TyphoonHaiyan - RW Updates
World: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific: Humanitarian Civil-Military Coordination (as of 23 Feb 2017)
Humanitarian Civil-Military Coordination facilitates the essential dialogue and interaction between civilian and military actors in humanitarian emergencies necessary to protect and promote humanitarian principles, avoid competition, minimize inconsistency, and when appropriate, pursue common goals. The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (ROAP) civil-military coordination strategy focuses on building a predictable civil-military coordination engagement tailored to the regional context. An important element is establishing and maintaining strategic and operational partnerships with military and police during the response preparedness phase.
PhD Candidate | Construction Engineering and Management
USAID/OFDA Humanitarian Shelter and Settlements Fellow
Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering
University of Colorado Boulder
Urbanization, climate change, and conflict continue to strain the global humanitarian system. In 2016, the United Nations estimated that there was a $15 billion funding gap for humanitarian assistance.
In 2013, the world watched as Typhoon Haiyan descended on the Central Philippines, making landfall with sustained wind speeds in excess of 315kph (195mph). The storm was the strongest ever recorded based on wind speed at landfall. The aftermath was devastating.
Too often, we as humanitarians get caught up in attending to the next response without taking time to track actions and outcomes. To improve the delivery of shelter solutions, it is imperative that we reflect on our successes and failures to learn across programs, and disasters.
Through this report, we hope to illuminate innovative approaches, barriers to implementation, and surprises that followed the delivery of shelter assistance following Haiyan, highlighted through 19 diverse shelter cases. We have also compiled commentary pieces on shelter themes that defined the response.
Haiyan presents a compelling case to study because of the range of shelter modalities utilized by organizations. We have a unique opportunity to examine the intimacies of approaches and compare them within a context that in many ways reflects the complexity we continue to see in other responses.
It is our hope that this serves as a tool to document the wealth of shelter knowledge that was put forth after Haiyan. We applaud the successes we’ve made as a community of practice and eagerly look forward to continuing to improve our methods of delivering resilient and sustainable shelter solutions for those affected by natural disasters and conflicts.
This report is the culmination of three years of research tracking 19 separate shelter programs in the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines. The 19 selected cases that follow are intended to encompass the range of strategies and approaches used by NGOs in shelter reconstruction in the aftermath of Haiyan. Presented is information on project locations, strategies used in planning, design, and construction, and discussion of program barriers and successes. Each project includes a photo set of completed construction efforts. Programs encompass three regions – Cebu, Leyte and Eastern Samar – each with unique challenges, but with an underlying set of characteristics that include severity of damage experienced and socio-cultural context. The programs all provided shelter assistance through formal organizational intervention, however, processes used to achieve reconstruction differed, ranging from emphasis on self-recovery to contractor built housing
World: She is a humanitarian: Women’s participation in humanitarian action drawing on global trends and evidence from Jordan and the Philippines
This report, based on extensive research and consultations by CARE International, argues that efforts to protect and assist people caught up in natural disasters and conflict will be more effective if women can contribute.
Over the past two years, CARE interviewed over 300 women involved in humanitarian action either at a global level or in emergency responses in Jordan (to the Syria crisis) and the Philippines (to Typhoon Haiyan). Three interlinked, and widely shared, issues emerged:
• Women are not just victims: the humanitarian system still primarily sees women and girls as victims, and treats women and girls as passive beneficiaries of humanitarian assistance.
• Gender is not just a tick-box: efforts to ensure that the specific needs of people of all genders are addressed in humanitarian action are seen as a tokenistic, tick-box exercise at the planning stage, with a lack of followthrough in the implementation of humanitarian assistance.
• She is a humanitarian: women’s organisations, and individual women, are already playing a key role as frontline responders in disasters and conflicts. They are playing a leading role in affected communities, helping everyone in those communities – women, men, girls and boys – survive, cope with and adapt to the crisis. The contribution of women as humanitarian actors needs to be recognised and supported.
Based on our extensive consultations with women activists at national and global levels, as well as a literature review and discussions with policy-makers, the report identifies four emerging trends in humanitarian response:
• A shift from women as victims to women as first responders: this shift in policy and practice was recognised at a global level by the 2016 World Humanitarian Summit, and now needs to be carried through in implementing and delivering on the Summit’s core commitments on gender.
• A shift from tick-box gender accountability to a comprehensive approach: this means ensuring gender is addressed at all levels, from funding through project planning and delivery to M&E and accountability.
• Increasing the support and space for women to participate in humanitarian action: as agencies more seriously address their accountability to affected populations, the specific challenges of accountability to women and girls are getting recognised.
• Recognising the participation of local women’s groups in humanitarian action: contributions by women-led civil society groups are increasingly recognised at the level of policy rhetoric, but this is not yet translating into funding or joint work on the ground.
The challenges and opportunities are explored in evidence from Jordan and the Philippines, including a case study of Syrian women’s activism in Jordan, and accountability for gender in the shelter sector in the Philippines. The report concludes with recommendations for different stakeholders involved in humanitarian action: donors, governments in crisis-affected contexts, the United Nations, INGOs, and local women’s groups. Key recommendations are:
• Bring the World Humanitarian Summit Gender Core Commitments to the field level.
Emphasis should be placed on integrating the Summit’s gender outcomes into follow-up on the Grand Bargain and the Call to Action on Protection from Gender-based Violence in Emergencies at global and field level, for example by identifying pilot countries. Donors and host governments in crisis-affected countries should likewise identify action plans to translate the global commitments on women’s participation into practice in the context of national disaster management strategies, national action plans on women, peace and security, emergency response funding and related frameworks.
• Identify individual and collective commitments on gender and Leave No One Behind at the leadership level in global clusters, Humanitarian Country Teams, field clusters or sector working groups, and national line ministries.
Humanitarian Coordinators should convene consultations with relevant stakeholders, including local women’s groups, to identify priorities in implementing UN Humanitarian Response Plans for 2017. Senior leadership at global and country levels is critical to enable technical gender expertise and the experience of women from affected communities to inform decision-making. Progress should be reviewed at mid-year and end-of-year points.
• Strengthen and align approaches to ‘whole of programme cycle’ accountability for gender and Leave No One Behind, measuring outcomes, not just processes, in humanitarian funding.
Donors, UN agencies and NGOs should work together to integrate good practices, building on the IASC Gender and Age Marker, the Minimum Standards on Gender and Age piloted in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector, and the IASC Gender-based Violence Guidelines. Accountability in crisis response funding should be framed in a comprehensive manner to address gender equality, women’s leadership and participation, gender-based violence prevention and response, and sexual and reproductive health and rights – avoiding siloed approaches and maximising links between efforts in different sectors. Crucially, it needs to shift away from the tick-box approach focusing only on processes towards accountability to ensure actual improvements in how people access assistance and protection.
• Give humanitarian action a women’s face – appoint female staff at all levels.
All institutions involved in humanitarian action should undertake gender audits of their organisational culture and human resource management and set milestones to increase female staffing and gender sensitivity at all levels.
Donors should make this mandatory in multi-year funding for preparedness, resilience and disaster risk reduction.
• Strengthen partnerships with and increase multi-year and flexible funding to local women’s organisations (in line with the wider Grand Bargain commitment to channel 25% of funding to local organisations).
Partnerships between local women’s groups and humanitarian agencies should be fostered to promote learning in both directions and leverage these partnerships to become drivers of change for women’s participation, gender equality and gender-based violence prevention and response in each sector.
The needs of people affected by a crisis, as well as their coping strategies, are shaped by gender. As humanitarians, if we don’t try to understand these, then we are not doing our job. While the specific roles played by women and girls are often off the radar for mainstream humanitarian action, they are in fact amongst the first and frontline responders. It’s already happening, and the challenge and opportunity for the humanitarian system is to now better support those efforts.
GENEVA, 8 February 2017 – The Philippines, one of the most disaster risk-prone nations in the world, is stepping up efforts to ensure that its communities can withstand natural and human-induced hazards.
“If we’re able to reduce risk then there may be no need for response. So the more we focus on prevention and mitigation, the less we might need to respond,” said Mr. Ricardo B. Jalad, Administrator of the Office of Civil Defense and Executive Director of the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC).
“We’re trying to focus on local government units and communities. That’s our priority,” he said, during a visit to the Geneva headquarters of the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR).
Mr. Jalad, who took office last July, met with UNISDR’s head Mr. Robert Glasser, Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General for Disaster Risk Reduction.
“The Philippines is such a key country when it comes to disaster risk reduction. Partly because it is so exposed to hazards, but also because of the way that its learning from those hazards has helped it reduce disaster risk, and because of the lessons it offers for other countries,” said Mr. Glasser.
Last week, the NDRRMC called on local governments in the country’s Eastern Visayas area – also known as Region 8 – to sign up to UNISDR’s Making Cities Resilient campaign at a ceremony planned for 6-7 April.
Home to 4.1 million people, and nicknamed the “geographical backbone” of the Philippines, Eastern Visayas was the location of the worst disaster to affect the country in recent decades.
The November 2013 Typhoon Haiyan – known in the Philippines as Yolanda – killed more than 7,000 people, affected 25 million, and caused US$10 billion in estimated economic losses. In the city of Tacloban alone, one of the areas hardest hit, 90% of all structures were either destroyed or damaged
A major issue exposed by the disaster was the need for early warning terminology to make sense to the general public. Forecasters used the technical term “storm surge”, which describes how the sea is driven inland by a typhoon in a tsunami-like wave, but that label did not grab the population’s attention sufficiently.
In Haiyan’s wake, the Philippines shook up its methods for keeping the public risk-informed, and ensuring early dissemination of warnings and efficient evacuations to promote a “zero casualty” approach. That proved successful in the face of major storms such as Typhoon Hagupit in December 2014 and Typhoon Koppu in October 2015.
“We were able to learn from our past disasters. We were able to improve our system,” said Mr. Jalad.
“The biggest problem we have now is in the rehabilitation and recovery phase,” he added.
Making Cities Resilient was launched in 2010 to help reduce disaster risk at the local level by sharing good practices from around the globe. It has grown into a global network of more than 3,400 members, ranging from towns to entire provinces, and the numbers are continuing to expand.
Currently, more than 100 provinces, cities and other municipalities in the Philippines
Self-assessment according to a series of benchmarks known as the “Ten Essentials” lies at the heart of the campaign, along with sharing best practice among participating cities. Areas under scrutiny include a city’s budget, how critical infrastructure is handled, policies to ensure all members of the community are included in risk planning, the safety of schools and health facilities, risk-compliant building regulations and land use, protection of ecosystems, and early warning systems.
The bedrock of the Philippines’ policies is the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, a 15-year international agreement adopted in 2015, Mr. Jalad underlined. It was the first building block of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and ties in with the Sustainable Development Goals.
The country has volunteered to pilot monitoring of implementation of both the Sendai Framework and the Sustainable Development Goals.
“It’s going to be really interesting for the Philippines to demonstrate to other countries how to integrate these two critically important and related priorities,” said Mr. Glasser, noting that the issue would be in the spotlight at the 2017 Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction, which takes place in May in Mexico.
Philippines: Health Consequences of Typhoon Haiyan in the Eastern Visayas Region Using a Syndromic Surveillance Database
Introduction: Typhoon Haiyan was the strongest storm recorded in Philippine history. Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED) was activated during the typhoon response. This study analyzes the health impact of different diseases during different timeframes post-disaster during Typhoon Haiyan in 2013 using a syndromic surveillance database.
Methods: SPEED reports medical consultations based on 21 syndromes covering a range of conditions from three syndrome groups: communicable diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). We analyzed consultation rates for 150 days post-disaster by syndrome, syndrome group, time period, and health facility type for adults as well as for children under the age of five.
Results: Communicable diseases had the highest consultation rates followed by similar rates for both injuries and NCDs. While communicable diseases were the predominant syndrome group for children, wounds and hypertension were common syndromes observed in adults. Village health centers had the most consultations amongst health facilities, but also showed the highest variability.
Discussion: Children were more vulnerable to communicable diseases compared to adults. Community health centers showing consistently high consultation rates point out a need for their prioritization. The predominance of primary care conditions requires disaster managers to focus on basic health care and public health measures in community health centers that target the young, elderly and impoverished appropriate to the time period.
Philippines: Boat Garage Project for ‘Yolanda’-affected fisherfolks of Guiuan, Samar almost complete
A boat garage constructed through the Sustainable Livelihood Program (SLP) of the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) will soon benefit the residents of Guiuan, Eastern Samar, a coastal town ravaged by Typhoon Yolanda in 2013.
The project, worth around P26M, is being constructed as part of the rehabilitation and recovery program for the municipality after the massive destruction left by ‘Yolanda’.
DSWD Secretary Judy M. Taguiwalo recently visited Guiuan to check on the progress of all the projects being implemented for ‘Yolanda’-survivors in the area.
Sec. Taguiwalo said, “The boat garage is meant to provide a safe and secure place for fisherfolk to dock their boats. This is especially needed during typhoons. Through the construction of the boat garage, we hope to help the fisherfolk of Guiuan to become economic drivers. We also hope that this project will open other investment opportunities in the town.”
Some income may also be generated by the local government through the boat garage by imposing minimal registration and docking fees.
Guiuan Mayor Christopher Sheen Gonzales expressed the town’s gratitude for the project which will benefit around 201 fisherfolk associations. The said project, once completed, is expected to be a big help to the local economy of Guian, as well as to nearby towns.
Aside from the boat garage project, Sec. Taguiwalo also visited the Guiuan Rural Health Center (RHC) which was rebuilt through the Kapit Bisig Laban sa Kahirapan-Comprehensive and Integrated Delivery of Social Services (Kalahi-CIDSS) program.
Funded through DSWD Kalahi-CIDSS program, the RHC is under the management of the local government and is headed by a medical doctor. The center has a delivery room, an anti-tuberculosis program, a laboratory, and a weekly well-baby clinic. Free medical consultations and free medicine provisions are also being done in the RHC.
The re-construction of the center and its efficient operations show the fruits of a coordinated and sincere partnership between the DSWD and the local government.
Sec. Taguiwalo reiterated, “Laging mas mahusay ang resulta ng mga bagay na bunga ng kooperasyon at sama-samang pagkilos para sa pagbibigay ng maagap at may malasakit na serbisyo sa ating kababayan (Cooperation and united action will always yield better results towards the provision of efficient and compassionate service to our needy fellow Filipinos.”
SLP is a community-based capacity building program that increases the economic opportunities of the families through the different modalities that it offers such as skills training, seed capital fund, pre-employment assistance fund, and the cash for building livelihood assets. It is implemented through the Community-Driven Enterprise Development Approach which equips program participants to actively contribute to production and labor markets by looking at available resources and accessible markets.
KALAHI-CIDSS, on the other hand, is a social protection program of DSWD in combating poverty. It uses the community-driven development (CDD) strategy to empower ordinary citizens to actively and directly participate in local governance by identifying their own community needs, planning, implementing, and monitoring projects together to address local poverty issues. Some of the results of Kalahi-CIDSS include improved access of communities to basic services, increased community involvement, and positive impact in household wellbeing. ###
Philippines: DSWD releases guidelines on implementation of Pres. Duterte’s P5,000 financial assistance for ‘Yolanda’ survivors
The Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) has released Memorandum Circular No. 3, which provides mechanisms for the distribution of President Rodrigo R. Duterte’s financial assistance worth P5,000 to households affected by Super Typhoon Yolanda in 2013 who have not received the Emergency Shelter Assistance (ESA) from the government up to now.
During the third year commemoration of ‘Yolanda’ in Tacloban City in November last year, Pres. Duterte addressed the appeal of some 200,000 survivors who have not received their ESA ever since the super typhoon hit the country. He committed to give financial assistance worth P5,000 to each household to finally help them rebuild their houses, and eventually, their lives.
The financial assistance will be funded by P1 billion from the Socio-Civic Projects Fund of the Office of the President and will be coursed through the DSWD.
“The Department has earlier issued a Memorandum following Pres. Duterte’s announcement of the assistance last year, guiding concerned units at the Central Office and Regional Offices on the preparations needed to operationalize the President’s directive,” DSWD Secretary Judy Taguiwalo said.
The assistance will be provided to eligible households affected by ‘Yolanda’ in Regions VI, VII, and VIII and the Negros Island Region. Each entitled household, without distinction as to the extent of damage to the home, will receive P5,000.
The beneficiaries will be given the assistance directly through a cash card to be issued by the Land Bank of the Philippines (LBP).
In order to qualify for the President’s financial assistance, a household must meet all of the following criteria:
The dwelling of the household must have been damaged by ‘Yolanda,’ regardless of the extent of the damage or ownership of the lot on which the house is built;
The household requested assistance from the DSWD on or before November 8, 2016, and must either;
Have been included in one of the lists submitted to the DSWD by People’s Organizations (POs) and Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) on or before November 8, 2016;
Have been included in one of the lists of unfunded ESA family-beneficiaries submitted on June 22, 2016 to the Department of Budget and Management (DBM); or
Have submitted, on or before November 8,2016, a complaint to the DSWD of not having received assistance, which must have been confirmed and validated by the DSWD.
To avail of the financial assistance, eligible households must submit the following documents:
Accomplished Financial Assistance Application Form, indicating the demographic information of the household-beneficiary;
Certification issued by the proper barangay authorities on the residency of the household-beneficiary; and
Any valid Identification Card (ID).
In case a household is unable to present any valid ID, the partner PO to which the identified beneficiary belongs to shall issue a Certification as to the identity of the beneficiary. The PO shall also send a representative during the distribution of the assistance to affirm the identity of the beneficiary.
Certification executed by the beneficiary that the household has not received any of the following assistance:
Emergency Shelter Assistance (ESA), in cash or in kind;
Core Shelters from DSWD under the Core Shelter Assistance Program (CSAP) and Modified Shelter Assistance Program (MSAP);
Permanent housing from National Housing Authority (NHA); or
Any other shelter or housing grant from the government.
DSWD- Field Offices (FOs) in Regions VI, VII, VIII, and NIR will be the implementing offices of the program under the supervision of the Office of the Secretary.
The FOs will validate and receive from the prospective beneficiaries the documentary requirements and will come up with a list of eligible households, which they will submit to the Central Office.
The Central Office (CO) will consolidate the lists from FOs into a single master list and submit the same to the LBP, which will open an account and issue a cash card for each beneficiary. The bank will load each card with P5,000 upon receiving the needed funds from the DSWD and transmit them to LBP branches corresponding to the concerned field offices.
The concerned field offices shall ensure that the LBP branches will distribute the cash cards to the beneficiaries. The distribution of the financial assistance will be completed within six months.
“The assistance is meant to give justice to ‘Yolanda’ survivors who have been fighting for three years to get the ESA from the government, but were not able to avail. A little more patience and this will be given to them. We at the DSWD have been doing our best to validate the beneficiaries of Pres. Duterte’s financial assistance program and to process its release as soon as possible so these victims can start their lives anew,” she said,” Sec. Taguiwalo ended.
Recent emergencies in Philippines, Nepal and Haiti show the value of sound construction
When a natural disaster hits an SOS Children’s Village, the ability of its infrastructure to resist the forces of nature is crucial to keep the children and staff safe. That no fatalities due to natural disaster have been reported in the history of the organisation is testimony to the construction standards it maintains.
On 8 November 2013, Super Typhoon Haiyan wreaked havoc in east-central Philippine city of Tacloban. The 101 children and their mothers of SOS Children’s Village Tacloban climbed into the ceilings of their homes while floodwater swept through the rooms below and strong winds tore at the roofs. The ceiling frames were strong enough to support the weight, with no injuries reported as the children were evacuated to SOS Children’s Village Calbayog as soon as the storm subsided.
“The houses were built to withstand winds of 250 km/h. Typhoon Haiyan reached wind speeds of up to 350 km/h, probably the strongest ever recorded in the world,” said Ashish Bansal, Deputy Director Construction for the SOS Children’s Villages International Office Asia.
The homes and buildings of SOS Children’s Village Tacloban were the only ones left standing in the immediate area. Although water damaged the furniture and ceilings, and mud clogged the drains, all the walls as well as the roof and ceiling framing remained intact.
In total, more than one million families were affected by the typhoon. As part of its emergency relief programme, SOS Children’s Villages is building more than 500 new typhoon-resistant homes. The last of the units are to be handed over in April 2017.
Earthquakes in Ecuador, Nepal, Pakistan and Haiti also confirmed the necessity for quake-resistant construction in countries prone to such natural disasters.
“There is a difference between earthquake proof and earthquake resistant. The first option is too costly. Damage can still happen to an earthquake-resistant building, but it should be something that can be repaired”, said Gerhard Sattler, Construction Advisor and Architect for SOS Children’s Villages International.
New homes for Nepal
In Nepal, no minimum building standards existed before the April 2015 earthquake which left 600,000 people homeless. Even post-earthquake construction regulations do not match the earthquake-resistant designs proposed by SOS Children’s Villages Nepal. The organisation is providing up to 250,000 Nepal rupees (€2,100) per house to help 320 families rebuild their homes. The Nepal emergency programme has also help rebuild damaged schools.
While the initial cost of earthquake- and storm-resistant buildings may be higher, there is a long-term saving in terms of general maintenance and disaster-related repairs. Even so, SOS Children’s Villages manages to keep initial construction costs equal or below international averages, according to Michael Spuller, Head of Programme Planning and Construction for SOS Children’s Villages International.
Hermann Boehler, International Maintenance Advisor for SOS Children’s Villages, said building maintenance is now part of the organisation’s strategic process. Inspection protocols are carried out twice yearly. Even if there is no visible damage from a natural disaster, the structure may be weakened. Systematic maintenance can help prevent further damage in case of another disaster.
“Safe homes are our main consideration, followed by low maintenance. Our construction managers always try to fight for quality construction. We can be proud that no children have been killed [in a natural disaster],” he said.
How SOS Children’s Villages fared in recent natural disasters
In October 2016, Hurricane Matthew caused widespread flooding and structural damage in Haiti, affecting around 2.1 million people. While more than 750 schools were destroyed or badly damaged, the Hermann Gmeiner School in Les Cayes escaped with water and roof damage to eight of its 12 classrooms.
No reports of major structural damage to SOS Children’s Village buildings were received after a 7.8-magnitude earthquake struck Ecuador’s coast in April 2016. The organisation has villages and programmes in Pedernales and Portoviejo, two of the hardest-hit communities. SOS Children’s Villages is working with government and other agencies to help affected families rebuild their lives.
After the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, SOS Children’s Villages set a new standard for mid-term emergency housing with its “Global Village Shelters”. The rigid, fully enclosed structures were erected to house some of the over 300 unaccompanied and/or orphaned children who found refuge at SOS Children’s Village Santo after the devastating earthquake. The shelters, complete with doors and windows, were designed to remain dry and secure during the rainy season.
The largest emergency relief and reconstruction programme undertaken by SOS Children’s Villages was in response to the 2004 tsunami in India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Thailand. In India, the architects responsible for designing and building 600 new family homes on behalf of SOS Children’s Villages were featured in a report by Harvard Business Review (17 February 2009). The so-called tsunami villages were recognised for high construction standards.