribute valuable lessons learned and share best practices from the program with the shelter/WASH recovery communities of practice in the humanitarian sector as a whole.
CRS conducted 26 focus group discussions with 115 beneficiaries and 90 staff, as well as 8 key informant interviews with senior management in the municipalities of Tacloban, Palo and Samar,
Philippines. The main objectives of the study were to:
- Document decisions, implementation obstacles and risk‑mitigation strategies
- Understand beneficiary preference
- Provide a comparison between the cash‑transfer and direct‑build approaches
The study focused on the efficiency (time, cost, quantity/scale), effectiveness (quality, beneficiary satisfaction) and appropriateness (vulnerability, dignity) of a cash‑based approach to delivering shelter/WASH solutions, compared to in‑kind/direct‑build construction, in the context of recovery after Typhoon Haiyan.
The relative effectiveness of different modalities depended heavily on contextual factors such as the functioning of markets, availability of trained labor, capacity of the organization, emergency phase versus recovery phase, and availability of secure in‑country money transfer systems. Key findings of the study include:
It is very important for beneficiaries to have a choice between cash transfer and direct build. The provision of options allowed for the contextual needs of each beneficiary to be met. This also assured a higher rate of beneficiary satisfaction, since they had a greater choice of the delivery method.
Beneficiary preference aligned with the type of modality they received (direct build or cash transfer). In the direct‑build FGDs, all beneficiaries said they preferred direct build and responded that they would not change their decision to a cash transfer since it was the best approach for their situation. All cash transfer beneficiaries who participated in the FGDs thought cash transfer was the best approach because they were able to choose quality materials to ensure a durable, high‑quality home.
Cash transfer was a more cost‑efficient approach for this response. For every $100 spent on the beneficiary, it cost $18.50 for CRS to deliver the cash‑transfer approach against $23 to deliver using the direct‑build approach. This difference was primarily due to the time it took to procure materials for thousands of beneficiaries in the direct‑build approach.
Cash transfer was a more cost‑effective approach when the unit costs, completion of targets, and dropouts were compared for each approach. Per unit, CRS spent less on shelters and toilets using a cash‑transfer approach than using direct build. CRS was able to complete all 20,000 targeted shelters and toilets within 20 months over a large geographic area largely due to the scalability of the cash‑transfer approach. For every $100 spent using the cash‑transfer approach, 97 percent was used by beneficiaries to build shelters and toilets. An average of $3 (or 3 percent) of every $100 spent delivering cash transfers did not get invested into shelter and toilet construction by beneficiaries. In these cases, beneficiaries did not comply with the requirements to receive subsequent cash transfers, or “tranches”, and therefore did not complete the program. Findings suggest that the overall cost effectiveness of the completed targets would have been greater if a cash‑transfer approach had been used rather than a mixed‑methods approach.
Effective social mobilization is key to the success of the cash‑transfer approach, and significant human resources should be dedicated to social mobilization when employing this approach.
Environmental site assessments (collecting data on the highest seasonal flood levels, water table, and soil type) should be conducted before implementation of any cash‑transfer or direct‑build program so that guidance and training on the most resilient shelter and toilet designs can be given to engineers, foremen, carpenters and beneficiaries during pre‑construction meetings before the first cash transfer is released.
Based on the findings of this study, CRS has developed a decision‑making tool to help practitioners decide which approach will be most appropriate, effective, and efficient depending on which influencing factors are at play.
HUMANITARIAN AID AND THE SWISS HUMANITARIAN AID UNIT
Emergency aid and reconstruction measures supported by Switzerland directly benefit around three and a half million people a year.
Given their scale and tragic consequences, Swiss Humanitarian Aid has focused its attention on the conflicts in Syria and Iraq, South Sudan and the Central African Republic, and the Ebola epidemic in West Africa. (p. 8)
TECHNICAL COOPERATION AND FINANCIAL AID FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Improved management of service delivery systems has enabled almost eight million people from poor and disadvantaged population groups to better exercise their economic and social rights by increasing their access to basic resources and public services. Through its global programmes, Switzerland also contributed considerably to anchoring a concrete, measurable goal on universal access to water and sanitation in the outcome document on the SDGs. (p. 12)
TRANSITION ASSISTANCE IN THE COUNTRIES OF EASTERN EUROPE AND THE CIS
By supporting the transition of the Western Balkans and the countries of the former Soviet Union towards democratic systems and market economy, Switzerland helps to restore political stability and improve conditions for the people living there. (p.30)
GOOD GOVERNANCE AND GENDER EQUALITY
An independent evaluation has confirmed the good results achieved by the SDC in strengthening governance systems and increasing citizen participation in several priority countries. The OECD has confirmed the progress made towards mainstreaming the goal of gender equality into SDC programming. (p. 34)
The Philippines leads civil-military coordination in humanitarian response
ARMM's team of experts responds to humanitarian emergencies
The Philippines' unique history of refugees
Humanitarian Country Team joins National Simultaneous Earthquake Drill
Philippines: civil-military coordination in humanitarian response
The Philippines, by virtue of its location, is prone to natural disasters. With the trend of increasingly severe and destructive weather disturbances unlikely to change, more communities are likely to be exposed to hazards.
The country has thus developed a comprehensive disaster management system utilized down to the local level to ensure preparedness, effective response and prompt recovery. When a disaster overwhelms national capacity, however, the Philippines may request international assistance, including military assets, to support the national response.
After Typhoon Haiyan (known locally as Yolanda) in 2013, military assets consisting of air, naval, medical, engineering and communications capacities, as well as personnel were deployed from 21 Member States. Thousands of foreign military personnel worked closely with the humanitarian community at the height of the relief operation. With overlapping capabilities and specific missions coupled with cultural differences, the arrival of foreign militaries posed coordination challenges with civilian humanitarian actors.
The military’s role in humanitarian response
In the Asia-Pacific region, military resources are often part of the first response after natural disasters and make a valuable contribution. The prominent engagement of the military in humanitarian operations is a by-product of its unique structure, discipline, training, manpower, equipment and the determination to bolster resilience amidst the chaos.
Coordination among the different actors is critical for sharing information, planning and dividing tasks. This is where the United Nations’ Humanitarian Civil-Military Coordination framework helps facilitate interaction between civilian and military actors, which is essential to protect humanitarian principles, avoid competition, minimize inconsistency and pursue common goals.
In the event of a disaster, the Government and affected communities rely on the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) to be among the first to respond. The AFP has as one of its critical mission areas Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Response (HADR), and it leads the Search, Rescue and Retrieval Cluster of the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC). It also provides manpower and logistics and communications support to other government cluster agencies.
29 June 2016, Ormoc City, Philippines– Fifty-five families in Ormoc City will soon be able to move in to their disaster-resilient homes with the turnover today of housing units supported by the European Union (EU) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
EU First Counsellor and Head Development Cooperation Achim Tillessen and UNDP Philippines Country Director Titon Mitra led the turnover ceremony of the housing units to the local government unit of Ormoc City.
The construction of disaster-resilient core shelters is part of the EU’s package of assistance, delivered through UNDP’s Project Recovery, to help families affected by Typhoon Yolanda. With funding support of EUR 9.7 million (approx. Php508 million) from the EU, Project Recovery complements the efforts of national and local governments in enabling the timely and sustainable recovery of Yolanda-affected communities and also builds their resilience to future natural disasters.
Project Recovery aims to provide a model for disaster-resilient resettlement infrastructure. The project is constructing 165 disaster-resilient houses with level 2 water system and electrical support facility in three sites (55 houses in each site): Ormoc City, Tacloban City and the municipality of Hernani in Eastern Samar. The 55 houses in Ormoc City have been completed and the rest will be finished by third quarter of this year.
“I am very happy that I will now be able to live in a house that is beautiful and sturdy. We have a newborn child, a new house. This is a big change in our life because our family can now live in a safe and comfortable house,” declares Rosemarie Encabo, one of the shelter beneficiaries in Ormoc City.
The houses are constructed with sweat equity from the beneficiary families to ensure better ownership of the project. Families are organised into Homeowners Associations that oversee and manage the houses’ construction and livelihood activities to make their resettlement community sustainable. Beneficiaries are trained in construction which enables them to secure employment with local construction companies.
The project also helps to build the capacities of the local government units of Tacloban City, Ormoc City and Municipality of Hernani in addressing shelter, land, and resettlement planning and management issues and needs.
Project Recovery focuses on: rebuilding disaster-resilient infrastructure; restoring livelihoods and jobs in farming and fishing communities; addressing land management issues and shelter construction models to ensure relocation of displaced populations; and strengthening capacities for and linkage of national and local governance disaster response and preparedness.
Mr Tillessen of the EU said, “The EU values its strong partnership with the Philippine Government, both at the national and local levels, and with UNDP particularly in helping disaster-affected communities recover. We are pleased to see the first batch of 55 families completing their houses which have been designed to be more disaster-resilient. We hope that EU’s support through UNDP will help secure a better and safer future for these families.”
“We thank the EU for their continued support and commitment, and the local government of Ormoc City for ensuring that this project is implemented smoothly. We are delighted to see that 55 families now have permanent homes that they themselves have built with their own hands. These families will now live in homes that can withstand 300kph winds. They have also acquired construction skills that hopefully will help them find productive employment,” UNDP Philippines Country Director Titon Mitra said.
UNESCO Jakarta Office and Philippines’ Department of Education has trained 285 secondary school teachers and education key officials in how best to help children rebuild and improve their lives since the 2013 typhoon hit through the Emergency Psychosocial Support for Secondary School-aged Students project.
“Recovery and rehabilitation is not something that happens overnight, said Reynaldo Laguda, Department of Education Undersecretary for Administration and Finance. “This particular project is very special for us because it addresses areas that are sometimes disregarded in recovery. This is essentially talking about things that people don’t usually discuss and providing support for students, emotionally and psychologically.”
The project consists of a psychosocial training module rolled out through workshops for teachers in post-disaster psychosocial support and relayed through the classroom through special activities and practical recovery goals. It also trains education policy decision-makers to ensure the module can be applied in a broader emergency context while local needs are addressed.
Helping children to dream again
Six months ago the joint project was boosted by the Enhanced and Improved Teachers’ Manual on Psychosocial Interventions for Secondary School-aged Students During Disasters and Emergency Situations funded by the Official Development Assistance of the Government of Japan.
Training facilitator Dr Maria Regina Hechanova said: “When you are victimized by a trauma and you lose everything, sometimes you lose even the dreams because they seem very unreachable, because you're starting from scratch. What we're trying to do is get them to dream again,”
“The teacher opens up the door after a disaster and taps the inner strength of the learners, so that they don't have to go through the trauma for a long period of time,” said Department of Education Secretary Armin Luistro.
Ms Daisy Espuglar, Mathematics Secondary Schoolteacher who took part in a recent introductory training workshop said: “We have learned how to prepare our hearts, our bodies and our minds in times of disasters and calamities.”
The 2013 typhoon destroyed more than 1.2 million homes displacing 4 million people. UNESCO responded by sending teams of experts in education, culture, media development, hydrology, early warning systems, resilient infrastructure and disaster and risk reduction from Paris, Jakarta, Beijing and Bangkok.