Myanmar - ReliefWeb News
Myanmar: Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights: Situation of human rights of Rohingya Muslims and other minorities in Myanmar (A/HRC/32/18) (Advance Unedited Version)
The present report is submitted pursuant to Human Rights Council resolution 29/21, which requested the High Commissioner for Human Rights to report on the “human rights violations and abuses against Rohingya Muslims and other minorities in Myanmar, particularly the recent incidents of trafficking and forced displacement of Rohingya Muslims”.
The report is based on information received by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) from various sources, including the Government of Myanmar, United Nations entities, the Myanmar National Human Rights Commission and civil society. It also considers reports of the Special Rapporteurs on the situation of human rights in Myanmar (Special Rapporteur) since 1992. The report takes into account written and oral comments received from the Government of Myanmar.
Myanmar is one of the most ethnically diverse countries in Asia, with 135 recognized “national ethnic groups” as per the 1982 “Citizenship Law” (Citizenship Law), categorized into eight major “national ethnic races”: Bamar (approximately two-thirds of the population), Chin, Kachin, Kayah, Kayin, Mon, Rakhine and Shan. An estimated 90 per cent of the population are Buddhists, four per cent Muslims, four per cent Christians and under two per cent Hindus. Most Christians belong to ethnic minorities, including Chin, Kachin and Kayin. Some Muslim communities are officially recognized as a distinct ethnic group (like the Kaman), others are known as “Bamar Muslims”, “Chinese Muslims” or “Indian Muslims”.
Rohingya Muslims represent the largest percentage of Muslims in Myanmar, with the majority living in Rakhine State. They self-identify as a distinct ethnic group with their own language and culture, and claim a longstanding connection to Rakhine State. Successive governments have rejected these claims and Rohingya were not included in the list of recognized ethnic groups. Most Rohingya are stateless.
In 2014, the Government conducted the first census in 30 years. A directive prohibiting Rohingya from identifying as such led to their de facto exclusion from the official count. Data on ethnicity and religion are yet to be released. Data gaps, combined with lack of access to parts of the country, pose significant challenges in analyzing the situation of minorities.
Ethnic and religious minorities in Myanmar have a complex and contested history. The 1947 Panglong Conference envisaged the creation of a federal union based on voluntary association and political equality. Yet, upon independence in 1948, Myanmar became a quasi-federal union largely dominated by the Bamar ethnic group. Subsequent claims by ethnic minorities for self-determination, greater autonomy and an equitable share of power and resources have driven non-international armed conflicts, varying in scope and intensity. Following military assumption of power in 1962, ethnic minorities were increasingly excluded from positions of authority facing restrictions, inter alia, in education, use of languages and religious freedom.
Myanmar is undergoing significant transformation. In 2011, the Government embarked on wide-ranging reforms, including opening up democratic space after decades of military control. This culminated in historic elections on 8 November 2015, and the transfer of power to a civilian Government on 31 March 2016. Yet, the military retains 25 per cent of seats in Parliament, giving it a de facto veto on any Constitutional amendment. Moreover, the Commander-in-Chief appoints key Ministers: Home Affairs, Border Affairs and Defence.
In May 2015, 700,000 individuals from minority communities were disenfranchised. Muslim candidates were disqualified from standing for election, and the current Parliament does not count any Muslim member.
On 15 October 2015, the Government and eight of the over 20 ethnic armed groups in Myanmar signed a nationwide ceasefire agreement. Yet, armed conflict persists in Kachin and northern Shan States, along with sporadic skirmishes including in Chin, Kayin and Rakhine States. The new Government – the most ethnically diverse Government in decades – has proposed a “21st century Panglong Conference” to advance the peace process.
Rakhine State is one of the poorest states in Myanmar, with limited access to basic services and livelihood opportunities for all inhabitants. There are long-standing grievances between Rohingya Muslims (population of just over one million) and Rakhine Buddhists (hereinafter “Rakhine”) (around two million), and both communities and Bamar-majority-led central governments. Many Rakhine contest the Rohingya’s claims of distinct ethnic heritage and historic links to Rakhine State. They view the Rohingya as “illegal immigrants” (“Bengali”), with no cultural, religious or social ties with Myanmar. Some Rakhine also perceive that international assistance has focused on the Rohingya at their expense. The Rakhine have been subject to longstanding discrimination by past military governments. Kaman Muslims from Rakhine State are an officially recognized ethnic group. Yet, they also face entrenched discrimination and other human rights violations (A/HRC/28/72, para. 41). Since 2012, incidents of religious intolerance and incitement to hatred by extremist and ultra-nationalist Buddhist groups have increased across the country. Rohingya and other Muslims are often portrayed as a “threat to race and religion”.
Against this backdrop, tensions have occasionally erupted into violence. The last major outbreak occurred in June and October 2012, causing hundreds of deaths, injuries, destruction of property and the ultimate displacement of 140,000 people (A/67/383, paras. 56–58; A/HRC/22/58, paras. 47–48). Around 120,000 individuals remain in Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camps in central Rakhine State, with ongoing segregation between Rakhine and Rohingya communities.
Systemic human rights violations and lack of opportunities have triggered irregular migration flows of Rohingya from Rakhine State to Thailand and Malaysia, in the same boats as irregular migrants from Bangladesh. Trafficking and smuggling networks have facilitated these flows. Over 94,000 Rohingya and Bangladeshis are believed to have departed since early 2014, with a peak of 31,000 in the first half of 2015. In May 2015, Thailand and Malaysia cracked down on international smuggling networks, and 5,000 irregular migrants were abandoned at sea. Malaysia and Indonesia ultimately offered temporary shelter to migrants affected by the Andaman Sea crisis, provided the international community grant resettlement and repatriation within one year. Many of those rescued at sea remain detained in shelters, camps or immigration detention, facing uncertain futures. The policies and practices of discrimination against Rohingya, a key root cause of irregular migration from Rakhine State, remain to be addressed as part of larger reforms to protect all minorities in Myanmar.
Meanwhile, access to justice for victims of human rights violations and abuses has been severely lacking. The military and other security forces have generally enjoyed impunity. Endemic corruption and limited capacity and will to conduct effective investigations and prosecutions add to a general lack of public trust in the administration of justice. Structural issues impacting on the independence of the judiciary and legal profession remain. Judicial independence has been further undermined by the executive branch’s undue influence and interference in politically sensitive cases. Social and cultural stigma prevents victims of sexual and gender based violence from reporting. Minorities face additional obstacles further limiting their access to justice, including language, geography and fears of reprisal.
In his inaugural address, President U Htin Kyaw outlined four main priorities for the new Government: national reconciliation, peace, a Constitution that will lead to a democratic federal union, and improved quality of life. In April 2016, State Counsellor Daw Aung San Suu Kyi reiterated the importance of national reconciliation and the rule of law for all citizens. Recent steps taken by the Government include the establishment of a Ministry of Ethnic Affairs and the transformation of the Myanmar Peace Centre into the National Reconciliation and Peace Centre. According to the new Government, addressing the situation in Rakhine State has been “one of the highest priorities on its agenda” and it calls for “more time to find durable solutions”. On 30 May 2016, the Government formed the “Central Committee on the Implementation of Peace, Stability and Development of Rakhine State” with the State Counsellor as its Chairperson. The objectives of the Committee are to “bring peace, stability and development to all people in Rakhine State”.
Key to Myanmar’s transformation is the need to address ongoing and past human rights violations, which may otherwise undermine the transition. The present report identifies patterns of entrenched discrimination against minorities and suggests measures to address them. This will be a challenging process that will require resolve, resources, and time. Specific constraints include the continued influence exercised by the military in critical areas of governance. In Rakhine State, this is further complicated by the highly politicized and polarized environment, including tensions between political parties and continued activity by armed groups. Yet, the new Government has a unique opportunity to create positive momentum by taking crucial steps to halt discrimination against minorities in law and practice.
Myanmar: Zeid urges action to address serious rights violations against Rohingya and other minorities in Myanmar
GENEVA (20 June 2016) – UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein on Monday urged the new Government in Myanmar to take concrete steps to put an end to the systemic discrimination and ongoing human rights violations against minorities as he released a new report that highlights the plight of these minorities, in particular the large Rohingya Muslim community in Rakhine State.
The report, requested by the UN Human Rights Council in July 2015 on the situation of “Rohingya Muslims and other minorities in Myanmar”, documents a wide range of human rights violations and abuses. The Rohingya are suffering from arbitrary deprivation of nationality, severe restrictions on freedom of movement, threats to life and security, denial of rights to health and education, forced labour, sexual violence, and limitations to their political rights, among other violations, the report says. Four years after the 2012 violence in Rakhine State, some 120,000 Rohingya and Kaman Muslims are still living in camps for internally displaced people. There has also been an alarming increase in incitement to hatred and religious intolerance by ultra-nationalist Buddhist organisations. The report raises the possibility that the pattern of violations against the Rohingya may amount to crimes against humanity.
“The new Government has inherited a situation where laws and policies are in place that are designed to deny fundamental rights to minorities, and where impunity for serious violations against such communities has encouraged further violence against them,” Zeid said. “It will not be easy to reverse such entrenched discrimination. This will be a challenging process that requires resolve, resources and time. But it must be a top priority to halt ongoing violations and prevent further ones taking place against Myanmar’s ethnic and religious minorities.”
“The Government has expressed its early intentions publicly. I am encouraged by the constructive dialogue we have had with it in the last few weeks. I hope we can start working together towards implementation of some of the recommendations contained in my report”, High Commissioner Zeid added.
The report states that in northern Rakhine State, “arbitrary arrest and detention of Rohingya remains widespread. Arrests are often carried out without grounds, formal processing or charges, until release is secured by payment of a bribe. For those formally charged, fair trial guarantees are often not respected.”
“Rohingya and Kaman populations face severe restrictions on their freedom of movement. Failure to comply with requirements can result in arrest and prosecution. Restrictions routinely lead to extortion and harassment by law enforcement and public officials,” the report adds.
These restrictions result in severe impact on access to livelihoods, healthcare – including emergency treatment – and education. In townships surrounding Sittwe, the capital of Rakhine State, Muslims cannot freely access township hospitals, and emergency cases must be referred through an onerous process to Sittwe General Hospital. Delays in treatment can be life-threatening.
Rakhine has one of the lowest literacy rates in the country, and non-citizens, including Rohingya, are excluded from studying certain professions including medicine, economics and engineering. Some 30,000 Muslim children in IDP camps depend on temporary learning spaces supported by humanitarian organizations. “The consequences of lost years of education are devastating for future livelihood opportunities and the ability of Rohingya and Kaman youth to contribute to Myanmar’s development,” the report states.
In northern Rakhine State, a series of discriminatory policies and directives from local authorities targeting the Rohingya, known as “local orders”, have been in place for many years. Rohingya children have not been issued birth certificates since the 1990s, further restricting their rights, and increasing their vulnerability to violations.
The report also outlines human rights violations and abuses against other minorities, including in the context of armed conflict. These include deliberate targeting of and indiscriminate attacks against civilians; use of child soldiers; forced labour; sexual and gender-based violence; violations of housing, land and property rights; and restrictions on freedom of religion or belief. In Kachin and northern Shan States, where fighting has intensified, there are ongoing reports of violations by all parties to the conflict. The report warns that violations of international humanitarian law in the context of the various armed conflicts may amount to war crimes.
“The signing of a Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement last year was a significant step, but this was only a starting point,” High Commissioner Zeid said.
He called on the authorities to begin a programme of comprehensive legal and policy measures to address the scope and pattern of violations against minorities in Myanmar. “While the issues are complex, there are a number of steps that can be taken to bring some measure of quick relief to these communities,” he said.
For example, the report recommends that all discriminatory local orders in Rakhine State be abolished, restrictive bureaucratic requirements for emergency medical referrals be removed, and a roadmap be established for lifting all freedom of movement restrictions. It also calls for a comprehensive inquiry into the situation of minorities in Rakhine State and other areas of Myanmar, and independent investigations into all alleged violations of international human rights and humanitarian law, including those committed by law enforcement officers.
The report notes that Government has taken some initial steps, including creating a Ministry of Ethnic Affairs; proposing a national peace conference; and establishing the “Central Committee on the Implementation of Peace, Stablity and Development of Rakhine State”.
“We stand ready to support the Government of Myanmar in ensuring a successful transition to a society based firmly on the rule of law and the protection of human rights for all,” Zeid added.
The full report can be accessed here:
The official response of the Government of Myanmar to the report can be accessed here: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session32/Documents/CommentsbyMyanmartoHCreport.pdf
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As of 15 June, approximately 28,000 people in Saging, Ayeyarwady, Bago regions and Rakhine State have been affected by floods. Of the total affected population, over 25,000 people are in Sagaing Region. At least 14 people have been killed and over 280 houses destroyed due to the floods, according to the union and state level government. The State and Regional governments are leading the response, conducting initial assessments and providing food, non-food items, tarpaulins, medicines and cash in the flood-affected areas. Humanitarian partners are closely working with the local authorities to provide targeted support.
28,000 people affected
As of 16 June, some 1,000 families (4,900 people) remain displaced in the municipality of Matalam, North Cotabato province due to a land dispute involving armed groups associated with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front and the Moro National Liberation Front which began in December 2015. The displaced people continue to live in nine evacuation centres. The municipal government and barangay authorities have been providing food and non-food items.
From 17 to 20 June, the Indonesian Agency for Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysics (BMKG) issued heavy rainfall and high tide warnings for parts of Sumatra, Java, Bali, and East Nusa Tenggara. In Central Java province, floods and landslides caused 35 deaths while 25 are still missing according to the National Agency for Disaster Management (BNPB). At least 100 houses were damaged. On 17 and 18 June, flooding also occurred in West Sumatra province causing one death. Relief assistance is being provided by local authorities and civil society, with support from the provincial and national governments.
35 people killed
El Niño-induced drought continue to severely affect 120,000 people in the municipalities of Lautem,
Viqueque, Baucau, Covalima and the Oecusse Special Economic Zone. To address the longer term impact of the drought, partners have allocated resources to respond to the food, nutrition, water and sanitation, livelihoods and health of the affected people. Government line ministries supported by UN and Humanitarian Partnership Agreement agencies are preparing to conduct a post-El Niño Watch Assessment to further refine response priorities in the coming months.
120,000 people at risk
Council conclusions on EU strategy with Myanmar/Burma
The European Union has a strategic interest in strengthening its relationship with Myanmar/Burma and welcomes the peaceful transfer of power following credible and competitive elections in November 2015. The new government has an historic opportunity to consolidate democracy and to achieve peace, national reconciliation and prosperity. In addition to benefiting Myanmar/Burma and its people, this could further strengthen ASEAN and enhance stability in the Asia-Pacific. Moreover it has the potential to serve as a positive example to the region. The European Union reiterates its commitment to support this remarkable transition through the full use of all instruments at its disposal.
The Council welcomes the Joint HR-Commission Communication: 'Elements for an EU strategy vis-à-vis Myanmar/Burma: A Special Partnership for Democracy, Peace and Prosperity'. The Communication lays out a plan for a coherent, ambitious and forward-looking EU engagement and intensified cooperation with the country to overcome the formidable challenges it faces.
The European Union will expand its engagement with all stakeholders, including the military, to support Myanmar/Burma and its new civilian government on its path to become a vibrant democracy with full respect for the rule of law and fundamental human rights. Building effective democratic institutions, including an independent and impartial judiciary and a strong civil society, and the promotion of good governance will require particular attention to achieve this objective. The European Union stands ready to support the Government of Myanmar/Burma in this endeavour. Implementation of the recommendations provided by the EU Election Observation Mission will be highly important to advance electoral reforms and to improve future electoral processes. Constitutional reform remains central to consolidating democratic governance.
The Council welcomes the release of political prisoners, activists and human rights defenders. It looks forward to the unconditional release of all those who remain arbitrarily detained for peacefully exercising their fundamental rights. The early amendment and revoking of some restrictive laws and listing of many others for review is a positive step towards increased democratic space. The European Union encourages the Government of Myanmar/Burma to continue and bring all existing legislation into line with international law and standards. It urges the Government of Myanmar/Burma to implement the recommendations of the resolution on the 'Situation of Human Rights in Myanmar'' adopted at the 31st session of the United Nations Human Rights Council, including the establishment of a country office of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.
The European Union calls on the Government of Myanmar/Burma to protect the rights of persons belonging to minorities through a comprehensive approach including by efforts to reduce poverty and ensure inclusive development. Restrictions on the freedom of movement should be lifted and unimpeded access to basic services should be ensured for all, in particular for health and education. The European Union strongly encourages initiatives to promote religious and ethnic tolerance and social inclusion and fight against all kinds of radicalism. Those who incite hatred, hostility and violence against minorities need to be held accountable. The Council encourages the Government of Myanmar/Burma to take measures to end violence against and trafficking of women and girls.
The European Union takes positive note of the efforts of the Government of Myanmar/Burma to begin work towards addressing the challenges of Rakhine State, including the situation of the Rohingya. This will require inclusive development in all areas and a political process, including solving citizenship for stateless persons in a non-discriminatory manner through a transparent, voluntary and accessible procedure and ending displacement. The European Union will engage in dialogue with the Union and State governments as well as all local actors to help build trust with the ultimate aim of promoting human rights and prosperity for all.
Myanmar/Burma's transition cannot succeed without putting an end to conflict. Much progress has been achieved over the past years but peace remains fragile and incomplete. Ongoing clashes in Kachin, Shan and Rakhine States result in continued human suffering and undermine confidence in the peace process. Fighting has to cease immediately and disputes need to be resolved through negotiation. The Council welcomes the decision of the new Government of Myanmar/Burma to make peace and national reconciliation a key priority. It is essential that all stakeholders, particularly ethnic armed groups which are yet to sign the Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement, ethnic and other political parties and civil society, including women and youth, can effectively participate in the forthcoming political dialogue and the so called '21st Century Panglong Conference'. The process needs to be in line with UN Security Council Resolution 1325 and subsequent resolutions on Women, Peace and Security. The European Union reaffirms its strong commitment to peace and national reconciliation and will continue to support the process politically and in particular through contributions to the Joint Peace Fund.
The Council reiterates its significant support for Myanmar/Burma's transformative agenda, including through the bilateral Multiannual Indicative Programme 2014-2020 and joint programming of EU and Member States' development cooperation, recognising that joint programming must be voluntary, flexible, inclusive and tailored to the country context. A review of EU bilateral development cooperation will be undertaken, if possible in 2017, once a new national comprehensive development plan becomes available. It is of the utmost importance that aid is delivered effectively and sustainably, where possible through government systems, reaches all communities, including those in conflict affected areas, and supports the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Enhanced donor coordination remains vital to achieve this objective.
The European Union welcomes the expansion of bilateral trade with Myanmar/Burma since the reinstatement of trade preferences under the "Everything But Arms" scheme in 2013. The conclusion of an Investment Protection Agreement will provide further economic opportunities and contribute to sustainable growth while underscoring commitment to responsible investment. Economic and labour market reforms are key to increased competitiveness which can bring about development and employment opportunities and promote fundamental labour rights and practices in order to help transform the country into an attractive trade and investment partner. In this context, the European Union stands ready to assist Myanmar/Burma in its efforts to reform its labour law and align it with international labour standards, including through the 'Initiative to Promote Fundamental Labour Rights and Practices in Myanmar'.
The European Union looks forward to cooperating with Myanmar/Burma as an active member of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) in strengthening the regional integration process on the basis of the EU-ASEAN enhanced partnership as defined in Council conclusions on EU-ASEAN relations of 22 June 2015 and the Joint HR-Commission Communication: 'The EU and ASEAN: a partnership with a strategic purpose'.
The Council calls on the High Representative and the Commission to work in close cooperation with EU Member States on the implementation of the priorities identified in the Joint Communication.
Reports of human trafficking are emerging from camps of internally displaced persons (IDPs), situated within KIA controlled territory along the Myanmar – China border, as some IDPs make the journey into China in search of employment to resolve their livelihood woes.
The IDPs, who fall victim to human traffickers, make the risky journey into China driven by a lack of food rations within their IDP camp; in order to put their children through education; and to accumulate money for potential medical expenses, it is known.
“Human trafficking was rather prevalent between 2013-14.
Usually, about five people are trafficked every year. For some, they marry a Chinese man because of their fondness for the language.
While we’re able to rescue some, we completely lose contact with others and can’t save them.” said Daw Kha Dumg, responsible for assisting with women’s affairs at the Je Yang IDP camp in Laiza.
It is reported that approximately fifty per cent of IDPs in camps within KIA territory earn a daily wage working on coffee, banana and farming plantations over the border in China.
“They leave in the morning and return at night. Girls are also among them. They cross over into China illegally with some ending up being arrested by the Chinese authorities. If they can’t pay off the police they are sent back [into Myanmar].” said U Naw Sai, a Je Yang IDP camp committee member. Two women, who were human trafficked from the Je Yang IDP camp in Laiza back in 2011, returned in April this year, but Chinese nationals followed them back to the camp in order to take them back to China.
It is reported the IDP camp prohibited them from taking the girls and returned across the border empty handed.
“They said she would be looking after children. They brought her [to China] saying she would be paid 300 yuan a month, but she was sold to a rich Chinese man for 23,000 yuan instead.
She gave birth to two children with this man and they forced her to work all day long. In the end, she managed to escape and return to the IDP camp.” said the mother of one of the two girls.
The most prevalent years of cases of IDPs falling victim to human traffickers was 2012, 2013 and 2014, with incidents reportedly declining since 2015.
“Their livelihoods, and the well being of their children, would be at a complete loss if they weren’t to go [and find work in China].” added U Naw Sai. “Our camp committee ventures into China to try and find [IDPs from the camp] as soon as we get word [that they’ve been human trafficked].
But, we can’t help them all; there are cases that we don’t hear about.” Laiza currently boasts three IDP camps in which people are warned about the activeness of human traffickers in the region, while an employee from one of the camps reported that Chinese men have been forbidden from entering into the camps and offering money or property to parents of girls in the camp with the objective of marrying them.
Myitmakha News Agency
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) in partnership with HUMANiTi Malaysia, an NGO, held an iftar to celebrate Ramadan by bringing together more than 500 members from the local Rohingya refugee community.
Rohingya children and families joined in the blessings of this holy month at the iftar event held at the Saidina Othman Ibn Affan Mosque, Kuala Lumpur, on Saturday, 18 June 2016.
The Director General of the OIC Cabinet and Special Advisor, Dr. Yusuf Al-Othaimeen, welcomed the guests and delivered a speech on behalf of the OIC Secretary General, Mr. Iyad Ameen Madani, in support of the humanitarian efforts to alleviate the suffering and hardship faced by Rohingya refugees. He extended sincere thanks and appreciation for the efforts of the OIC Special Envoy for Myanmar, Tan Sri Syed Hamid Albar and the Organizing Committee for the Iftar. Dr Al-Othaimeen also expressed thanks to the Malaysian authorities for their support to the Rohingya people and to the OIC’s efforts to alleviate their suffering.
“The overwhelming concern on intolerance in Myanmar, which caused the mass migration of Rohingya refugees to neighbouring countries has escalated into a regional crisis. In this, it has caused human rights abuses and crises with severe humanitarian consequences, statelessness, segregation, gender-based discrimination, mass outflow of refugees and other threats to state security,” said Tan Sri Dato’ Seri Dr. Syed Hamid Albar, OIC Special Envoy for Myanmar and President of HUMANITI Malaysia.
Efforts are being intensified to address the deplorable situation faced by the refugees, with emphasis on providing basic access to education for children. Among the recent outreach programmes conducted include the distribution of school bags and books to Rohingya children in the Districts of Klang (300 children), Ampang (600 children) and Serdang (120 children). This was made possible with allocation received from the OIC Islamic Solidarity Fund (ISF) headquartered in Jeddah.
“To ensure the sustainability of humanitarian efforts for the Rohingya community in Malaysia, several measures have been taken by HUMANiTi Malaysia to ensure refugees continue to have equitable access to basic needs and livelihood opportunities, including medical attention and education”, said Ahmad Tarmizi Mukhtar, Secretary General of HUMANiTi Malaysia. Efforts are also underway to enhance the refugees’ resilience towards potential conflicts and natural disasters.
The iftar event also brought together representatives from the OIC member countries, Foreign Ministry, Prime Minister’s Department, NGOs and various private entities who have come forward to support.
Les conflits et la persécution ont causé des déplacements forcés à travers le monde ayant fortement augmenté en 2015 pour atteindre le plus haut niveau jamais enregistré, ce qui représente d’immenses souffrances, selon un rapport publié aujourd’hui par le HCR, l’Agence des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés.
Selon le rapport statistique annuel du HCR sur les Tendances mondiales (en anglais), analysant les déplacements forcés dans le monde entier sur la base des statistiques communiquées par les gouvernements, les organisations partenaires - y compris l'Observatoire des situations de déplacement interne (IDMC) - et les informations internes au HCR, quelque 65,3 millions de personnes étaient déracinées à la fin 2015, en comparaison de 59,5 millions seulement douze mois plus tôt. C’est la première fois que le seuil des 60 millions est franchi.
Le total de 65,3 millions comprend 3,2 millions de personnes dans les pays industrialisés qui, à la fin 2015, étaient en attente d’une décision en matière d’asile (c’est le plus grand nombre jamais enregistré par le HCR), 21,3 millions de réfugiés à travers le monde (soit 1,8 million de plus qu’en 2014 ; c’est par ailleurs le nombre total de réfugiés le plus important depuis le début des années 1990), et 40,8 millions de personnes contraintes de fuir leurs foyers, tout en restant au sein des frontières de leur propre pays (soit une augmentation de 2,6 millions par rapport à 2014 et le plus grand nombre jamais enregistré).
Par rapport à la population totale de la planète Terre comptant 7,349 milliards d’habitants, un être humain sur 113 est aujourd’hui déraciné ; il est demandeur d'asile, déplacé interne ou réfugié. Ce niveau de risque n’avait jamais été observé auparavant par le HCR. En tout, il y a davantage de personnes déracinées aujourd'hui que la population du Royaume-Uni, de la France ou de l’Italie.
Le déplacement forcé est en hausse depuis au moins le milieu des années 1990 dans la plupart des régions mais, ces cinq dernières années, le rythme s’est accru. Il y a trois raisons : les situations provoquant d’importants flux de réfugiés durent plus longtemps (par exemple, les conflits en Somalie ou en Afghanistan durent désormais respectivement depuis trois et quatre décennies), de nouvelles situations dramatiques ou des reprises de conflits se produisent fréquemment (le plus important étant aujourd’hui en Syrie, mais aussi ces cinq dernières années au Soudan du Sud, au Yémen, au Burundi, en Ukraine, en République centrafricaine, etc.) et, enfin, le rythme auquel des solutions sont trouvées pour les réfugiés et les personnes déplacées internes est en baisse depuis la fin de la guerre froide. A la fin 2005, le HCR enregistrait en moyenne six personnes déracinées chaque minute. Aujourd’hui, ce nombre est de 24 par minute – soit presque le double de la fréquence habituelle de la respiration d’un adulte.
« Davantage de personnes sont déracinées par la guerre et la persécution, c’est déjà inquiétant en soi mais surtout les facteurs menaçant les réfugiés se multiplient également », a déclaré le Haut Commissaire des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés Filippo Grandi. « Un nombre terrifiant de réfugiés et de migrants décèdent en mer chaque année ; à terre, les personnes fuyant la guerre ne peuvent poursuivre leur voyage car les frontières sont fermées. Des politiques se dressent contre l’asile dans certains pays. La volonté des nations de travailler ensemble – non seulement au bénéfice des réfugiés mais aussi dans l’intérêt collectif de tous les êtres humains – est testée aujourd’hui et c’est ce type d’unité qui doit prévaloir à tout prix. »
3 pays génèrent la moitié des réfugiés dans le monde ...
Parmi les pays couverts par le Rapport statistique du HCR sur les Tendances mondiales, plusieurs se distinguent : la Syrie avec 4,9 millions, l’Afghanistan avec 2,7 millions et la Somalie avec 1,1 million représentaient à eux trois plus de la moitié des réfugiés relevant de la compétence du HCR à travers le monde. La Colombie avec 6,9 millions, la Syrie avec 6,6 millions et l’Iraq avec 4,4 millions comptaient quant à eux le plus grand nombre de personnes déplacées internes. Le Yémen génère le plus grand nombre de nouveaux déplacés internes en 2015 - 2,5 millions de personnes, soit neuf pour cent de sa population.
... Et ils sont pour la plupart dans le sud
La lutte de l’Europe pour gérer plus d’un million de réfugiés et de migrants arrivés via la Méditerranée a souvent fait la une en 2015. Néanmoins, le rapport montre que la grande majorité des réfugiés à travers le monde se trouvait ailleurs. Au total, 86 pour cent des réfugiés relevant de la compétence du HCR en 2015 se trouvaient dans des pays à faible et moyen revenu à proximité des situations de conflit. Ce chiffre augmente à plus de 90 pour cent du total des réfugiés dans le monde, si on inclut les réfugiés palestiniens sous la responsabilité de l’UNRWA (l’Office de secours et de travaux des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés de Palestine dans le Proche-Orient), l’agence-sœur du HCR. A travers le monde, la Turquie est le plus important pays hôte avec 2,5 millions de réfugiés. Par ailleurs, le Liban a accueilli davantage de réfugiés - en comparaison de sa population - que tout autre pays (183 réfugiés pour 1000 habitants). Par rapport à sa capacité économique, la République démocratique du Congo accueillait le plus grand nombre de réfugiés (471 réfugiés pour un dollar de PIB/habitant, en parité de pouvoir d’achat).
Le plus grand nombre de demandes d’asile jamais observé
Parmi les pays industrialisés, l’année 2015 a également été une année record en termes de nouvelles demandes d’asile, avec deux millions de demandes d’asile déposées (contribuant aux 3,2 millions de cas encore en suspens à la fin de l’année). L’Allemagne a reçu davantage de demandes d’asile que tout autre pays (441 900), ce qui reflète en grande partie sa volonté de recevoir des personnes qui fuyaient vers l’Europe via la Méditerranée. Les États-Unis comptaient le deuxième plus grand nombre de demandes d’asile (172 700). Beaucoup des requérants avaient fui la violence liée aux gangs en Amérique centrale. Des nombres importants de demandes d’asile ont également été observés en Suède (156 000) et en Russie (152 500).
Environ la moitié des réfugiés du monde sont des enfants
Les enfants constituaient 51 pour cent de la population des réfugiés dans le monde en 2015 selon les statistiques que le HCR a pu recueillir (les données démographiques n’ont pas toutes été mises à disposition des auteurs du rapport). De manière inquiétante, beaucoup ont été séparés de leurs parents ou voyagent seuls. En tout, on a compté 98 400 demandes d’asile émanant d’enfants qui étaient non accompagnés ou séparés de leur famille. C’est le total le plus élevé jamais observé par le HCR - et il pose une réflexion tragique sur la façon dont le déplacement forcé dans le monde affecte de façon disproportionnée la vie des jeunes.
Impossible de rentrer dans son pays d’origine
Alors que les totaux mondiaux de déplacements de populations étaient plus élevés que jamais, le nombre de personnes pouvant retourner dans leur pays ou trouver une autre solution (intégration locale dans le pays de premier refuge ou réinstallation dans un pays tiers) était faible. Quelque 201 400 réfugiés ont pu retourner dans leur pays d’origine en 2015 (principalement l’Afghanistan, le Soudan et la Somalie). Ce nombre est supérieur au total enregistré en 2014 (126 800), mais encore nettement en baisse par rapport au pic du début des années 1990. Quelque 107 100 réfugiés ont été admis à la réinstallation dans 30 pays en 2015 - soit seulement 0,66 pour cent des réfugiés pris en charge par le HCR (en comparaison, 26 pays avaient admis 105 200 réfugiés pour la réinstallation en 2014, ce qui représente 0,73 pour cent de la population réfugiée prise en charge par le HCR). Au moins 32 000 réfugiés ont été naturalisés au cours de l’année, la majorité au Canada et un plus petit nombre en France, en Belgique, en Autriche et ailleurs.Les déplacements de populations en 2015, par région (par ordre décroissant) :
1. Moyen-Orient et Afrique du Nord
La guerre en Syrie demeure la principale cause à travers le monde des déplacements de populations et de la souffrance associée. A la fin 2015, le conflit avait généré au moins 4,9 millions de personnes qui ont fui en tant que réfugiés et 6,6 millions de personnes déplacées internes – soit environ la moitié de la population d’avant-guerre en Syrie. Le conflit en Iraq avait déraciné, à la fin de l’année, 4,4 millions de personnes déplacées internes et près de 250 000 réfugiés. La guerre civile au Yémen, qui a commencé en 2015, avait, à la fin décembre, déraciné 2,5 millions de personnes – soit davantage de nouveaux déplacements que tout autre conflit à travers le monde. Avec 5,2 millions de réfugiés palestiniens relevant de la compétence de l’UNRWA, près d’un demi-million de Libyens contraints de fuir ailleurs dans leur pays et un certain nombre d’autres situations plus limitées, la région du Moyen-Orient et de l’Afrique du Nord a compté davantage de déplacements de populations que toute autre (19,9 millions).
2. Afrique subsaharienne
L’Afrique subsaharienne est le théâtre du plus grand nombre total de déplacements en 2015 après le Moyen-Orient et l’Afrique du Nord. La poursuite de violents conflits au Soudan du Sud en 2015 ainsi qu’en République centrafricaine et en Somalie, ainsi que des déplacements massifs nouveaux ou prolongés dans ou hors de pays comme le Nigéria, le Burundi, le Soudan, la République démocratique du Congo, le Mozambique et ailleurs ont généré ensemble 18,4 millions de réfugiés et de déplacés internes à la fin de l’année 2015. Parallèlement, l’Afrique sub-saharienne a accueilli quelque 4,4 millions de réfugiés au total – soit davantage que toute autre région. Cinq des 10 principaux pays hôtes au monde étaient des pays africains, avec l’Ethiopie en tête, suivie par le Kenya, l’Ouganda, la République démocratique du Congo et le Tchad.
3. Asie et Pacifique
La région Asie et Pacifique comptait près d’un réfugié et personnes déplacées sur six à travers le monde en 2015, ce qui en fait la troisième plus grande région pour les déplacements de populations. Un réfugié relevant de la compétence du HCR sur six était originaire de l’Afghanistan (2,7 millions de personnes) où près de 1,2 million de personnes sont des déplacés internes. Le Myanmar est le deuxième pays générateur de réfugiés et de personnes déplacées internes dans cette région (451 800 et 451 000 respectivement). Le Pakistan (1,5 million) et la République islamique d’Iran (979 000) demeurent parmi les principaux pays d’accueil de réfugiés au monde.
Le nombre croissant de personnes fuyant les gangs et autres actes de violence en Amérique centrale a contribué à une hausse de 17 cent des déplacements de populations à travers la région. Le nombre de réfugiés et demandeurs d’asile originaires du Salvador, du Guatemala et du Honduras atteint 109 800. La plupart rejoignent le Mexique et les États-Unis et le nombre a été multiplié par cinq en trois ans. En proie à une situation prolongée, la Colombie demeurait le plus important pays au monde pour les déplacements internes (6,9 millions).
La situation en Ukraine, la proximité de l’Europe avec la Syrie et l’Iraq, ainsi que l’arrivée de plus d’un million de réfugiés et de migrants via la Méditerranée en provenance, pour la plupart, des dix principaux pays générateurs de réfugiés à travers le monde, ont dominé l’actualité des déplacements de populations pour la région en 2015. Les pays européens ont généré quelque 593 000 réfugiés – originaires de l’Ukraine pour la plupart ; et en ont accueilli 4,4 millions - dont 2,5 millions en Turquie. Les chiffres fournis par le gouvernement ukrainien font état de 1,6 million d’Ukrainiens déplacés internes. Le rapport du HCR sur les Tendances mondiales recense 441 900 demandes d’asile en Allemagne, où la population réfugiée a augmenté de 46 pour cent par rapport à son niveau de 2014 qui était de 316 000.
Information complémentaire :
Le Rapport statistique du HCR sur les Tendances mondiales est publié lors de la Journée mondiale du réfugié, le 20 juin parallèlement à notre campagne appelant à signer notre pétition #Aveclesréfugiés. Un dossier multimédia est également mis à disposition en même temps que ce rapport, y compris des infographies, des photos, des vidéos et autres contenus. Ce dossier multimédia ainsi que les contacts média du HCR à travers le monde sont disponiblesici.
* La population du Royaume-Uni en 2015 : 64,7 millions ; France : 64.4 millions ; Italie : 59.8 millions. Source: UN Population Division, World Population Prospects, the 2015 Revisionhttps://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Download/Standard/Population/
The Heavenly Home orphanage was founded a decade ago to cater for refugee and migrant orphans after founder Lily was asked to take in a six-month old abandoned baby. Today the baby is a happy, healthy 11-year-old boy called Sam, one of 73 children who live fulltime at the home in the Thai border town of Mae Sot.
The home has changed from a small space in the town’s market place to a two-storey wooden building on the outskirts of the city with 65 of its residents in school – 45 go to a local Thai school and 20 to a learning centre in Myanmar. The rest are too young to attend school and are cared for during the day by Lily, her husband Thant Zin, and 11 of her dedicated staff. Lily also offers day-care services for the children of migrant workers living in the area.
Heavenly Home was one of the first sites selected for UNESCO Bangkok’s Mobile Literacy for Out-of-School Children project.
Learning in ethnic languages
The initiative, a collaboration between UNESCO, Microsoft, True and the Thai Ministry of Education, provides selected learning centres with tablets that contain a UNESCO designed app featuring over 1,000 learning resources in Thai, Myanmar as well as ethnic languages, as well as satellite TV with educational programmes and free internet.
The project, funded by Microsoft and implemented by UNESCO, Microsoft Thailand, True Corporation, the Office of Non-Formal and Informal Education and the Office of the Basic Education Commission, Thai Ministry of Education aims to enhance the basic literacy and numeracy skills of the thousands of migrant, ethnic minority and stateless children in the Thai-Myanmar border areas.
Heavenly Home offers classes in subjects such as the Thai, Myanmar and English languages. Lily and teachers at the centre said that the tablets have proved invaluable in helping them and their learners access materials that would otherwise be beyond their reach.
The combination of care and modern learning methods have garnered successes as Ann who arrived at the orphanage with her one-year-old brother after her mother died and her father was incapable of caring for her. She is now a star pupil and excited to start grade 7 at the nearby Mae Sot School.
With 1 human in every 113 affected, forced displacement hits record high
Conflict and persecution caused global forced displacement to escalate sharply in 2015, reaching the highest level ever recorded and representing immense human suffering, according to a report released today by UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency.
UNHCR’s annual Global Trends report, which tracks forced displacement worldwide based on data from governments, partners including the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, and the organization’s own reporting, said 65.3 million people were displaced as of the end of 2015, compared to 59.5 million just 12 months earlier. This is the first time that the threshold of 60 million has been crossed.
The total of 65.3 million comprises 3.2 million people in industrialized countries who as of end 2015 were awaiting decisions on asylum (the largest total UNHCR has recorded), 21.3 million refugees worldwide (1.8 million more than in 2014 and the highest refugee total since the early 1990s), and 40.8 million people who had been forced to flee their homes but were within the confines of their own countries (an increase of 2.6 million from 2014 and the highest number on record).
Measured against Earth’s 7.349 billion population, these numbers mean that 1 in every 113 people globally is now either an asylum-seeker, internally displaced or a refugee – a level of risk for which UNHCR knows no precedent. In all, there are more forcibly displaced people today than the populations of the United Kingdom, France or Italy.*
Forced displacement has been on the rise since at least the mid-1990s in most regions, but over the past five years the rate of climb has increased. The reasons are threefold: Situations that cause large refugee outflows are lasting longer (for example, conflicts in Somalia or Afghanistan are now into their third and fourth decades, respectively), dramatic new or reignited situations are occurring frequently (today’s largest being Syria, but also in the space of the past five years South Sudan, Yemen, Burundi, Ukraine, Central African Republic, etc.), and the rate at which solutions are being found for refugees and internally displaced people has been on a falling trend since the end of the Cold War. As recently as 10 years ago, at the end of 2005, UNHCR recorded an average of six people displaced every minute. Today that number is 24 per minute – almost double the typical frequency at which adults breathe.
“More people are being displaced by war and persecution and that’s worrying in itself, but the factors that endanger refugees are multiplying too,” said UN High Commissioner for Refugees Filippo Grandi. “At sea, a frightening number of refugees and migrants are dying each year; on land, people fleeing war are finding their way blocked by closed borders. Politics is gravitating against asylum in some countries. The willingness of nations to work together not just for refugees but for the collective human interest is what’s being tested today, and it’s this spirit of unity that badly needs to prevail.”3 countries produce half the world’s refugees…
Among countries covered by the Global Trends report several stand out: Syria at 4.9 million, Afghanistan at 2.7 million and Somalia at 1.1 million together accounted for more than half the refugees under UNHCR’s mandate worldwide. Colombia at 6.9 million, Syria at 6.6 million, and Iraq at 4.4 million meanwhile had the largest numbers of internally displaced people. Yemen was the biggest producer of new internal displacement in 2015 – 2.5 million people, or 9 per cent of its population.… And they’re mostly in the Global South
Europe’s struggles to manage the more than one million refugees and migrants who arrived via the Mediterranean dominated the attentions of many in 2015, nonetheless the report shows that the vast majority of the world’s refugees were elsewhere. In all, 86 per cent of refugees under UNHCR’s mandate in 2015 were in low and middle income countries close to situations of conflict. This figure rises to over 90 per cent of the world’s refugee total if the Palestinian refugees under the responsibility of UNHCR’s sister-organization UNRWA are included. Worldwide, Turkey was the biggest host country with 2.5 million refugees. Lebanon, meanwhile hosted more refugees compared to its population than any other country (183 refugees per 1,000 inhabitants). Relative to the size of its economy the Democratic Republic of the Congo hosted most (471 refugees for every dollar of per capita GDP, measured at price purchasing parity).Asylum claims rise
Among industrialized countries, 2015 was also a record year for new asylum claims, with two million requests (contributing to the 3.2 million cases still pending as of the end of the year). Germany received more asylum requests than any other country (441,900), largely reflecting its readiness to receive people who were fleeing to Europe via the Mediterranean. The United States had the second highest number of asylum claims (172,700), many of these individuals fleeing gang-related violence in Central America. Substantial asylum applications were also seen in Sweden (156,000) and Russia (152,500).About half the world’s refugees are children
Children constituted 51 per cent of the world’s refugees in 2015 according to the data UNHCR was able to gather (complete demographic data was not available to the report authors). Worryingly, many were separated from their parents or travelling alone. In all there were 98,400 asylum requests from children who were unaccompanied or separated from their families. This is the highest total UNHCR has seen – and a tragic reflection of how global forced displacement is disproportionately affecting young lives.Unable to go home
While global displacement totals were higher than ever, the number of people able to return to their home or find another solution (local integration in a country of first refuge or resettlement elsewhere) was low. 201,400 refugees were able to return to their countries of origin in 2015 (mainly Afghanistan, Sudan and Somalia). This was higher than the total in 2014 (126,800), but still substantially down compared with the peaks of the early 1990s. Some 107,100 refugees were admitted for resettlement in 30 countries in 2015 – representing just 0.66 per cent of the refugees under UNHCR’s mandate (by comparison, 26 countries admitted 105,200 refugees for resettlement in 2014, representing 0.73 per cent of the refugee population under UNHCR care). At least 32,000 refugees became naturalized over the course of the year, the majority in Canada and with smaller numbers in France, Belgium, Austria and elsewhere.Displacement in 2015, by region (from highest to lowest)
1. Middle East and North Africa
Syria’s war remained the world’s leading cause of displacement and associated suffering. By the end of 2015 it had driven at least 4.9 million people into exile as refugees and displaced 6.6 million internally – amounting to around half Syria’s pre-war population. Iraq’s conflict had by year’s end displaced 4.4 million people internally and created more than a quarter of a million refugees. Yemen’s civil war, which began in 2015, had by the end of December displaced 2.5 million people – more new displacement than any other conflict globally. Including the 5.2 million Palestinian refugees under the mandate of UNRWA, the almost half a million Libyans forced to flee their homes and remaining in the country, plus a number of smaller situations, the Middle East and North Africa region accounted for more displacement than any other.
2. Sub-Saharan Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa had the largest displacement totals in 2015 after the Middle East and North Africa. Continuing bitter conflict in South Sudan in 2015, as well as in Central African Republic and Somalia, plus new or continuing mass displacement in or from countries including Nigeria, Burundi, Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique and elsewhere together produced 18.4 million refugees and internally displaced people as of year’s end. Sub-Saharan Africa meanwhile hosted some 4.4 million refugees in all – more than any other region. Five of the world’s top-10 hosting nations were African countries, led by Ethiopia, and followed by Kenya, Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Chad.
3. Asia and Pacific
The Asia and Pacific region accounted for almost a sixth of the world’s refugees and internally displaced people in 2015, making it the third largest region for displacement overall. One in six of the refugees under UNHCR’s mandate were from Afghanistan (2.7 million people) where almost 1.2 million people were internally displaced. Myanmar was the region’s second largest producer of both refugees and internally displaced people (451,800 and 451,000 respectively). Pakistan (1.5 million) and Islamic Republic of Iran (979,000) remain among the world’s leading refugee hosting countries.
Rising numbers of people fleeing gang and other violence in Central America contributed to a 17 per cent rise in displacement across the wider region. Refugees and asylum seekers from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras together reached 109,800, most coming to Mexico and the United States and representing a more than five-fold increase over three years. Colombia, a longstanding situation, remained the world’s biggest country for internal displacement (6.9 million).
The situation in Ukraine, Europe’s proximity to Syria and Iraq, plus the arrival of more than a million refugees and migrants via the Mediterranean mostly from the world’s top ten refugee-producing countries, together dominated the region’s displacement picture in 2015. European countries together produced some 593,000 refugees – most from Ukraine; and hosted 4.4 million – 2.5 million of these in Turkey. Figures provided by the Government of Ukraine list 1.6 million Ukrainians as being displaced there. The Global Trends report lists 441,900 asylum claims in Germany, where the refugee population increased by 46 per cent from its 2014 level to 316,000.
UNHCR’s Global Trends Report is being released on World Refugee Day, 20 June, in conjunction with our #WithRefugees petition campaign. A full multimedia package is available in connection with the Global Trends report, including infographics, photos, video materials and other products. The package, plus details of UNHCR’s global media contacts, can be found here.
By JOE COCHRANEJUNE 18, 2016
BAYEUN, Indonesia — When Mohammed Salim washed ashore on the coast of Aceh Province in Indonesia during the Southeast Asian refugee crisis last year, he was hungry, thirsty, emaciated and exhausted.
Read the full article here
Lhoknga, Indonesia | Saturday 6/18/2016 - 07:06 GMT
Dozens of Sri Lankan migrants stranded on a boat off Indonesia were allowed to come ashore Saturday after a tense stand-off, but local authorities insist they will still be towed back to sea.
The 44 migrants, who include many women and children, were allowed to disembark in Aceh province and take refuge in tents, a week after their Indian-flagged vessel broke down en route to Australia.
Authorities in the western province had drawn international condemnation by refusing to allow the migrants ashore, but relented Saturday as huge waves threatened to upend the damaged boat.
However a local official said authorities would proceed as planned and tow the migrants out to international waters once their boat had been repaired and the weather improved.
"The policy is still the same as yesterday," Al Hudri, the head of social services in Aceh province, told AFP.
"After the boat is repaired, they will be towed back to sea and sent home."
He said the migrants were brought ashore as rough seas and strong winds were threatening to capsize the damaged vessel.
The boat had suffered serious damage during its journey, with engine trouble and holes that needed repairing before it would be seaworthy, he added.
In the meantime a kitchen has been set up to feed those brought ashore, as police began photographing the migrants in a bid to establish identities, an AFP journalist at the scene said.
The Sri Lankans were prevented from coming ashore for a week, despite Indonesian Vice President Jusuf Kalla ordering Aceh officials to allow them to disembark.
"We're happy to see that is finally being implemented," said Lilianne Fan, international director of Aceh NGO the Geutanyoe Foundation, whose team on the ground witnessed the disembarkation.
"At this point the most urgent thing from our point of view is that immediate access is given to the UNHCR," she added, referring to the UN refugee agency.
When asked if the UNHCR teams in Lhoknga -- the town where the boat ran aground -- had been granted access to the refugees, Hudri said: "No, not yet".
The week-long impasse boiled over Thursday when police fired a warning shot to disperse a crowd that had swarmed around the vessel.
That incident prompted Amnesty International on Friday to issue a statement accusing local authorities of employing "crude intimidation tactics" against the migrants.
"The immigration office and security forces in Aceh are flouting the authority of their own Vice President and not letting the UNHCR do its job," Josef Benedict of Amnesty International said in a statement.
Hundreds of Myanmar Rohingya came ashore in Aceh last year during a regional boat people crisis and were warmly welcomed by residents of the staunchly Islamic province, who felt sympathy for their plight as a persecuted Muslim minority.
© 1994-2016 Agence France-Presse
Media Statement from WHO South-East Asia Regional Office
The South-East Asia Region of the World Health Organization (WHO), comprising of 11 countries including India, continues to be polio free. No child has been afflicted by wild poliovirus since the last case was reported from West Bengal, India, in January 2011.
All countries in the Region continue to maintain a very high vigil for poliovirus detection. As part of this, environmental surveillance – collection of samples from sewage – is being conducted regularly from 30 sites across seven states in India.
On very rare occasions, vaccine-derived polio viruses (VDPVs) are isolated from sewage samples. Prompt and adequate response to VDPVs detected in the sewage samples in the past has prevented any spread of these viruses in the community. It is important to note that such viruses have been detected from environmental samples only – no children have been affected nor cases of paralysis associated. Detection of such rare VDPVs is not unusual or unexpected, and robust short- and long-term management strategies are in place to adequately manage the small risks associated with such isolates.
To further mitigate the small risk of VDPVs, globally nearly 155 countries have switched from using the trivalent oral polio vaccine to the bivalent oral polio vaccine. The switch in April 2016, under the Polio End Game Plan is a critical step to prevent VDPVs and stop all polio, whether due to wild or vaccine-derived viruses.
The Ministry of Health, supported by WHO and partners of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), continues to conduct strong surveillance for any poliovirus from any source, and continues to strengthen overall population immunity to ensure children continue to be fully protected from lifelong polio paralysis. The South-East Asia Region was certified polio-free on 27 March 2014 and there is no threat to the Region’s polio-free status from the VDPV isolates in the sewage samples.
WHO’s South-East Asia Region comprises the following 11 Member States: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Timor-Leste.
Ms Shamila Sharma Communication Officer WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Mobile: +91 98182 87256 Tel: +91 11 23370804, Extn: 26575
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has received an additional 30 million Swedish krona (approximately USD 3.6 M) from the Government of Sweden to support the agency’s work in Myanmar in the areas of democratic governance, local development and environmental sustainability. This follows an initial contribution of 30 M Swedish krona received in 2014.
UNDP Country Director, Toily Kurbanov said that he was encouraged by the support provided by the Government of Sweden.
“With the initial tranche of funding from Sweden, UNDP has helped improve local governance in Myanmar, with a particular focus on strengthening women’s participation. Our partnership with Sweden has enabled UNDP to strengthen democratic institutions such as the Parliaments, and support justice actors to better engage with the people. With this new tranche of funding from Sweden, UNDP will be better able to support Myanmar’s ongoing transition.”
Ann Stodberg, Head of Development Cooperation at the Embassy of Sweden´s Section office in Yangon, stated that “Sweden is proud to continue its support to the important work being carried out by UNDP and its partners. We are convinced that the key areas for the UNDP interventions at local as well as at the national level require long-term commitments, such as the one the Swedish Government has made before and is renewing now. We hope to see results in terms of empowerment of both women and men in terms of rights and responsibilities, improved community resilience in the face of external challenges and strengthened government institutions that can respond well to the needs of vulnerable populations”.
Swedish support has been instrumental in the establishment of Rule of Law Centres around the country, which promote improved awareness of human rights and social justice amongst community leaders and legal professionals, and enhanced community engagement on justice issues.
Earlier this year, the Director General of the Swedish International Development Agency (Sida), Ms Charlotte Petri Gornitzka met with local level women Village Tract/Ward Administrators and members of the Myanmar Rural Women’s network, May Daw Kabar during a visit to the Myanmar. Enhancing women’s leadership and rights are a key area within the UNDP program.
By NAN LWIN HNIN PWINT / THE IRRAWADDY
RANGOON — While preparations for State Counselor Aung San Suu Kyi’s proposed 21st Century Panglong Conference continue, critics doubt that the conference will be inclusive while the Burma Army insists on the disarmament of three ethnic armed groups.
A government sub-committee tasked with preparing for the upcoming peace conference met with members of the ethnic alliance United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC) who were non-signatories to the Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement (NCA) earlier this month in Chiang Mai, Thailand.
But the Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army (MNDAA), Ta’ang National Liberation Army (TNLA), and Arakan Army (AA), which are engaged in ongoing fighting with the Burma Army, did not send delegates to the meeting.
When asked by The Irrawaddy about their absence, TNLA Brig-Gen Tarr Jode Jar replied that they were not invited.
AA chief Tun Myat Naing spoke of transportation difficulties, and said they were only informally invited.
Hla Maung Shwe, a member of the conference preparatory sub-committee and former advisor to the Myanmar Peace Center, said although the government invited the three groups to the conference and is set to meet with them, he would seek to negotiate in line with the military’s demands for disarmament.
“We are not asking them to surrender, but to give up arms. The conference is not shut to them if they want to find ways and means,” said Hla Maung Shwe, adding that he had no comment on the military’s disarmament policy, but that he would work toward the best possible outcome.
Lt-Gen Mya Tun Oo at a press conference in Naypyidaw on May 13 said the military would not negotiate peace with the MNDAA, TNLA and AA—which had rejected the previous government’s invitation to join peace talks.
“They have no choice but to disarm,” said the lieutenant general.
The MNDAA, TNLA and AA said they would not disarm.
“The military’s demand for disarmament is a real barrier to peace. That is totally impossible,” said AA chief Tun Myat Naing.
He said the three allies would like to discuss equality, power and resource sharing, and constitutional and political changes, but not disarmament.
The groups expect to cooperate with Suu Kyi’s government, but still dare not trust in the peace process because they do not see the National League for Democracy (NLD) government exerting significant influence over the military, he added.
“I dare not say if the peace will be successful. And I don’t have much trust,” said the AA chief.
Although the three allies want to hold peace talks with the government, they are also simultaneously strengthening their forces in case military tensions arise between them and the Burma Army, Tun Myat Naing told The Irrawaddy.
TNLA Brig-Gen Tarr Jode Jar said, “I don’t think disarmament will help. The Palaung State Liberation Front (PSLF) gave up their arms in 2005. Then they were bullied.”
The Palaung State Liberation Organization (PSLO) signed a cease-fire with the government in 1991. Later, when relations soured, the Palaung (Ta’ang) people took up arms again and formed the TNLA.
The TNLA has ongoing clashes with the Burma Army and will discuss a ceasefire and peace, but will not accept disarmament, said TNLA officials.
The Irrawaddy could not reach the MNDAA, but the stances of the three allies are the same, said AA officials.
The government’s peace conference sub-committee is set to meet the United Wa State Army (UWSA) and the National Democratic Alliance Army (NDAA) next week. After that meeting, the preparatory committee is scheduled to meet the three groups.
Maung Maung Soe, a political analyst based in Rangoon said:” The military sticks to the disarmament policy, but this is still not a negative sign because President Htin Kyaw and State Counselor Aung San Suu Kyi have not yet shared their views.”
Ethnic armed groups in northern Burma are connected politically, geographically and militarily, and other groups might not leave those three groups behind, said Maung Maung Soe.
“If those groups are left out, other allies might not attend the conference. We’ll have to wait and see how Aung San Suu Kyi will negotiate with the army and overcome this,” he added.
Translated from Burmese by Thet Ko Ko.
[Nay Pyi Taw – 15th June, 2016] In collaboration with the Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement, and the Disaster Risk Reduction Working Group, the United Nations Development Programmehas initiated a process to update the strategy to manage disaster risk in Myanmar.
In the aftermath of Cyclone Nargis in 2008, the Government of Myanmar undertook measures to minimize disaster risk and improve resilience of communities through the formulation and implementation of the Myanmar Action Plan for Disaster Risk Reduction (MAPDRR) 2009-2015.
U Soe Aung, Permanent Secretary of Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement said, “Because of global warming and climate change, the nations, including Myanmar, are facing severe natural disasters in these days. Meanwhile, man-made disasters are challenging us. Therefore, we need to accelerate our efforts to minimizedisaster risk and build resilience.”
Myanmar now needs a more inclusive national framework that strengthens the existing disaster risk reduction mechanism by integrating best practices from the implementation of MAPDRR during 2009 to 2015, and its regional and global commitments.
“Combining best practices and lesson learned from the MAPDRR with our commitments to Sustainable Development Goals, Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, and the ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response is necessary to make Myanmar safe and resilient,” said DrKoKoNaing, Director General of Relief and Resettlement Department.
In today’s workshop, stakeholders shared and discussed accomplishments and lessons learned from the implementation of the MAPDRR for the last seven years.
Some of the most significant achievements of the MAPDRR were the development of the Disaster Management Law and Disaster Management Rules, and mainstreaming disaster risk management into development agenda of every ministry and department. Stakeholders also noted that the absence of national-level monitoring and evaluation of the MAPDRR activities was an important lesson learned and must be addressed in the new MAPDRR.
“We see that disaster risk reduction and sustainable development are one and the same. Sustainable development cannot happen without disaster risk reduction. The hard-won development gains could be washed away by a disaster. The only successful route to sustainable development is to integrate disaster risk reduction into development plans and programmes,” said DawLatLat Aye, Team Leader of the Environmental Governance and Disaster Resilience Programme, UNDP Myanmar.
“We are not at the beginning anymore and have achieved a number of milestones in building disaster resilience in Myanmar. It is time to shift emphasis from advocacy to implementation. The Sendai Framework and the other global development frameworks could be perceived as the practical vision for implementing policies at the country level,” she added.
“The Government of Myanmar has established a Disaster Management Fund and a new institutional structure at national level that will collaborate with various stakeholders such as local governments, parliaments, civil society organizations, academic institutes, private sector and the communitiesto make Myanmar safe and resilient,” said U Soe Aung, Permanent Secretary.
Today’s workshop developed a process for formulation of a new MAPDRR building on the accomplishments and synergies with other relevant action plans.
Myanmar’s Financial Commission held its first meeting in Nay Pyi Taw yesterday, with President U Htin Kyaw addressing the crowd and stressing the need for the new government to bring forward a constitution that focuses on national reconciliation, internal peace and democratic federalism, vowing to effectively spend the budgets on higher living standards and economic growth.
The meeting discussed the 2016-2017 budget approved by the previous government and an amendment of the ’16-’17 budget to be submitted to the parliament for approval. The Pyidaungsu Hluttaw passed the Union Budget Law at its 33rd regular session last year, with the president saying that the previous government drew up its budget depending on its cabinet structure.
“Our new government, with its 22 ministries, needs to retune the budget for 2016-17 fiscal year in line with changing trends,” President U Htin Kyaw said. The Financial Commission has the responsibility to introduce a budget bill and send it to parliament for approval.
President U Htin Kyaw promised increased spending on education, health and social welfare to ensure more human resources, adding that development policies would be focused on the implementation of rural development, electrification, poverty alleviation and infrastructural development.
A 5% commercial tax placed on mobile top cards has gathered K7.5 billion (US$6.3m) revnue with the President saying that the tax will be spent on sectors that directly contribute to public interests.
“The country’s revenues belong to the people. The responsibility of the government is just to manage it. How the budgets are allotted shows what is on the government’s top agenda,” said President U Htin Kyaw, he also pointed out the need for greater transparency in budget allocation and use calling for systematic supervision of the spending.
As Vice Chairman of the Financial Commission, Vice President U Myint Swe said that the new budget included expenditures for the Ministry of State Counsellor’s Office and the Ministry of Ethnic Affairs with expenditures for the ministries being cut by 2%.
U Myint Swe noted that most of the budget remains unchanged. Highlighting that the lustrous border fence budget remains untouched, with the Ministry of Home Affairs responsible for the construction project at the Myanmar-Bangladesh and Myanmar-India borders.
Vice President U Henry Van Thio, also Vice Chairman of the Financial Commission, said that over K1.6bn (US$1.4m) is allocated to states and regions in the upcoming 2016-17 fiscal year. President U Htin Kyaw suggested the publication of a Citizen’s Budget journal after the amendment bill of the Union Budget Law 2016 won parliamentary approval. – Myanmar News Agency
By LAWI WENG / THE IRRAWADDY
The last of over 1,000 ethnic Shan displaced by conflict in northern Shan State’s Hsipaw Township the previous month have now returned to their villages.
On Tuesday, a last group of 300 voluntarily left Hsipaw town, where they had obtained shelter with the aid of community leaders, including a state parliamentarian of the Shan Nationalities League for Democracy (SNLD) and members of the Shan Literature and Culture Committee.
The displaced have returned to the villages of Thein Hain, Nar Thaw and Pan Nar bordering Lashio Township, where fighting between the Burma Army and the Shan State Army-North prompted them to flee starting May 19. The area is now considered conflict free.
Nang San San Aye, an SNLD state parliamentarian for Hsipaw Township, told The Irrawaddy that they had given the returning villagers “18,000 kyats (US$15) per person, along with rice, cooking oil, salt and other commodities for them to eat when they got back to their villages.”
Nang San San Aye said she had overseen the first group sent back on June 1, with subsequent groups sent back on June 6, 13 and 14.
She said that now is the time is for the local Shan to plant paddy in their villages, with the onset of the rainy season across Burma.
According to local community leaders, the SSA-N is no longer in the area where the Shan villagers have returned; only the Burma Army has retained bases in the vicinity, and the fighting has stopped.
Local authorities in Hsipaw Township have also facilitated the handout of citizenship documentation to those displaced, including Citizenship Scrutiny Cards (“pink cards”), before their return. Many had not possessed such documents previously, despite being eligible for citizenship.
Nyo Nyo Myat, another female community leader in Hsipaw assisting the return, said the citizenship documents along with “recommendation letters” from the government would provide “safety” for those returning by “proving they were from those villages.”
“Only the Burma Army remains in their villages now. If [the returning villagers] show their citizenship cards, they will be allowed to stay there,” said Nyo Nyo Myat.
Nang San San Aye of the SNLD explained that, “Many of our ethnic Shan cannot speak Burmese, and Burma Army soldiers beat them because of it. Those [citizenship] cards will prove they belong to the villages.”
By NAW NOREEN / DVB 15 June 2016
Floods triggered by continuous heavy rainfall have destroyed thousands of acres of farmland in Pegu Division this week.
The areas of Pegu affected by floodwaters include Zigon, Nattalin and Gyobingauk in the region’s west that had been experiencing heavy rains in the past week.
Zigon resident Khin Nyein Nyen Ei told DVB that more than 6,000 acres of farmland were destroyed in the town as they remained inundated since the overflow of a nearby river on Sunday.
“Farmlands located in the east and west of Zigon were destroyed. The floodwater is yet to subside, and the river is still swelling,” she said, adding that 18 homes located on a riverbank were destroyed.
She said six villages in Zigon Township were affected by the recent floods.
Thant Zin Htet, a resident in the town of Nattalin, said nearly 30 villages in his township were experiencing floods.
“Pretty much every area in the west of Pegu Division has experienced floods this year and lost some or all of their fields,” he said. “Local farmers will struggle.”
He said the water level in Nattalin is chest high, posing difficulties for young students going to school.
The Agriculture and Irrigation Ministry’s assistance-secretariat Myo Tint Tun said the government was yet to receive details of destruction to the agriculture sector, but is preparing to provide the necessary assistance to farmers.
“At the moment, we haven’t yet received any reports, but we are stockpiling paddy seeds and other items to distribute to the farmers whenever necessary,” said Myo Tint Tun.
The Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement Ministry Director Phyu Le Le Tun said that a 20 billion kyat [US$17 million] budget has been approved for disaster management in the 2016-17 fiscal year.
Thousands of people in Sagaing, Pegu, Irrawaddy and Arakan divisions have been affected by floods as the annual monsoon season rains sweep across the country.
Council Appoints Members of the Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan
GENEVA (14 June 2016) - The Human Rights Council this morning concluded its general debate on the High Commissioner’s update. The President of the Council also announced the appointment of members of the Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan.
The President said he had appointed Yasmin Sooka of South Africa, Kenneth R. Scott of the United States, and Godfrey M. Musila of Kenya to the Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan, pursuant to resolution A/HRC/31/L.33 on the situation of human rights in South Sudan. Ms. Sooka would serve as Chair of the Commission.
High Commissioner Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein presented his update to the Council at the opening of the session on Monday, 13 June. The text of his statement can be found here/4121E74061E612B6C1257FD100445A52?OpenDocument), while the summary of his statement and the beginning of the general debate can be found here/68D9B18A72B014CCC1257FD100442686?OpenDocument).
In the general debate, speakers noted the importance of combatting discrimination on the ground of sexual orientation and gender equality, often in the context of offering condolences to the victims of the recent terror attack in Orlando, Florida. Regarding the migrants crisis, countries of origin, transit and arrival stressed the urgent need to find a solution to the suffering of refugees and migrants. Many speakers noted the importance of giving balanced attention to all human rights. Speakers also shared the High Commissioner’s profound concern at restrictions, harassment and intimidation of human rights defenders and civil society organizations in many countries around the world.
Speaking were Benin, Chile, Costa Rica, Spain, Czech Republic, Republic of Moldova, Italy, Malaysia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Israel, Australia, Greece, Cyprus, Pakistan, Iran on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement, Ukraine, Uganda, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Cambodia, Poland, Montenegro, Afghanistan, Nepal, Myanmar, Sudan, Guinea-Bissau, Libya, Jordan, Micronesia, Mauritania, Argentina, Marshall Islands, Honduras, Bahrain, and Papua New Guinea.
The following non-governmental organizations also took the floor: Reporters Sans Frontieres, Americans for Democracy and Human Rights in Bahrain, Fédération Internationale des Fédérations des Droits de l’Homme, China NGO Network for International Exchanges, American Association of Jurists, Alsalam Foundation in a joint statement, World Barua Organization, International Fellowship of Reconciliation, Human Rights Watch, Khiam Rehabilitation Centre for Victims of Torture, CIVICUS – World Alliance for Citizen Participation, Renconctre Africaine pour la defense des droits de l’homme, Association Solidarité Internationale pour l’Afrique in a joint statement, Reseau International des Droits Humains, Sudwind, International Service for Human Rights, International Humanist and Ethnical Union, International Muslim Women’s Union, Association Bharathi Centre Culturel Franco-Tamoul, Arab Commission for Human Rights, Article 19, Pasumai Thaayagam Foundation, International Youth and Student Movement for the United Nations, Liberation and Southern Observatory for Human Rights, International Organisation for the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination in a joint statement, and International Lawyers Association.
Speaking in right of reply were Egypt, Kenya, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of Korea, Japan, and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.
The Human Rights Council is holding a full day of meetings today. At 1 p.m., it will hold a clustered interactive dialogue with François Crépeau, Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants, and Philip Alston, Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights.
General Debate on the Update of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
CHOI KYONG-LIM, President of the Human Rights Council, appointed Yasmin Sooka of South Africa, Kenneth R. Scott of the United States, and Godfrey M. Musila of Kenya to the Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan, pursuant to resolution A/HRC/31/L.33 on the situation of human rights in South Sudan. He said Ms. Sooka would serve as Chair of the Commission.
Benin expressed support to actions by the High Commissioner and the Secretary-General to promote gender equality. For its part, Benin had made significant achievements through its policies for the empowerment of women, in accordance with the Beijing Plan of Action. Benin stated the importance of combatting terrorism and religious extremism, and called for measures to address the migration crisis in accordance with human rights.
Chile called on the Council to play a more active role in addressing the current migration crisis. The human rights system should avoid the polarization of its agenda. Chile was committed to combat discrimination on the ground of sexual orientation and gender equality, and was convinced that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex persons deserved protection from human rights violations. Chile expressed condolences to the United States after the Orlando attacks.
Costa Rica recalled that all States had the obligation to protect and promote all human rights, and underlined the importance of the Council and its mechanisms in that regard. It recognized the role of the Council in the context of the current situation in Burundi and with regard to climate change. It called for greater impact on the ground through more efficient and tangible resolutions and mandates.
Spain reiterated the call to move forward the peace negotiations on human rights situations in a number of countries and stressed the urgent need to find a solution to the suffering of refugees and migrants. The Council must address violence against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex persons, and also pay more attention to the current reversal in the universal abolition of the death penalty. Spain had re-launched the International Commission of the Death Penalty, which was a very useful mechanism in this regard.
Czech Republic said it was a strong supporter of a robust United Nations system, very active on addressing human rights situations – this could not be achieved without the fully independent Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. Policy choices at all levels must be informed by human rights as they were informed by peace, security and development considerations. What tools did the Council have to support the better integration of human rights across the system and to ensure that the implementation of the Sustainable Development Agenda 2030 was underpinned by human rights considerations?
Republic of Moldova hoped that the tenth anniversary of the Council would strengthen the human rights machinery and stressed the collective duty to reach solutions to end violence and human rights violations in many countries affected by armed conflict. The Republic of Moldova fully supported mainstreaming of human rights into the United Nations system in order to ensure prompt responses to human rights emergencies. It welcomed the field presence of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in the country and the engagement on several key issues, including domestic violence.
Italy noted that the world was facing increasing instability, especially in Syria but also in other countries across the globe, and stressed that internal and external responses to threats such as terrorism and extremist violence must always incorporate human rights and the rule of law. Those armed conflicts had created unprecedented migration flows and Italy reiterated its commitment to ensuring their protection and integration into the asylum and international protection system. The international community had a duty to address the root causes of this tragedy and provide response on the basis of shared responsibility and solidarity.
Malaysia said balanced attention was given to all human rights. It expressed concerns about increasing trends of violent extremism and threats of terrorism, and about increasing incidences of intolerance, racism, discrimination, Islamophobia and xenophobia, calling for the responsible exercise of freedom of expression. Poverty contributed to human rights violations and extremism, Malaysia said, welcoming the commitments by all Member States through the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
Democratic Republic of Congo expressed its willingness to cooperate with all mechanisms of the Council. It regretted false allegations made against the country, particularly with regard to alleged restrictions of political space. Freedom of expression and freedom of assembly were fully guaranteed. The Democratic Republic of the Congo had more than 400 political parties, more than 67 television channels and 100 press agencies, acting in all freedom. Some protests had been prohibited only with a view to protect public order. The Government was committed to inclusive political dialogue ahead of the elections.
Israel regretted that the Council had a standing agenda item on the situation in Israel, while the tragedies in Syria, Yemen, Iraq and Libya were unfolding and producing a tsunami of refugees. Referring to the High Commissioner’s concern about the cancellation of permits granted to West Bank and Gaza residents during Ramadan, Israel recalled that it had the right to regulate the entry of non-citizens into the country, which was an integral part of its sovereignty and which was recognized by bilateral Israeli-Palestinian agreements. This was one of many example of double standards against Israel.
Australia encouraged the Council, over the next 10 years, to embrace the role it could play supporting States to meet their responsibility to protect. The Universal Periodic Review and Special Procedures were uniquely placed to monitor situations of grave human rights concern, provide early warning of the risk of mass atrocity crimes, and thus contribute to prevention. The Council should also pay more attention to gender equality as empowering women was a fundamental driver of development and crucial to the enjoyment of the human rights of all.
Greece stressed that migration was a global phenomenon and must be addressed as such, whereby an effective cooperation between and with countries of origin, transition and destination was a must. At the same time, root causes of conflicts must be addressed meaningfully, and the need to find and implement as a matter of urgency a viable political solution in Syria was the most obvious example in this regard. Greece would continue to effectively address the situation of migrants and refugees and focus on saving lives and upholding their human rights.
Cyprus said that on the tenth anniversary of the Council, it was important to take a step back and examine what had been achieved, and also to take a critical look at the opportunities that had been missed. Cyprus recognized the pivotal role of the High Commissioner and his Office and stressed the need to work together on addressing and resolving major challenges to human rights, such as the unprecedented migrant and refugee flows, issues of gender equality and threats to the freedom of expression and peaceful assembly and association.
Pakistan condemned the Orlando killings. Drone strikes were a violation of the United Nations Charter and international human rights and humanitarian law. A wish was expressed to hear what was being done to bring economic, social and cultural rights, as well as the right to development, to the forefront of the work of the Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights.
Iran, speaking on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement, expressed wishes to reflect on some issues raised by the High Commissioner. A question was asked regarding the placement of economic, social and cultural rights: besides a fact-based analysis, which strategies were envisaged by the Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights on how to give the right to development its proper place.
Ukraine offered condolences to the families of those killed in Orlando, Florida. Ukraine commended the activities of the Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights in Ukraine, which was contributing to informing the international community regarding the situation in the country. The mission’s work played an important part in documenting Russian aggression and crimes committed by the Russian military. Human rights violations should not go unpunished.
Uganda encouraged more balance in the High Commissioner for Human Rights’ report, with equal focus on all geographical regions, and while promoting constructive dialogue. The Council played a unique role in promoting and protecting human rights, which should be consolidated and strengthened. Development, peace, security and human rights were all interlinked and mutually reinforcing, Uganda said, calling on the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights to take initiatives for the implementation of the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda and of the right to development.
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea said that the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights should abide by the principles of objectivity, non-selectivity and non-politicization. The so-called “human rights issue in the DPRK” constituted double standards, and the “DPRK” rejected all resolutions that concerned it, and which resulted from political agendas from the United States and Japan on the pretext of human rights. It called on the Council to give attention to the United States’ crimes in Afghanistan and Iraq, and to Japan’s past crimes against humanity.
Cambodia said that its people enjoyed peace, security and remarkable economic growth. The Government appreciated the genuine and honest contribution of civil society, but denied any acts of politicization, double standard and, selectivity, and rejected interference in its internal affairs. It recalled that some civil societies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Cambodia exploited the human rights agenda for political purposes. In this regard, those breaking existing laws had to be accountable for their acts. There were 4,637 NGOs in Cambodia freely conducting their activities with no constraints. This reflected how broad and deep the democratic space was in the country.
Poland expressed greatest appreciation for civil society which had a long-standing role in overthrowing communism. The Government was fully aware of the importance of civil society and the Office of the Ombudsman and was very surprised to hear the reports of alleged harassment of human rights defenders and activists. Poland was determined to maintain the rule of law and relied on the support of international institutions.
Montenegro thanked the High Commissioner for his comprehensive update and said that the tragic events in Orlando were a reminder that the Council must not remain silent on human rights violations. Montenegro reiterated its support to the Sustainable Development Agenda 2030 and said it would soon present a voluntary national plan for its implementation. It was unfortunate to learn about the human rights violations of refugees and migrants and Montenegro supported all international efforts to find solutions to present conflicts.
Afghanistan said that civilian casualties continued to rise in the country, particularly among women and children. The United Nations Assistance Mission to Afghanistan had reported that the Taliban had conducted 179 war crime activities last year, which were largely supported from outside the national borders. Threats by the Taliban, Haqqani network, Al Qaeda, Islamic State and their affiliated groups remained potent and focused on undoing the hard-earned gains of the last 15 years.
Nepal said that the Council’s tenth anniversary was an opportunity to reflect on the challenges and opportunities in the fulfilling of its mandate and said that the Universal Periodic Review was a hallmark of international cooperation in the field of human rights. The work of the Council must always be guided by the principles of universality, impartiality, neutrality, non-selectivity, constructive dialogue and international cooperation. Nepal’s new Constitution had set ambitious human rights objectives and it was committed to build back better after the devastating earthquake that had struck the country a year ago.
Myanmar said that as the High Commissioner had put it in his statement yesterday, the formation of a civilian government in March represented a watershed moment in Myanmar’s continuing transition to democracy. The new Government’s approach to human rights issues would not be the same as before. In addressing human rights challenges, Myanmar had been working together with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, and would like to continue those efforts under a technical cooperation mandate.
Sudan renewed Sudan’s commitment toward the peaceful settlement of problems in the country. Progress in Darfur was welcomed, and it was noted that a referendum had been organized there. In the statement given by the High Commissioner, positive developments on the ground had not been mentioned, such as the fight against impunity. Sudan had welcomed more than 2 million refugees.
Guinea-Bissau expressed its full support for the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. The universality of human rights issues should be reflected in the composition of the Council. Human rights issues remained a major challenge for Guinea Bissau, and in that regard, international cooperation and support from the country’s bilateral and multilateral partners could assist in reforms of the justice sector and the rule of law, among others.
Libya said that the Government was working under huge security and economic challenges. It referred to terrorism, human trafficking and other problems in the country, which required the international community to join forces and support the Government. Libya noted that additional support needed to be provided to Libya on human rights, as well as humanitarian and security issues. Libya called on the European Union to raise the embargo on civilian aircrafts in order to provide necessary assistance to victims.
Jordan extended condolences to the United States for the Orlando attack. Jordan continued to support efforts of the United Nations Special Envoy in Syria to restore security in Syria. Israel had to dismantle all settlements and stop restrictions on freedom of movement, freedom of worship, and to put an end to arbitrary detention. Deadlock in the peace process would only fuel more extremism, Jordan said, expressing its commitment to the two-State solution.
Micronesia extended its condolences and solidarity to the American people. It thanked the contributors to the Trust Fund and the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights for enabling its participation to this session of the Council. Climate change remained the greatest challenge of our time. Its adverse impacts continued to be an impediment to Micronesia’s right to development, food, water, health and education. Micronesia reiterated its call for a high representative for climate change and security to be placed in the United Nations system to focus on these issues.
Mauritania stressed the need to increase the efficiency of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, and to strengthen the role of the Council while preventing politicization. It welcomed support to combat slavery, and recalled that it had recently adopted new legislation in that regard, with a focus on the victims. Other national programmes had been adopted to combat torture and to promote economic, social and cultural rights. Mauritania was committed to continue its work in the Council and to support dialogue and inclusiveness.
Argentina appreciated the work of the Council on inclusion and believed that the world should be a place where gender, sexual orientation or other grounds were not reasons for exclusion. Argentina rejected the violent attack in Orlando. Argentina would associate itself with the resettlement programme for Syrian migrants who would be gradually integrated into the society.
Marshall Islands said that the Human Rights Council had done much to move human rights to the front of the international agenda, but much remained to be done in closing the gaps between the goals and realities on the ground, particularly in vulnerable countries. It was crucial that all countries were held accountable for their human rights records, and that they held others accountable.
Honduras said that 2015 had been a crucial year, marked by the adoption of the Sustainable Development Agenda 2030, the new framework on disaster prevention, the agreement on climate change, and others. Honduras reiterated its firm support to the Office of the High Commissioner in its work against exclusion and racial discrimination, for a rights-based approach to migration, and for the work of its Office in Honduras, which would enjoy the full support of the Government, including with regard to investigating the death of the human rights defender Berta Cáceres.
Bahrain said that the negative remarks by the High Commissioner about Bahrain did not reflect the reality and were disappointing to the people of Bahrain. Security, drug trafficking and other hostile acts undermined the situation in Bahrain and those must be addressed in accordance with the rule of law. The authorities occasionally had to intervene to uphold public order, like so many other countries in the world, so accusing the Government of repressing the rights of the people was not justified.
Papua New Guinea said that the Human Rights Council had become a beacon of hope for the international community. With reference to the High Commissioner’s note on the situation in Papua New Guinea, the country was in the process of addressing the issue. Human rights were guaranteed by the Constitution. Treaty obligations remained firm, and Papua New Guinea appreciated the support provided by development partners.
Reporters without Borders - International, said that 70 per cent of the Universal Periodic Review recommendations dealing with freedom of the press were not implemented. That showed an abysmal lack of political will on the part of Member States. There was a climate of fear, tension, and increasing government control over newsrooms. The creation of a Special Representative to assist the Secretary-General in harmonizing strategies and strengthening compliance was urged.
Americans for Democracy and Human Rights in Bahrain said that yesterday, security officials in Bahrain had implemented travel bans on six individuals traveling to take part in a training seminar for civil society on how to engage with various United Nations mechanisms. The organization called on the Council to formally condemn Bahrain for that and other acts of reprisals and cease cooperation with the Government of Bahrain until the full protection of all civil society participants could be guaranteed.
International Federation of Human Rights Leagues, shared the High Commissioner’s concerns with regard to the situation in Turkey. It condemned the existing restrictions on freedom of expression in Cambodia, Thailand and Viet Nam, and called on these three countries to amend and repeal laws and decrees inconsistent with human rights standards. In Azerbaijan, it called on the authorities to end all forms of harassment against human rights defenders.
China NGO Network for International Exchanges said that Chinese legislation on civil society organizations did not aim to restrict their activities. In China, anyone should respect existing laws and regulations, or be punished. China was a multi-ethnic society, and financial support was provided to local non-governmental organizations, including in Tibet. The international community should give better attention to the reality of the situation on the ground.
American Association of Jurists, on behalf of severals NGOs1, said that the territory of Western Sahara was under the occupation of the Kingdom of Morocco. The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights should not limit itself to the role of mere spectator, and should follow-up on its visits of refugee camps. It should play a more active role for the protection and promotion of the rights of the Sahrawi people, including their inalienable right to self-determination.
Alsalam Foundation, together with Americans for Democracy and Human Rights in Bahrain, the Bahrain Institute for Rights and Democracy and the Bahrain Centre for Human Rights, expressed concerns about the revocation of Bahraini citizenship of human rights defenders, political activists, journalists, academics and religious scholars, alongside violent extremists. Bahrain should end its practice of arbitrary citizenship revocation and reinstate all citizenships revoked for politically-motivated purposes. It also condemned the disproportionate use of force by security forces against protestors.
World Barua Organization called the attention of the Council to the deplorable situation in the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, the only one without an internationally recognized administrative power and which was consequently under direct responsibility of the United Nations. The United Nations must make the necessary arrangement to enable regular and continued visits to the area by its mission and to open a dialogue with the Sahrawi National Commission for Human Rights.
International Fellowship of Reconciliation welcomed the attention given to the widespread destruction and violations of human rights in the context of the military operations in south-east Turkey and called upon the Government of Turkey to admit a team from the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights to determine, in an impartial manner, the facts on the ground.
Human Rights Watch shared the High Commissioner’s profound concern at restrictions, harassment and intimidation of human rights defenders and civil society organizations in many countries around the world, including in Azerbaijan, Bahrain, and Russia. The Council must exercise leadership and raise its voice in condemning the crackdown in Egypt and call for a reform of repressive laws. The High Commissioner should continue to speak out strongly against the relentless crackdown on civil society in China.
Khiam Rehabilitation Centre for Victims of Torture said that a human rights defender had gone through a maliciously motivated trial, despite the fact that he was a non-violent reformist. The suffering he had gone through exposed the “instrumentalization” of the judiciary. By the order of the Minister of Justice in Bahrain, a centre had been shut down and all its property had been sequestered. The Council was called on to protect human rights in Bahrain and to hold Bahrain accountable.
CIVICUS – World Alliance for Citizen Participation expressed concern about last month’s decision by the Economic and Social Council’s Non-Governmental Organizations Committee to deny consultative status to the Committee to Protect Journalists. The situations in Ethiopia, Cambodia and Egypt were singled out as particularly worrisome for human rights defenders. According space to civil society was not optional.
Renconctre Africaine pour la défense des droits de l’homme recalled that the year 2016 was the year of human rights with a particular focus on the rights of women. The situation remained of concern regarding humanitarian and security challenges in the Sahel. The organization said it was a key player in the fight against impunity in Africa, and asked what the High Commissioner planned to do regarding impunity in Mali, Libya and many other areas.
Association Solidarité Internationale pour l’Afrique, speaking in a joint statement, said that the judiciary in Bahrain was under constant pressure and influence by the royal family and the independence of the courts was questioned. The United Nations Special Rapporteur on freedom of expression had condemned the latest sentencing, saying that it confirmed the continuing trend of political repression of dissidents in the country.
Réseau International des Droits Humains said that since December 2011, the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights had made the reports by the Special Procedures available, but there should be more time put aside for the discussions and analysis of those reports, in which civil society organizations would have ample opportunity to engage in dialogue with States.
Verein Sudwind Entwicklungspolitik, noted the continued and numerous executions in Iran and the widespread use of flogging as lawful punishment, and this had not been mentioned in the High Commissioner’s update. The gap between the Constitution and the everyday exercise of public freedoms was often significant, and breaches of constitutional laws were frequent.
International Service for Human Rights shared the High Commissioner’s concerns regarding the restrictions and attacks against civil society actors in Council Member States China, Russia and Venezuela, as well as the allegations of acts of intimidation and reprisal by those States. It also shared the acute concern of the High Commissioner for the arbitrary detention and harassment of human rights defenders in States, including Azerbaijan, Bahrain and Egypt.
Iraqi Development Organization condemned the situation in Yemen. Yemeni people were undergoing a war of aggression. The blockade prevented the people of Yemen from exercising their right to self-determination. This situation had led to poverty and was equivalent to crimes against humanity and war crimes. More than 30,000 were victims.
International Humanist and Ethical Union said freedom of expression and the right to peaceful assembly were not just rights to be emphasised for individuals across the world in different States, but also for those representing non-governmental organizations at the institutional level. Without them, there was no capacity to stand up for the rights of others. The Council had a responsibility to protect those who engaged from intimidation and reprisals.
International Muslim Women’s Union believed in a technical assistance world where every man, woman, and child had the right to live a life without fear, and where there were all freedoms of life and no threats. But this was just a dream for the people in Jammu Kashmir where 700,000 forces were living in schools, hotels and private houses, where death was dancing in every street, and where children were shot while playing cricket.
Association Bharathi Centre Culturel Franco-Tamoul said that Tamil people still lived under military occupation in Sri Lanka and noted that the High Commissioner had recommended a hybrid accountability system on the basis that the local judicial system was too corrupted. The Government was now refusing to accommodate any foreigners in the domestically controlled accountability mechanism, while the Tamil people did not have any faith in the domestic process.
Arab Commission for Human Rights welcomed the positive measures adopted in many countries of the global south, for example Tunisia which had begun the path towards sustainable democracy. It was the countries of the global north that were facing regression in human rights, for example in the United States where a Presidential candidate was threatening to expel its citizens for religious reasons. Similar was the situation in France where Muslims were discriminated against.
Article 19 - The International Centre against Censorship, said that in the vast majority of the 50 countries that the High Commissioner addressed, violations of freedom of expression were a common thread. There was a widening implementation gap between the Council’s free expression standards and national realities. Concern was expressed at the shrinking of civil society space in Hungary, Poland, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Azerbaijan, Russia, and Cambodia.
Pasumai Thaayagam Foundation said that while the Sri Lankan Government had taken steps, there was concern about it sending out mixed messages. Tamil victims continued to have little confidence in the will of the Government, due to the continued detention of political prisoners. Victims and human rights groups had voiced concern about the manner in which an office of missing persons was being created. Steps toward a political solution were no substitute for justice.
International Youth and Student Movement for the United Nations expressed concern over the non-implementation by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights of recent General Assembly resolutions regarding the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action. A high-level review of the critical situation of work against racism at the Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights was suggested, with the cooperation of non-governmental organizations.
Liberation, in a joint statement with the Southern Observatory for Human Rights, said millions of Southerners in South Yemen had gone out on the streets of Aden in peaceful demonstrations, calling upon the international community to support them to restore their sovereign State. They had been able to liberate nearly the entire South from the Northern Forces. They called upon the Human Rights Council to use its mandate to help the Southern people eradicate the root causes of counter terrorism and eliminate extremism in the region.
International Organization for the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, in a joint statement, regretted that 2016 was witnessing dramatic human rights violations across the globe. It was deeply distressed regarding the situation in Iraq, and in particular, in Fallujah, where Iraqi authorities were complicit in violations, through policies of disregard. The violations committed within the framework of the “fight against terrorism” were a cause of great concern. Urgent action was needed to bring peace and justice back to Iraq.
International-Lawyers Org said the situation in Iraq, in particular in Fallujah, amounted to genocide perpetrated by the army on the pretext of combatting terrorism. There was ground and air military support by the United States, which also caused concern. Civilians had been assaulted by police and militias, and Government forces had committed barbaric crimes. The Association called on the Human Rights Council to send an international observer body and take action against the militias.
Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development, shared the High Commissioner’s concerns at the drastic increase in targeted killings of writers, bloggers, social media activists and sexual minorities in Bangladesh. In Cambodia and Maldives, laws increasingly restricted non-governmental organizations’ activities. The Thai Government should repeal sections of the Referendum Act which prohibited public discussion of the draft constitution and allowed inclusive and open debate ahead of the referendum.
Organisation internationale pour les pays les moins avancés said that the Southern Movement had been calling for the restoration of the Yemeni State through peaceful protests and civil disobedience since 2007. Those protests had been met with brutal violence by the Yemeni military and the technical assistance to Yemen that this Council had provided had not been sufficient to resolve the issue. This was one example of how the Council’s neglect of non-violent calls for basic human rights could escalate into intractable conflict.
International Islamic Federation of Students Organizations said that the fact that the Middle East, South Africa and Asia were in turmoil was the collective failure of all those who held power and wealth and were involved in prolonging wars and disputes instead of resolving them. It was not only happening in Syria, Iraq, Libya, or Afghanistan, but there were festering disputes such as the Indian-occupied Kashmir, the oldest international conflict on the Security Council’s agenda.
Right of Reply
Egypt, speaking in a right of reply, categorically rejected the accusations made by Switzerland. The Egyptian Constitution provided for the independence of the rule of law, including the independence of the judiciary. Any individual who was apprehended by the authorities was apprehended for breaking the law. Egypt called upon Switzerland to ensure human rights in its own laws. Namely the canton of Geneva provided for a fine for up to 100,000 chf for anyone that did not request authorisation for protests.
Kenya, speaking in a right of reply, said the Constitution that Kenya had adopted in 2011 was democratic. Elections were held every five years and the forthcoming would not be an exception. The elections in 2013 had been held without violence and were peaceful in character. The view that they were not democratic was propounded by a small opposition in Kenya. Protests had become increasingly violent. During the last protest, 50 people had been injured, and the police had instituted investigations to bring those who had committed crimes during the demonstrations to account.
Democratic Republic of Congo, speaking in a right of reply, denounced the attitude of the European Union which raised tensions and threatened peace and human rights. It was not honest to speak of restrictions on civil society in a country that had over 400 parties, 67 private TV channels, and thousands of non-governmental organizations which freely exercised their activities. Regarding security in the east of the country, the Government had taken measures together with MINUSCO to counter the militias there.
Republic of Korea, speaking in a right of reply, regretted the continued refusal of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to cooperate with the United Nations human rights mechanisms and implement the recommendations of the international community to improve the human rights of its people.
Japan, speaking in a right of reply, was deeply concerned about the human rights situation in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and urged that country to pay serious attention to the recommendations by the international community and take serious measures to address the situation. Japan and “South Korea” had made a historic agreement to resolve the issue of the so-called comfort women, and had been taking continuous steps to implementation this agreement reached in December 2015.
Democratic People's Republic of Korea, speaking in a right of reply, rejected the allegations by the Republic of Korea and Japan which were politically motivated and had nothing to do with human rights. The resolutions against the Democratic People's Republic of Korea under the guise of human rights were militarily and politically motivated; they aimed to eliminate the system chosen by its people, and were guided by the United States’ interests. The egregious human rights violations that required the attention of this Council were crimes against humanity committed by Japan, the refugee crisis prevailing in Europe, and political repression in the Republic of Korea.
Japan, speaking in a second right of reply, said it was regrettable that the Democratic People's Republic of Korea had not responded with concrete actions to the concerns of the international community.
Democratic People's Republic of Korea, speaking in a second right of reply, rejected yet another provocative and misleading accusation by Japan and said that Japan’s past crimes required the attention of the international community. Japan should address all its past and present violations by heeding the legitimate remarks of the international community.
1 Joint statement: American Association of Jurists; International Education Development, Inc.; International Association of Democratic Lawyers (IADL); Union of Arab Jurists; World Federation of Democratic Youth (WFDY); International Youth and Student Movement for the United Nations; and International Fellowship of Reconciliation.
For use of the information media; not an official record
RANGOON — Heavy rain and severe flooding continue to devastate parts of Arakan State, a spokesperson for the Arakan State Government, told The Irrawaddy on Monday.
Four women in Taungup Township, a man in Thandwe Township and a student in Ann Township were killed by deadly deluges on Sunday, according to spokesperson Min Aung. However, the Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement has reported a different figure of four total deaths in the region for the month of June.
In terms of damage, 155 households were destroyed in Ann Township, while in Thandwe Township the heavy downpours have caused water levels to rise seven feet, Min Aung added.
Arakan State’s Ministry of Social Welfare and Ministry of Electric Power, Industry, and Roads and Communications reportedly intend to visit flood-affected townships to deliver aid, including food and material for building houses.
Since the beginning of June, several other parts of Burma have also been struck by severe rainfall. The Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement has reported that natural disasters have claimed the lives of two people in Pegu Division, two people in Sagaing Division, one person each in Magwe and Irrawaddy divisions and one person in Kachin State.
More than 5,000 households in total have also been affected by flooding, with some homes having been completely submerged and others rendered essentially unlivable.
With the La Niña weather pattern looming, it is likely that Burma will continue to be hit by extreme weather in the coming months.