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Nigeria: UNHCR Funding Update on the Nigeria Situation: 2017 contributions (USD) as of 21 February 2017

17 hours 57 min ago
Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

169.9 M required for 2017

1.9 M contributions received, representing 1% of requirements

168.0 M funding gap for the Nigeria Situation

All figures are displayed in USD

Nigeria: La conference humanitaire d’Oslo pour le Nigeria et la region du lac Tchad leve $672 millions

24 February 2017 - 8:20pm
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Country: Cameroon, Chad, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Republic of Korea, Sweden, Switzerland

• Promesses de contribution à hauteur de $458 millions de dollars américains pour 2017 et $214 millions pour 2018 et au-delà, annoncées par 14 donateurs

• La conférence a donné une voix aux personnes touchées par le conflit et la crise

• Accord pour répondre aux besoins de développement à plus long terme et chercher des solutions durables aux crises

Oslo, 24 février 2017 – 170 représentants de 40 pays, de l’ONU, des organisations régionales et de la société civile se sont réunis aujourd’hui à l’occasion de la « Conférence humanitaire d’Oslo sur le Nigéria et la région du lac Tchad ». La conférence a été organisée conjointement par la Norvège, le Nigéria, l’Allemagne et les Nations Unies et fait suite à une réunion de la société civile qui a vu une forte participation de la société civile travaillant au Nigéria, Tchad, Niger et Cameroun.

La région du Lac Tchad fait face à une des plus grandes crises humanitaire au monde avec 17 millions de personnes vivant dans les zones les plus touchées. Environ 11 millions ont besoin d’une assistance humanitaire d’urgence. Lors de la conférence 14 donateurs ont annoncé $458 millions de promesses de dons pour l’aide en 2017 et un soutien additionel de $214 million pour 2018 et au-delà. Les promesses de dons ont été annoncées par la Commission européenne, Norvège, Allemagne, Japon, Suède, Suisse, France, Italie, Irlande, Finlande, Danemark, Luxembourg, Pays-Bas et la République de Corée.

Les partenaires humanitaires se sont mis d’accord pour augmenter leur réponse, afin d’atteindre les groupes les plus vulnérables menacés par la famine, y compris les enfants souffrant de malnutrition sévère. Une attention particulière a été portée sur les besoins de protection des femmes, des enfants et de la jeunesse, ainsi que sur la nécessité d’un soutien à plus long terme et des solutions durables pour les personnes déplacées.

Le ministre des affaires étrangères Børge Brende a dit:

« La conférence a contribué à accroître la sensibilisation autour de la crise et à augmenter le soutien aux millions de personnes affectées par la crise, notamment pour les nombreux enfants et jeunes personnes qui ne sont pas actuellement scolarisés. Il est crucial d’assurer et de protéger l’éducation afin de garantir leurs droits et de poser les bases pour un développement pacifique de la région. Notre but doit être d’assurer la qualité de l’éducation pour tous, pour les filles autant que pour les garçons. Il est également très important d’améliorer la protection des femmes et des filles, qui souvent, sont les principales victimes des crises et conflits, ainsi que de garantir l’implication des femmes dans les processus en cours liés à la paix et au développement de la région.»

Le ministre des affaires étrangères Geoffrey Onyeama a dit:

« Le Nigéria est confronté à un extrémisme violent et doit, parallèlement, faire face à une baisse du prix du pétrole et à une récession économique. Alors même que le gouvernement s’ engage à consacrer des allocations budgétaires importantes pour faire face à la situation sécuritaire et humanitaire résultant de l’insurection, nous avons également besoin de toute l’aide et soutien possible de la communauté internationale.»

Le ministre des affaires étrangères Sigmar Gabriel a dit:

«Avec les promesses de dons annoncées aujourd’hui, les agences humanitaires peuvent maintenant se concentrer sur leur travail, sauver des vies et offrir une assistance à ceux qui en ont un besoin urgent . L’Allemagne va contributer à hauteur de 120 millions d’euros à ces efforts sur les trois prochaines années. Nous fournirons 100 millions d’euros pour l’aide humanitaire et 20 million d’euros pour les efforts de stabilisation dans la région. Sur le long terme, nous devons renforcer notre partenariat avec les pays impliqués pour attaquer les causes profondes de la terreur, du déplacement et de la pauvreté. A cette fin, nous avons établi aujourd’hui un ‘Groupe consultatif sur la prévention et la stabilisation’ avec nos homologues dans la région.»

Le Secrétaire général adjoint aux affaires humanitaires et Coordonnateur des secours d’urgence Stephen O’Brien a dit:

«La crise humanitaire qui se déroule dans la région du lac Tchad, avec 10.7 millions de personnes ayant un besoin urgent d’assistance humanitaire, est véritablement une crise majeure. Sans notre soutien accru, les communautés touchées seront condamnées à la faim, aux maladies, aux violences basées sur le genre, et aux déplacements continus. Mais un autre avenir est à portée de main: étant donné que la communauté internationale renforce son soutien, nous pouvons empêcher que cette crise ne s’aggrave d’avantage et entraîne d’inimaginables conséquences pour des millions de personnes. Je suis reconnaissant du généreux soutien pour l’action humanitaire que nous avons entendu ce matin. Les Nations Unies et nos partenaires sommes prêts et mobilisés à intensifier notre réponse vitale - les personnes dans la région n’ont pas le temps d’attendre.»

Nigeria: Directions on Protection, Access and Solutions for IDPs and Returnees in North-Eastern Nigeria

24 February 2017 - 8:05pm
Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Government of Nigeria Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

At a glance – Nigeria’s displaced in need of protection and solutions 8.5 million

Nigerians in Borno, Adamawa and Yobe States will require humanitarian and humanitarian assistance in 2017.i The conflict and its spillover into neighboring Cameroon, Chad and Niger has resulted in a regional displacement crisis in the Lake Chad Region with over 1.8 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Nigeria, 87% of whom originate from Borno State, and nearly 200,000 refugees in Cameroon, Chad and Niger, along with the already sizeable internal displacement situations in these three main refugee hosting countries (Cameroon: 183,000; Chad: 89,000; and Niger: 121,000).

IDPs and refugees have started to return, a fact that has been observed in areas accessible for assessments. It is critical that these returns remain voluntary, occur in safety and in dignity, and that additional opportunities for solutions are identified and seized upon. At the same time, due to the ongoing conflict, new displacement occurs regularly, including to unsafe or inaccessible areas.

To address the complex protection dimension of the regional humanitarian crisis, the Governments of the Lake Chad Region – Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad and Niger – adopted the Abuja Action Statement on 8 June 2016 to galvanize a protection-focused approach to solutions for displaced persons.

The following three pillars build on the Abuja Action Statement, and serve as a basis for a range of essential protection actions which collectively aim to have a transformative impact on the protection environment and the realization of solutions for the displaced in North-Eastern Nigeria:

Changing Dynamics: Opportunities for Solutions

Ensuring voluntariness, safety and dignity as determining factors in shifting towards a comprehensive solutions approach for displaced populations. Informed choice is essential to the realization of sustainable solutions.
Opportunities for solutions focusing on voluntary returns will be prioritized, while other alternatives will be facilitated as appropriate.

At Stake: Critical Protection Needs

Improved physical security; freedom of movement and humanitarian access; prevention of and response to sexual and gender based violence , as well as protection of children from violence, exploitation and abuse, including children coming out of armed groups; access to targeted psychosocial support to persons; resolution of housing, land and property concerns are prioritized protection needs.

Excluded: Empowerment and Social Cohesion

Exclusion, marginalization and extreme poverty are among the root causes fueling conflict and violence, creating protection risks and impeding the realization of durable solutions.
Gender equality, inclusion, empowerment, community reconciliation and social cohesion are central to restoring rights, reducing violations and supporting solutions.

Nigeria: UNHCR outlines way forward on Nigeria displacement

24 February 2017 - 3:52pm
Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

At a conference in Oslo, the UN Refugee Agency presents steps to ensure protection, access and lasting solutions for displaced Nigerians returning home.

By: UNHCR staff

OSLO, Norway – As growing numbers of displaced Nigerians start to return home, UN High Commissioner for Refugees Filippo Grandi on Friday co-presented a way forward for ensuring protection, access and lasting solutions for them.

“The two strategies of protection and solutions should go hand in hand. To do this we need access … this is the very big challenge,” stressed Grandi, who is in Oslo for a major international conference on Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region.

He earlier said that at this important juncture in the displacement crisis, with an estimated 8.5 million Nigerians requiring humanitarian aid in 2017, it was important to ensure a principled and sustainable approach in the search for solutions.

To that end, UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, and the Nigerian Government presented a vision in Oslo for moving forward, entitled “Directions on Protection, Access and Solutions for IDPs and Returnees in North-East Nigeria.”

Discussed as part of a special thematic session at the conference, the document focuses on opportunities for solutions; critical protection needs; and empowerment and social cohesion.

With return movements of internally displaced people - some 950,000 since August 2015 - and refugee returnees from neighbouring countries under way in Borno, Adamawa and Yobe states, the document says “it is critical that these returns remain voluntary, occur in safety and in dignity, and that additional opportunities for solutions are identified and seized upon.”

It says the “effective protection of civilians leads to opportunities for durable solutions to displacement.” This includes protection from refoulement (forced return) and the fundamental requirements for informed and voluntary returns in safety and dignity. “Where these conditions are not met, returns will not be sustainable, and may result in further exposure of displaced persons to violence and new displacement.”

Under the directions paper, opportunities for solutions focusing on voluntary returns would be prioritized. In some of the return areas, people receive limited assistance but a sustainable return needs a significant increase in support from the government and donor community.

The paper notes that many protection issues in areas of displacement and potential return can contribute to violence and present obstacles to stability. It puts a priority on measures to ensure physical security, freedom of movement and humanitarian access and proposes stepped up response to sexual and gender-based violence as well as protection of children from violence exploitation and abuse.

Other calls include ensuring access to psychosocial support and resolution of land and property issues by creating effective and accessible arbitration mechanisms and providing support to local authorities and civil society to ensure legal services and assistance to displaced people in conflict-affected areas.

The document notes that the conflict in the north-east had dramatically worsened an already dire socio-economic situation and increased social exclusion, inequality, marginalization of some groups, tension and violence within and between groups.

“Systematically addressing these factors is a complex undertaking, but one which is fundamental to attaining and sustaining solutions.” It proposes promoting gender equality and inclusion; community reconciliation; peace-building; social cohesion; inclusion; empowerment, de-radicalization; recovery, reconstruction and development.

The document addresses several specific issues in more detail, including humanitarian access and participation in decision-making. “Specific measures must systematically be taken to ensure the full and equal participation, including in leadership structures of women, youth, older persons, persons with disabilities and other groups at risk of marginalization.”

Donor nations attending had earlier in the day announced substantial donations towards operations to help people in north-east Nigeria and the Lake Chad region. The Oslo conference was organized by the governments of Norway, Nigeria and Germany with support from OCHA, with the aim to raise awareness about a largely overlooked crisis and to seek funding as well as greater political commitment to solutions.

High Commissioner Grandi, who visited Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon last December to highlight the crisis, also took part in a panel discussion at a civil society conference on Thursday.

Approximately 26 million people in the Lake Chad region have been affected by the conflict, according to government figures, and more than 2.6 million displaced. The crisis has been exacerbated by conflict-induced hunger and malnutrition which have risen to critical levels. Some 14 million Nigerian in the six most affected states are in need of humanitarian assistance this year. About 200,000 refugees have fled to neighbouring countries.

Nigeria: Session de réflexion thématique relative à la protection et à l’accessibilité des opérations humanitaires - Conférence humanitaire d’Oslo relative au Nigéria et à la région du Lac Tchad, 24 février 2017

24 February 2017 - 3:11pm
Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Government of Nigeria Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

Contexte

Les hostilités qui sévissent dans la région du Lac Tchad ont affecté quelque 26 millions de personnes, dont 2,6 millions ont été chassées de chez elles. Dans le sillage du conflit, la crise humanitaire s’est trouvée aggravée par la pénurie alimentaire et la malnutrition, qui ont atteint des niveaux critiques. En 2017, 14 millions de Nigérians, répartis dans les six États les plus touchés du pays (1) , ont besoin d’une assistance. (2) Le conflit et ses retombées dans les pays limitrophes, Cameroun, Tchad et Niger, ont débouché sur une crise caractérisée par des déplacements de population sur tout le pourtour du Lac Tchad, avec 1,8 millions de PDI au Nigéria, originaires à 87 % de l’État de Borno, et près de 200 000 réfugiés au Cameroun, au Tchad et au Niger, venus s’ajouter au nombre déjà non négligeable des déplacés internes présents dans ces trois pays d’accueil principaux (Cameroun : 183 000 ; Tchad : 89 000 ; Niger : 121 000).

Dans les zones de déplacement et de potentiel retour, la protection des populations concernées pose de nombreux problèmes qui contribuent directement à une situation de violence permanente, faisant obstacle à des solutions durables. Parmi ces problèmes figurent les restrictions à la liberté de circuler et la question de l’accès aux points d’intervention humanitaires dans un contexte d’insécurité, les violations du droit humanitaire international, les violences sexuelles et sexistes, les enrôlements forcés (y compris d’enfants), les disparitions de personnes, la séparation des familles, les violations des droits de propriété du logement, de la terre et des biens (notamment en l’absence d’état civil). Répondre aux besoins complexes en termes de protection qui sont ceux des réfugiés, des déplacés internes et des rapatriés, et rétablir les droits humains qui leur reviennent : de ces objectifs déterminants dépendent la stabilité des zones affectées et les solutions à apporter aux personnes en détresse au Nigéria et dans la région du Lac Tchad.

L’ampleur de la crise humanitaire survenue au cœur d’un conflit caractérisé par des violations systématiques des droits de l’homme et du droit humanitaire international exige une réaction, qui, pour être efficace, devra s’appuyer sur une stratégie, des priorités et des cibles préétablies. Dans l’immédiat, l’accent doit être mis sur un certain nombre d’axes urgents en matière de protection :

  • Améliorer la sécurité physique, la liberté de circulation et l’accès aux points d’intervention humanitaire ;

  • Renforcer la protection des civils, en veillant spécialement à la prévention de la violence sexuelle et sexiste (VSS), et à la sécurité des enfants vis-à-vis des violences, de l’exploitation et des abus sexuels ;

  • Fournir une assistance d’urgence en matière éducative, en donnant la priorité aux enfants déscolarisés ;

  • Fournir un soutien psycho-social ciblé aux personnes présentant des besoins spécifiques à cet égard ;

  • Mettre à disposition des moyens de subsistance et d’autonomisation ;

  • Résoudre les litiges en matière de propriété des logements, des terres et des biens.

La situation telle qu’elle se présente au Nigéria exige des acteurs humanitaires et de l’aide au développement une réponse globale, qui ne se limite pas à la seule protection, mais réponde aux problèmes d’exclusion, de marginalisation et de pauvreté extrême, qui, entre autres facteurs, alimentent le conflit et la violence, créant des risques en termes de sécurité des opérations et entravant la réalisation de solutions durables. Dans ce contexte, l’égalité entre les sexes, l’intégration des exclus, l’autonomisation des individus, la réconciliation des communautés et la cohésion sociale sont des volets essentiel d’une action visant à restaurer les droits, réduire le nombre des violations commises et soutenir des solutions, en particulier en ce qui concerne la durabilité des retours volontaires et la mise en œuvre d’alternatives viables.

(1) Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Taraba et Yobe
(2) 17 millions d’habitants de la région du Lac Tchad sont concernés par le conflit, et 8,5 millions de Nigérians des États Borno, Adamawa et Yobe States auront besoin d’une assistance en 2017, selon le Plan d’action humanitaire pour la région du Lac Tchad.

Nigeria: Thematic Session on Protection and Access - Oslo Humanitarian Conference on Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region, 24 February 2017

24 February 2017 - 3:07pm
Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Government of Nigeria Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

Background

Approximately 26 million people in the Lake Chad Region have been affected by the conflict, and over 2.6 million have been displaced. The humanitarian crisis has been exacerbated by conflict induced hunger and malnutrition which have escalated to critical levels. 14 million Nigerians in the six most affected states in Nigeria are in need of humanitarian assistance in 2017. The conflict and its spillover into neighboring Cameroon, Chad and Niger has resulted in a regional displacement crisis in the Lake Chad Region with over 1.8 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Nigeria, 87% of whom originate from Borno State, and nearly 200,000 refugees in Cameroon, Chad and Niger, along with the already sizeable internal displacement situations in these three main refugee hosting countries (Cameroon: 183,000; Chad: 89,000; and Niger: 121,000).

There are numerous protection issues in areas of displacement and potential return which contribute directly to ongoing violence and create obstacles to durable solutions. These issues include restrictions on freedom of movement and humanitarian access due to insecurity, violations of international humanitarian law, sexual and gender-based violence, forced recruitment (including of children), disappearances, family separation, and violations of housing, land and property rights (particularly when individual civil documentation is missing). Addressing the complex protection needs of refugees, internally displaced persons and returnees as well as restoring their human rights are critical foundations for stability in affected areas and solutions for persons of concern in Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region.

The magnitude of the humanitarian crisis occurring in a conflict characterized by systematic violations of human rights and international humanitarian law, requires the response to be strategic, prioritised and focused if it is to be effective. In the immediate term the focus is on the following critical protection needs:

  • improving physical security, freedom of movement and humanitarian access;

  • enhancing protection of civilians, in particular with regard to prevention of and response to sexual and gender based violence (SGBV) as well as protection of children from violence, exploitation and abuse;

  • providing emergency education prioritising out of school children;

  • providing targeted psychosocial support to persons with specific needs;

  • availing specific livelihood and empowerment support and;

  • resolution of housing, land and property disputes.

The Nigeria situation demands a comprehensive response by humanitarian and development actors, not just on protection, but with regard to addressing the challenges of exclusion, marginalization and abject poverty which, among other factors, are at the core of the root causes fuelling conflict and violence, creating protection risks and impeding realization of durable solutions. To this end, gender equality, inclusion, empowerment, community reconciliation and social cohesion are central to restoring rights, reducing violations and supporting solutions, especially as concerns the sustainability of voluntary returns and identification of viable alternatives.

The ongoing counter-insurgency measures put in place by the Nigerian security forces and regional multi-national security partners have, over the past several months, led to improvements in security and humanitarian access to some areas which were previously insecure and inaccessible. IDPs and refugees have started to return, a fact that has been observed in areas accessible for assessments. It is critical that these returns remain voluntary, occur in safety and in dignity, and that additional opportunities for solutions are identified and seized upon. At the same time, due to the ongoing conflict, new displacement occurs regularly, including to unsafe or inaccessible areas.

More needs to be done in terms of providing physical security and restoring rights. This is because the effective protection of civilians leads to opportunities for durable solutions to displacement. There is also an intrinsic linkage between protection and solutions. Protection is at the core of the fundamental requirements for the voluntary returns of refugees to occur in safety and dignity, in particular with regard to making informed decisions on solutions and adherence to the principle of non-refoulement. Similarly, the return of IDPs to their places of origin should be voluntary, in that they should be provided with the opportunity to access alternative solutions such as local integration or relocation to another place of residence in order to avoid situations of prolonged displacement.

To address the complex protection dimension of the regional humanitarian crisis, the Governments of the Lake Chad Region – Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad and Niger – adopted the Abuja Action Statement on 8 June 2016 to galvanize a protection-focused approach to solutions for displaced persons.

Nigeria: Session de réflexion sur la sécurité alimentaire : Document de travail – Conférence humanitaire d’Oslo relative au Nigéria et à la région du Lac Tchad, 24 février 2017

24 February 2017 - 3:03pm
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

« Une aide alimentaire pour sauver des vies aujourd’hui et assurer l’avenir en œuvrant pour l’autonomie des femmes, des enfants et des adolescents. »

CONTEXTE

La sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle dans le nord-est nigérian et la région du Lac Tchad

Un conflit alimenté par la marginalisation socio-économique à long terme est responsable d’immenses souffrances humaines dans le nord-est du Nigéria et certaines parties du Niger, du Tchad et du Cameroun. La crise humanitaire prolongée survenue dans le sillage de la guérilla menée par Boko Haram a eu un impact dévastateur dans la région du point de vue de la sécurité alimentaire, induisant dans certaines zones une situation proche de la famine. Le système de production et de distribution alimentaire est sous tension à plusieurs niveaux. Des infrastructures vitales ont été détruites, les échanges commerciaux et les marchés sont perturbés, et des services essentiels tels que les écoles et les hôpitaux ne fonctionnent plus. En outre, la région avait déjà été frappée par des désastres liés au changement climatique, notamment une aggravation de la sécheresse et de la désertification, ainsi que la surexploitation des ressources naturelles.

Dans le nord-est du Nigéria et le bassin du Lac Tchad, quelque sept millions de personnes luttent contre l’insécurité alimentaire et ont besoin de toute urgence d’une assistance - 5,1 millions au nord-est nigérian, 1,5 au Cameroun, 340 000 au Niger et près de 160 000 au Tchad. Il est à prévoir que cette situation se détériore encore, au minimum jusqu’à la fin du premier semestre 2017.

Selon l’analyse multipartite du Cadre Harmonisé1 réalisée au Nigéria en octobre 2016, près de 5 millions de personnes se trouvent dans les phases d’insécurité alimentaire dites de crise et d’urgence (phases 3 et 4 de la classification IPC), soit près de deux fois plus qu’en mars 2016. Ce chiffre devrait atteindre 5,8 millions en juin 2017. Dans les zones les plus touchées et les moins accessibles des États de Borno et de Yobe, on estime que 55 000 personnes subissent des conditions de vie assimilables à la famine. Sans une intervention immédiate, leur nombre pourrait augmenter à 120 000 en juin 2017.

L’insécurité alimentaire est l’une des causes sous-jacentes de la malnutrition et de la mortalité qu’elle entraîne, qui atteignent l’une et l’autre des niveaux critiques. Dans la plupart des zones affectées par des conflits, les taux de prévalence de la malnutrition ont dépassé le seul d’urgence de 15 % de malnutrition aiguë globale (MAG). Dans toute la région, plus d’un demi-million d’enfants sont gravement malnutris (UNICEF). Au Nigéria, on dénombre jusqu’à 450 000 enfants qui, dans les 12 prochains mois, seront exposés au risque de malnutrition aiguë sévère (MAS) et d’un affaiblissement de leur immunité contre des maladies de base telles que le paludisme, dans les États de Borno, d’Adamawa et de Yobe, dont 300 000 dans le seul État de Borno. Sans traitement médical approprié, près d’un enfant sur cinq souffrant de malnutrition aiguë sévère (MAS) décédera probablement (ce qui représente près de 75 000 enfants). On estime qu’une part importante de ces enfants a probablement déjà perdu la vie. Les points d’intervention qui prennent en charge les enfants malnutris présentant des complications médicales sont trop peu nombreux. Or ces enfants ont besoin d’une assistance immédiate.

Dans les trois États les plus touchés du Nigéria, la population vit essentiellement d’une agriculture de subsistance et d’activités agricoles saisonnières à petite échelle. Pour la troisième année consécutive, ces ressources ont été perdues par ceux qui les exploitaient, faute de pouvoir retourner sur les lieux de culture, par peur des attaques, du risque que représentent les engins et dispositifs explosifs improvisés, en raison de restrictions de circulation imposées par les militaires qui craignent l’infiltration de Boko Haram, et par manque d’intrants agricoles. Les déplacés internes, les rapatriés et les communautés d’accueil vulnérables continueront à dépendre de l’aide alimentaire en 2017 et au-delà si la situation en termes de sécurité ne s’améliore pas, et si des investissements dans des activités économiques durables ne sont pas réalisés en parallèle, là où cela s’avère possible.

PROBLÉMATIQUE SPÉCIFIQUE

La protection des points de délivrance de l’aide humanitaire

Des améliorations significatives en matière nutritionnelle et de sécurité alimentaire sont observées dans les localités accessibles où a été entreprise une réponse humanitaire globale, regroupant les volets nutrition, sécurité alimentaire, EAH (eau, assainissement, hygiène) et santé. Il est donc d’une extrême importance de renforcer la protection et l’accessibilité des points d’intervention, de manière à pouvoir venir en aide à tous ceux qui en ont besoin. La protection des groupes vulnérables, notamment les femmes et les enfants vivant dans des zones inaccessibles, pose de sérieux problèmes. Une part importante des populations en détresse ne reçoit toujours pas d’aide humanitaire en raison des entraves à la circulation. La situation en termes de sécurité, qui reste instable et imprévisible, constitue sans doute l’obstacle principal. Il est souvent nécessaire de recourir à des escortes militaires, sur des routes où la menace des attaques demeure élevée. Les opérations humanitaires sont toujours une cible pour les raids de Boko Haram, ainsi que l’ont tristement montré de récents événements  une attaque aux mines antichars contre un convoi d’aide alimentaire dans l’État de Borno, et un attentat-suicide à l’intérieur d’un camp de déplacés à Maiduguri.

Assister les plus vulnérables suppose une stratégie opérationnelle claire et applicable. La communauté humanitaire doit déployer des équipes d’intervention rapide (EIR) bien familiarisées avec le programme lui-même, la logistique, les techniques de communications et les négociations en matière de sécurité et d’accessibilité. Il est nécessaire de coordonner étroitement cette action et celle des instances institutionnelles nationales et locales, et de plaider pour un libre-accès garanti aux zones où se trouvent les populations affectées.
L’expérience recueillie dans d’autres contextes a clairement démontré l’efficacité des EIR lorsqu’il s’avère absolument nécessaire d’atteindre des populations confrontées à une insécurité alimentaire extrême.

La désorganisation des marchés et son impact sur les femmes, les jeunes et autres groupes de population vulnérables

Au fil des années, la conjonction du conflit et des catastrophes naturelles a augmenté à l’extrême la fragilité des ménages et des communautés humaines dans la partie nord-est du Nigéria et la région du Lac Tchad, en détruisant leurs moyens de subsistance et en entravant la circulation des marchandises et des personnes. Il en résulte des prix exorbitants des produits vivriers de base2 , ce qui constitue un obstacle supplémentaire, du point de vue de l’accès à l’alimentation comme de la qualité nutritive des aliments consommés.

Plus de 80 % de la population rurale du nord-est nigérian vit d’activités de culture, d’élevage et de pêche. L’agriculture a été gravement désorganisée par différents facteurs. Au cours des dernières années, la responsabilité de Boko Haram dans le saccage des récoltes, du bétail et du commerce des produits de la pêche a été fréquemment évoquée. Les restrictions en matière de circulation, les destructions d’infrastructures et la mise à l’arrêt de différents services ont également contribué à la diminution de la production agricole dans la totalité des zones touchées. La perturbation des voies de transhumance et des marchés au bétail impacte aussi la sécurité alimentaire et l’activité des quatre pays du pourtour du Lac Tchad, dont le fonctionnement économique local est fortement interdépendant.

Par ailleurs, les fermetures de frontières ont exercé une pression sur les échanges, limitant les approvisionnements et les ventes de marchandises et de services.3 Ces perturbations et pénuries affectant le système de production et de distribution alimentaire ont exacerbé les crises humanitaires, frappant spécialement les femmes et les jeunes, dont la situation précaire s’est encore aggravée au cœur d’un conflit caractérisé par les violences sexistes et les destructions de moyens de subsistance. Les femmes et les jeunes-filles sont souvent les premières à réduire leurs rations alimentaires, avec les répercussions qui s’ensuivent pour leur nutrition et leur santé – en particulier chez les femmes enceintes et allaitantes, dont les besoins nutritionnels se trouvent accrus, tant pour elles-mêmes que pour leurs enfants.

Lorsque la réponse humanitaire renforce la participation des femmes et des jeunes au système alimentaire, elle obtient des effets bénéfiques aussi bien dans l’immédiat qu’à long terme. Dans les quatre pays concernés, les femmes jouent un rôle important dans le commerce, la production, la transformation et la distribution de détail, mais n’en sont pas moins faiblement intégrées à la chaîne de création de valeur. Si 60 à 79 % de la main d’œuvre rurale sont constitués de femmes, les hommes ont cinq fois plus de chances d’être propriétaires d’une terre. Dans une étude menée dans le nord-est du Nigéria et autour du Lac Tchad à partir de 2015, 40 % des femmes citaient comme obstacle principal à une éventuelle participation à des activités économiques l’impossibilité où elles se trouvaient d’accéder physiquement aux marchés.4

1 En Afrique de l’Ouest, le Cadre Harmonisé remplace IPC, en appliquant les mêmes processus et protocoles. 2 WFP, Lake Chad Basin Crisis, 2016. 3. FEWSNET Assessment Nigeria, WFP VAM Regional Assessment. 4 UN Women and IFORD Situation of Women and Girls Facing the Humanitarian Crisis Generated by Boko Haram in Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon, 2015

Nigeria: Thematic Session Food Security : Background paper - Oslo Humanitarian Conference on Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region, 24 February 2017

24 February 2017 - 2:58pm
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

“Humanitarian food assistance to save lives today and secure the future for tomorrow by empowering women, children and youth.”

BACKGROUND

Food and nutrition security in North East Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region

Conflict fueled by socio-economic marginalization over time has caused immense human suffering across North Eastern Nigeria and parts of Niger, Chad and Cameroon. The prolonged humanitarian crisis in the wake of the Boko Haram insurgency has had a devastating impact on food and nutrition security in the region leading to famine-like conditions in some areas. The food system is under severe stress at several levels. Vital infrastructure is destroyed, commercial trade and markets are vastly disrupted and essential services including schools and hospitals are no longer functional. The region was already hard hit by climate-induced disasters like increased drought or desertification, as well as by an overuse of natural resources.

Across North East Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region, some seven million people are struggling with food insecurity and need urgent food assistance: 5.1 million in North East Nigeria, 1.5 million in Cameroon, 340,000 in Niger and close to 160,000 in Chad. Food security is expected to deteriorate until at least mid-2017.

According to the multi-stakeholder Cadre Harmonisé Analysis 1 conducted in Nigeria in October 2016, about 5 million people are in crisis and emergency phases of food and nutrition insecurity (IPC phase 3-4), nearly twice as many as in March 2016. This figure is projected to rise to 5.8 million people by June 2017. In the worst affected and least accessible areas of Borno and Yobe States, 55,000 people are estimated to be experiencing famine-like conditions and the figure is projected to increase to 120,000 by June 2017 unless immediate assistance is provided.

Food insecurity is one of the underlying causes of malnutrition and related mortality, which are also critically high. In most of the conflict-affected areas, malnutrition rates have surpassed the emergency threshold of 15 percent Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM). Throughout the region, more than half a million children are severely acutely malnourished (UNICEF). In Nigeria, up to 450,000 children are at risk of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and reduced immunity to basic illnesses such as malaria in the coming 12 months in Borno, Adamawa and Yobe, 300,000 in Borno alone. Almost one in five children suffering severe acute malnutrition (SAM) are likely to die (about 75,000 children) if they do not receive specialized treatment. Many are likely to have died already. There is a lack of service delivery points for malnourished children with medical complications. These children need assistance now.

The most affected three states in Nigeria are predominantly sustained by subsistence farming and small scale seasonal dependent agriculture. For a third consecutive year, these livelihoods have been disrupted as people cannot return to the land to cultivate due to threat of attack, risk of unexploded ordinance and improvised explosive devices, military restrictions for fear of Boko Haram infiltration and a lack of agricultural inputs. The IDPs, returnees and vulnerable host communities in these areas will continue to rely on humanitarian food assistance in 2017 and beyond if the security situation does not improve and parallel investment in sustainable livelihoods are not realized where possible.

CHALLENGES

Protection and Humanitarian access

Significant improvements in the food security and nutritional situation are noted in accessible places where an integrated humanitarian response including nutrition, food security, WASH and Health was undertaken. Hence enhancing protection and access to humanitarian assistance is of utmost importance in order to reach all those in need of assistance. There are serious concerns about the protection of vulnerable groups, including women and children living in the inaccessible areas. Large numbers of people are still not receiving humanitarian assistance, due to access constraints. The security situation remains fragile and unpredictable and is likely the most significant impediment to humanitarian access, often requiring military escorts on roads where threats of attack remain high. Humanitarian operations remain a target of Boko Haram raids as sadly shown by recent incidences, the Anti-Tank Mine attack on a food convoy in Borno State and the suicide bombing inside an IDP camp in Maiduguri.

Assisting the most vulnerable requires a clear and implementable operational strategy. The humanitarian community must deploy Rapid Response Teamsthat are well versed in program, logistics, communications, security and access negotiations. Co-ordinate closely with national and state institutions and advocate for guaranteed open and safe access to the affected population. There is clear evidence from elsewhere that RRTs are successful when there is an absolute and unquestionable need to reach those people facing extreme food insecurity.

Markets disruptions and impact on women, youth and other vulnerable groups

Over time, the conflict and natural disasters have exacerbated household and community vulnerability in North East Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region by destroying livelihoods and disrupting movement of goods and people. This hasled to extremely high prices of staple food crops2 further hampering people’s access to food and a healthy diet.

More than 80 percent of the rural population in the North East depend on crops, livestock and fishing activities. Farming activities have been heavily disrupted by different factors. Over the past few years the involvement of Boko Haram in the looting of harvests, cattle and fish trade around Lake Chad has been widely reported. The restriction of movement, the destruction of infrastructure and the disruption of services have also contributed to the decrease in agricultural production throughout the affected areas. The perturbation of transhumance flows and livestock markets are also impacting the food security and livelihoods in the four countries, whose local economies are strongly integrated and interdependent around the Lake Chad.

Border closures have also exerted pressure on trade, limiting supply and sale of goods and services. 3 These food system flaws, disruptions, and breakages have exacerbated the humanitarian crises and especially impacted women and youth significantly, further aggravating their precarious situation in an armed conflict that is characterized by genderbased violence and livelihoods destruction. Women and girls particularly are often the first to reduce their food intake, with negative repercussions for their nutrition and health— especially when women are pregnant or lactating, leading to increased nutritional needs for themselves and their children.

When a humanitarian response enhances women and youth participation in food systems, there are both immediate and long-term benefits. Across the four countries women play an important role as traders, producers, processors and retailers, yet they are often poorly integrated in the value chain. While between 60 to 79 percent of the rural work force are women, men are five times more likely to own land. In a study in North East Nigeria and around the Lake Chad from 2015, 40 percent of women cited the physical lack of access to markets as the main barrier to participating in economic activities.

OPPORTUNITIES

The success of the humanitarian response will depend on (1) how quickly the humanitarian situation is tackled now to stabilize and improve food and nutrition security over the next 10-12 months; and (2) capitalize on opportunities for recovery and development with special emphasis on women, children and young adults.

It is paramount that immediate food assistance and nutrition support is provided to the affected people. Where ever possible, concrete measures should be undertaken to ensure that affected people can revive their livelihood activities including agricultural production to contribute towards their short and the long-term food security and nutritional wellbeing.

Women, children, and youth are the most affected requiring the greatest attention during the relief efforts. They also deserve attention as agents of vigorous, sustained, and inclusive future economic growth. Humanitarian assistance must address food and nutrition insecurities but can also contribute to strengthen local food systems, reviving trade and markets and increasing household resilience to future shocks, and contributing to overall community development by investing in human and social capital necessary for the advancement of the local communities.
The following are only some of the opportunities that can be realized through humanitarian response:

  1. Strengthen Rapid Response mechanisms to assist people in hard to reach locations.
    Recognize that food security response is part of a broader lifesaving response including nutrition, WASH and health interventions.

  2. Deploy market based humanitarian response options like cash and voucher wherever feasible, specifically to reach and empower vulnerable women.

  3. Design the humanitarian response to enhance women’s participation in food markets to take advantage of multiplier effects that cash and voucher based transfers generate to specifically promote women’s economic empowerment and entrepreneurship.

  4. Within the food assistance response, use small-holder friendly procurement modalities by focusing on crops traditionally grown by women and youth to enhance their participation in market initiatives.

  5. Where possible, empower women and youth and their organization through the provision of technical and organizational skills, critical inputs, small-scale agro processing units, alternative source of energy, improved access to credit and services as well as by supporting their inclusion in local governance processes and private sector development.

  6. Strengthening information systems to assess and monitor the situation of women, children and youth for enhanced advocacy to address their specific needs 7. Invest further in innovative tools, fast tracked smallholder agriculture production and small scale livelihoods activities to boost production, strengthen market systems, and cross-border trade.

KEY ASKS

(1) Demand protection and humanitarian access to ensure that all vulnerable households in need of urgent humanitarian assistance are reached safely on a regular basis. This includes the strengthening of the Rapid Response Teams.

(2) Put food security and nutrition at the heart of the humanitarian response with a special focus on women, children and youth. Increase advocacy for the needs of women and children.

(3) Respond to the urgent need for coordinated support to food assistance and agriculture based livelihood to boost production and markets during the June 2017 rainy season with a special focus women’s economic empowerment and entrepreneurship.
While providing humanitarian assistance, strengthen resilience of the affected people where feasible to help address the symptoms and structural consequences of food insecurity, malnutrition and unemployment in the region.

1 In West Africa, the Cadre Harmonisé replaces the IPC. It follows similar processes and protocols.

2 WFP, Lake Chad Basin Crisis, 2016.

3 FEWSNET Assessment Nigeria, WFP VAM Regional Assessment.

4 UN Women and IFORD Situation of Women and Girls Facing the Humanitarian Crisis Generated by Boko Haram in Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon, 2015

Nigeria: Session de réflexion thématique relative à l’éducation en situation d’urgence humanitaire : Document de travail - Conférence humanitaire d’Oslo relative au Nigéria et à la région du Lac Tchad, 24 février 2017

24 February 2017 - 2:47pm
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

La conjonction de plusieurs facteurs a conduit à la crise humanitaire complexe que connaissent actuellement le Nigéria et la région du Lac Tchad : un conflit, la pauvreté et le changement climatique, fléaux auxquels vient s’ajouter la menace omniprésente de Boko Haram. Ce mouvement armé qui cible expressément l’instruction s’est déjà distingué en attaquant et détruisant des écoles dans un environnement où le travail éducatif était déjà éminemment difficile.

La session de réflexion thématique sur le Nigéria et la région du Lac Tchad sur l’éducation en situation d’urgence humanitaire s’inscrira dans la perspective de la Conférence Humanitaire d’Oslo consacrée à cette même région, dont elle viendra soutenir les objectifs. Les discussions seront aiguillées vers les investissements et partenariats stratégiques susceptibles d’assurer une action d’urgence efficace, tout en permettant de restaurer et renforcer les systèmes éducatifs, selon les lignes définies dans l’Agenda 2030. L’engagement de la communauté internationale en faveur des objectifs de développement durable ne pourra déboucher sur des résultats sans inclure dans cet effort les questions relatives aux enfants et aux jeunes affectés par des conflits et des déplacements de populations.

Les difficultés rencontrées par l’action éducative dans le Bassin du Lac Tchad.
Le Nigéria, le Tchad, le Cameroun et le Niger comptent au total 14 millions d’enfants en âge de fréquenter l’école primaire et qui se trouvent déscolarisés, dont 10,5 millions pour le seul Nigéria.
Dans le bassin du Lac Tchad, 3,36 millions d’enfants et d’adolescents en âge scolaire (de 3 à 17 ans) sont touchés par le conflit et ont besoin d’une aide humanitaire d’urgence. 75 000 d’entre eux sont des réfugiés (HCR). Les différentes crises, l’insuffisance des ressources, les inégalités socio-économiques, l’insécurité, la sévère pénurie de locaux, le phénomène chronique des déplacements de populations, la surexploitation des capacités institutionnelles et humaines ont exacerbé les faiblesses des structures éducatives, en termes d’accessibilité comme de qualité de l’enseignement dispensé. Or la déficience scolaire a beaucoup aggravé la vulnérabilité des enfants et des adolescents, et accru les risques qu’ils ne soient recrutés par des groupes armés (NGA HNO 2017).

Avant la crise, la région de Diffa, au Niger, enregistrait les taux d’enrôlement les plus faibles du pays. Dans les zones les plus périphériques du Tchad et du Cameroun, les difficultés sont considérables lorsqu’il s’agit de dispenser à tous les enfants, filles et garçons, un enseignement de qualité. Dans l’Extrême Nord camerounais et dans l’État d’Adamawa, au Nigéria, les chiffres de la non-scolarisation atteignaient 35 %, et même 44,6 % dans l’État de Borno. Les paramètres entrant ici en jeu sont le sexe, l’appartenance ethnique, la situation géographique et l’éventuel handicap. Ainsi une fille issue d’une famille très pauvre du nord-est nigérian a-t-elle très peu de chances d’être scolarisée.

Les enseignants et les étudiants ont été retenus en captivité et intimidés, blessés, voire assassinés.
Dans le nord-est du Nigéria, au moins 611 enseignants ont été délibérément tués depuis 2009, et 19 000 autres contraints à la fuite. Plus de 2 000 personnes, dont beaucoup de femmes, ont été enlevées par Boko Haram, souvent dans les locaux des écoles, tandis que des milliers d’étudiants et de professeurs étaient blessés, parfois au cours d’attentats-suicides. Au Niger, trois attaques sur des écoles ont été rapportées dans la région de Diffa entre juin et novembre 2016.

De nombreux établissements sont hors d’usage en raison de dégâts ou de destructions totales, ou parce qu’ils abritent des familles déplacées, ou encore sont occupés par des groupes armés ou des forces de sécurité. Dans le nord-est du Nigéria, 1 500 écoles ont été détruites depuis 2015.

Aujourd’hui, dans le seul État de Borno, 1 073 écoles (56 %) restent fermées, et quatre sont utilisées à des fins militaires par les forces de sécurité nigérianes. À l’heure actuelle, dans l’Extrême Nord camerounais, 10 établissements primaires et secondaires sont toujours occupés dans un but militaire et 144 autres ont fermé en raison de l’insécurité.

Même si l’accès aux écoles publiques reste possible, la langue d’enseignement pose problème, ce qui empêche les enfants nigérians de poursuivre leur scolarité.

Des cadres réglementaires inappropriés lorsqu’il s’agit de la relation entre apprentissage formel et non formel, limitent, pour les enfants et les adolescents, les possibilités d’une transition vers une scolarité formelle. Concevoir des programmes d’enseignement accéléré, y affecter des ressources et les mettre en œuvre, constitue un défi majeur pour le secteur éducatif des quatre pays concernés.
Cependant, les investissements dans le domaine éducatif représentent un potentiel de réinsertion des enfants dans une scolarité formelle, avec la possibilité pour eux d’acquérir une instruction de base et des savoir-faire vitaux, et ils contribuent à de plus amples efforts pour stabiliser et reconstruire les régions touchées.

Les ministères de l’Éducation des quatre pays coordonnent et mettent en œuvre leur action éducative. Les autorités responsables travaillent avec les agences de l’ONU et des ONG partenaires pour dispenser un enseignement de qualité. Elles s’efforcent en particulier de faciliter l’intégration pacifique des enfants déplacés des deux sexes dans les établissements scolaires des communautés qui les accueillent, de fournir des services éducatifs aux enfants et adolescents présents dans les camps de réfugiés (Tchad et Cameroun), et de proposer des programmes d’apprentissage accéléré et à distance aux enfants déscolarisés. Ces mêmes instances travaillent également à renforcer la sécurité dans les écoles.

Le secteur éducatif reste l’un de ceux les moins financés. Sur les 33,7 millions de dollars US requis par le Plan d’action humanitaire pour l’Éducation de 2016, le système éducatif n’a effectivement reçu qu’un faible pourcentage au Nigéria (26,1 %), au Tchad (73 % y compris le financement accéléré du fonds GPE), au Cameroun (7,7 %) et au Niger (13 %). Cette année, la somme nécessaire à l’action éducative d’urgence pour le Nigéria et le bassin du Lac Tchad se monte à 84 millions de dollars.
La violence et l’insécurité actuelles auront des répercussions dans les années à venir. Lorsqu’un enfant est déplacé durant plus de six mois, la probabilité est forte que cette situation se prolonge jusqu’à trois années ou davantage – avec le risque que l’enfant ne réintègre plus jamais l’école.

Possibilités et exigences fondamentales :

Pour éviter de voir émerger une nouvelle « génération perdue », il sera capital de satisfaire aux exigences suivantes :

  1. Donner la priorité au financement éducatif pour le Nigéria et la région du Lac Tchad. Un financement accru, à la fois souple et prévisible à long terme, sera nécessaire pour répondre aux besoins éducatifs des enfants et adolescents concernés par les déplacements de populations. Les gouvernements des États d’accueil et les enfants eux-mêmes ont besoin que les donateurs s’engagent sur une durée de trois à cinq ans. C’est là un point essentiel pour faire en sorte que ces enfants et adolescents restent scolarisés et pour assurer le développement à long terme du système éducatif. Le but, pour l’année 2017, est d’inclure dans cette action 2 millions de filles et garçons (dont 75 000 réfugiés) répartis dans toute la région (HRP).

  2. Protéger les enfants à travers la scolarisation : soutenir et systématiser les efforts existants, en créant des environnements d’apprentissage protecteurs, un soutien psycho-social quotidien dans l’espace scolaire, la préparation et la mise en application de plans d’urgence fondés sur l’école, et autres programmes reliant les efforts éducatifs et la protection de l’enfance au sein des communautés. Les investissements sont aussi nécessaires dans les infrastructures scolaires et pour le recrutement, la formation et le déploiement sur le terrain d’enseignants qualifiés, ainsi que la fourniture de matériel d’apprentissage et d’enseignement adéquats.

  3. Ne laisser aucun enfant sur le bord de la route. Développer et/ou lancer rapidement des programmes d’apprentissage appropriés et d’application flexible, permettant d’inclure dans l’action éducative les enfants et adolescents vulnérables et ceux les plus affectés par les conséquences du conflit. Ceci suppose notamment des programmes d’enseignement accéléré ou à distance, ou visant un apprentissage non formel.

  4. Protéger l’école : renforcer le plaidoyer qui permettra de faire cesser les attaques perpétrées contre les établissements, les équipements et les personnels éducatifs.
    Encourager les gouvernements à souscrire à la Déclaration sur la sécurité dans les écoles et aux Lignes directrices pour la protection des écoles et des universités contre l'utilisation militaire durant les conflits armés, et à appliquer ces deux textes.

  5. Soutenir les gouvernements et leurs partenaires dans la reconstruction et le renforcement des systèmes éducatifs nationaux, dans l’esprit des engagements internationaux formulés dans l’Agenda 2030.

  6. Resserrer la collaboration entre les États et les acteurs du travail humanitaire et de développement, pour une meilleure efficacité de l’intervention d’urgence. Préparer des stratégies régionales, afin de faciliter une programmation durable à long terme, incluant le retour des enfants et adolescents réfugiés à une éducation de qualité, mais aussi la nécessité de disposer d’environnements scolaires protecteurs.

  7. Renforcer les systèmes de gestion des données et de l’information, et la communication, pour permettre une réponse efficace, une analyse en profondeur par secteur, tenant compte des facteurs liés au conflit et au sexe des enfants, en vue de préparer la transition, ainsi que des activités de planification du futur développement.

Nigeria: Background paper for the Thematic Session on Education in Emergencies - Oslo Humanitarian Conference on Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region, 24 February 2017

24 February 2017 - 2:44pm
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

A number of overlapping factors have led to the complex humanitarian crisis in Nigeria and the Lake Chad basin region: conflict, poverty and climate change. Further compounding these burdens is the pervasive menace of Boko Haram. This armed movement, which specifically opposes education, has a track record of attacking and destroying schools in an already challenging environment for education.
The Nigeria and Lake Chad Region Thematic Session on Education in Emergencies will support the objectives of the Oslo Humanitarian Conference on Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region. It will guide discussions on key strategic investments and partnerships to ensure an effective emergency response while enabling the rehabilitation and strengthening of education systems in line with Agenda 2030. The global community will not be able to fulfil its commitment to the SDG Agenda without including children and youth affected by conflict and displacement.

Challenges in delivering education in the Lake Chad Basin Nigeria, Chad, Cameroon and Niger account for 14 million primary school age children who are out of school across the four countries, and 10.5 million of these out-of-school children are to be found in Nigeria. In the region surrounding Lake Chad a total of 3.36 million school aged children and youth (aged 3-17 years) are affected by the conflict and are in urgent need of humanitarian assistance. Of these children, 75 000 are refugees (UNHCR). Various crises, scant resources, socio-economic inequalities, insecurity, severe shortage of classrooms, chronic displacements, and overstretched institutional and human capacities have exacerbated the already low quality of and access to education. Inadequate access to education has greatly increased the vulnerability of children and youth, and made them even more susceptible to recruitment by armed groups (NGA HNO 2017).

Before the crisis, the Diffa region in Niger had the lowest enrolment rates in the country. In the most remote areas of Chad and Cameroon, the task of providing quality education to all girls and boys entailed considerable challenges. In the extreme north of Cameroon and in Adamawa in Nigeria, the out-of-school figures were as high as 35%. And in Borno in Nigeria even as high as 44.6%. Underlying factors for children being out of school are gender, ethnicity, geography and disability. A girl from the poorest household in north-eastern Nigeria is unlikely to go to school.

Teachers and students have been detained and intimidated, injured and sometimes killed.
In northeast Nigeria, at least 611 teachers have been deliberately killed and a further 19 000 have been forced to flee since 2009. More than 2 000 people, many of them female, have been abducted by Boko Haram, in many cases from their schools. Thousands more students and teachers have been injured, some in deadly suicide bombs. In Niger three attacks on schools were reported in the Diffa region between June and November 2016.

Many schools can no longer be used because they have been damaged, destroyed, are sheltering displaced families, or are occupied by armed groups or security forces. In northeastern Nigeria, more than 1 500 schools have been destroyed since 2015. Today, in Borno alone, 1073 schools (56%) remain closed and four schools in the north east of the country are being used for military purposes by the Nigerian security forces. In the extreme north of Cameroon, 10 primary and secondary schools remain occupied and are being used for military purposes and 144 schools have closed down due to insecurity.
Even where there is access to national schools, the language of instruction is a challenge, and this prevents Nigerian children from continuing their education.

Inadequate regulatory frameworks linking formal and non-formal education are limiting the opportunities for children and youth to transition to formal education. Designing, resourcing and implementing accelerated learning programmes is a major challenge for the education sector across the four countries. Yet, investments in education have the potential to help children re-enter formal education, gain a basic education and life skills, and contribute to broader efforts to stabilise and rebuild the affected regions.
Ministries of education in the four countries are coordinating and implementing the education response. Education authorities are working with UN agencies and NGO partners to provide access to quality education. In particular, they are working to facilitate the peaceful integration of displaced girls and boys into host community schools, to provide education services for refugee children and youth in the camps (Chad and Cameroon), and to offer accelerated and distance learning programmes to children who are out of school. The authorities are also working to improve security in schools.

The education sector remains one of the most underfunded sectors. Out of the total of USD 33.7 million requested in the 2016 Humanitarian Response Plan for education, only a small percentage went to the funding of education: 26.1% in Nigeria; 73% (including GPE accelerated funding) in Chad; 7.7% in Cameroon; and 13% in Niger. This year the funding needed for education in Nigeria and the Lake Chad Basin crisis is USD 84 million.

Violence and insecurity have repercussions for years to come. When a child is displaced for more than six months, there is a high probability that he or she will remain displaced for up to three years or longer – and may never have the chance to get back into school.

Opportunities and key asks:

The following asks are crucial in order to avoid another ‘lost generation’:

  1. Prioritise funding for education in Nigeria and the Lake Chad region. Increased, longterm predictable and flexible financing is necessary to meet the education needs of children and youth affected by the displacement crises. Host governments and affected children need donors to make three- to five-year commitments. This is essential in order to keep children and youth in school and ensure sustainable education-system expansion. The aim in 2017 is to reach 2 million girls and boys, (including 75 000 refugees) across the region (HRP).

  2. Protect children through education. Sustain and systematise existing efforts to create protective learning environments, day-to-day provision of psychosocial support in the classroom, preparation and implementation of school-based emergency plans and other programmes linking education and child protection efforts in communities. Investments are also needed in education infrastructure, in the recruitment, training and deployment of qualified teachers, and in adequate learning and teaching materials.

  3. Leave no one behind. Rapidly establish/expand quality, flexible learning programmes that can also reach the most vulnerable children and youth, and those who are most affected by the consequences of the conflict. This includes accelerated and distance education programmes and non-formal education programmes.

  4. Protect education. Step up advocacy to stop attacks on schools, education facilities and personnel. Encourage governments to endorse and implement the Safe Schools Declaration and Guidelines for Protecting Schools and Universities from Military Use during Armed Conflict.

  5. Support governments and partners in rebuilding and strengthening national education systems in line with the global commitments set out in Agenda 2030.

  6. Strengthen collaboration between governments, and humanitarian and development actors to facilitate effective emergency response. Prepare regional strategies to facilitate sustainable long-term planning and programming, including for the return of refugee children and youth to quality education, and for protective learning environments.

  7. Strengthen data and information management systems and communication to enable an effective response, an in-depth conflict- and gender-sensitive sector analysis in preparation for transitional and development planning activities.

Nigeria: Denmark donates DKK 20 million to child victims of Boko Haram

24 February 2017 - 2:26pm
Source: Government of Denmark Country: Denmark, Niger, Nigeria

The Danish government is donating DKK 20 million towards Unicef’s efforts to help children and former child soldiers who have fled the terrorist movement Boko Haram in Nigeria and neighbouring countries. Boko Haram has forced 2.2 million people from their homes. The 20 million Danish Kroner donation to Unicef will be announced today at a donor conference in Oslo on the humanitarian crisis in Nigeria and the region around Lake Chad.

The Minister for Development Cooperation Ulla Tørnæs says:

“On my trip to Niger in January this year, I witnessed the poverty and instability that prevails in large parts of the region. It affects innocent children and their families. The countries do not have the resources to deal with the large amounts of people who have been displaced and have fled because of the conflict with Boko Haram. This is why we are donating a further DKK 20 million in humanitarian aid to Nigeria and its neighbouring countries.”

Ulla Tørnæs notes that the scope of the humanitarian crisis is extremely serious, not least for the many internally displaced persons in Nigeria. The Danish aid to Unicef will include treatment of malnourished children, access to drinking water and education as well as the reintegration of child soldiers.

“This is a humanitarian tragedy, which must not be forgotten by the international community. In addition, Denmark will continue its efforts to strengthen the countries’ ability to resist radicalisation and instability,” emphasises the Minister for Development Cooperation.

Over 10 million people are estimated to be in need of help, not least due to the serious food shortage and instability that has been exacerbated by the terrorist movement Boko Haram.

At the Oslo conference, Denmark will also highlight the need to ensure that international humanitarian aid goes hand in hand with development cooperation and stabilisation efforts.

In 2016, Denmark contributed DKK 31.6 million in humanitarian aid to the victims of Boko Haram. The crisis around Lake Chad is closely linked with developments in the Sahel region, where Denmark has a well-integrated, broad-spectrum commitment that includes humanitarian aid, stabilisation efforts and long-term development cooperation with countries including Niger.

For further press information:

Poul Kjar, +45 41865975

Nigeria: Lake Chad Basin Emergency Response Plan 2017

24 February 2017 - 12:52pm
Source: World Health Organization Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

Funding requirements

Health sector funding requirements for 2017

(health partners including WHO)
• Cameroon: US$ 11 646 815
• Chad: US$ 10 669 960
• Niger: US$ 9 000 243
• Nigeria US$ 93 827 598

Total: US$ 125 144 616

Beneficiaries targeted by health partners in 2017

In the Lake Chad Basin, health partners will target more than 8.2 million people in 2017. These include:
• Cameroon 767 000
• Chad 233 000
• Niger 325 000
• Nigeria 6 900 000

Background

The Lake Chad Basin emergency affects some 17 million people across north-eastern Nigeria, northern Cameroon, western Chad and south-east Niger. The effects of conflict, climate change, environmental degradation, poverty and underinvestment in social services have combined to bring about deepening insecurity, rapid population growth and severe vulnerability. This has translated into 11 million people needing humanitarian assistance. More than 2.3 million people have fled their homes. Vital infrastructure such as health centres, schools, water pipelines, bridges and roads have been destroyed and millions of people have limited or no access to basic services.

Health sector situation

Across the Lake Chad Basin, almost one third of the population is struck by food insecurity. Malnutrition and related mortality are critically high. In most conflict-affected areas, malnutrition rates have surpassed the emergency threshold. More than 500 000 children are severely acutely malnourished, of whom 75 000 could die without urgent assistance.

Cameroon

Cross-border raids, suicide bombings and heightened insecurity have caused massive displacements and deprivation of communities in the Far North region. The number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) reached around 200,000 by October 2016. This has resulted in a sharp increase of humanitarian needs for IDPs and host communities, who were already vulnerable before the crisis. Food insecurity remains alarmingly high. Access to basic services in the conflict-affected areas has been severed or severely diminished. Health centers, whose access and quality of services were already limited, are overwhelmed. Some 21 health centres have closed due to insecurity.

Health sector objectives

Objective 1: Ensure access to essential health care for 1.2 million people by supporting 70 health facilities with 140 additional staff, delivering 100 Interagency Emergency Health Kits and providing comprehensive immunization for 240 000 children under 5 and 6 000 pregnant women.

Objective 2: Procure essential commodities for safe delivery and distribute 5000 dignity kits for 60 000 pregnant women.

Objective 3: Implement a comprehensive package for HIV/AIDS services for 60 000 pregnant women and their children and 30 000 IDPs and host communities.

Chad

Insecurity persists along Chad’s western Lac region. The resulting population displacement has accentuated the vulnerability of both those forced to flee the violence and the communities hosting them, many of who already needed assistance. The influx of displaced people is exerting pressure on resources.

Lac region has only 10 doctors. Global Acute Malnutrition in this region now stands at 12.2%, while severe acute malnutrition is 2.1%, which is above the emergency threshold.

Health sector objectives

To reduce the risk of disease, particularly cholera, measles and polio it is critical to:

Objective 1: Strengthen epidemiological surveillance and outreach to 125 000 displaced persons.

Objective 2: Improve access to primary health care for 187 000 people from both displaced and host communities through access to medicines (for malaria, yellow fever), mobile clinics and support to health centres.

Niger

Recurrent attacks by Boko Haram have resulted in the displacement of more than 300 000 people (IDPs, refugees and returnees) in south-east Niger. Some have been forced to flee multiple times. Already limited basic services and resources are overstretched in a region where communities have long grappled with food insecurity, malnutrition and cyclic droughts and floods.

Insecurity and recurrent attacks regularly disrupt health, water and other essential services. In 2017, some 340 000 people face food insecurity, around 12 000 children will be severely malnourished and almost 45 000 will suffer from moderate malnutrition.

Health sector objectives

Objective 1: Increase access to health services through mobile clinics, free medical consultations and prepositioning of contingency medical supplies.

Objective 2: Establish an early warning system to respond to potential disease outbreaks.

Objective 3: Ensure vaccinations of at least 10 500 children not covered under routine immunization campaigns.

Objective 4: Set up emergency response mechanisms to ensure response to sexual and gender-based violence as well as sexually transmitted diseases, and reinforce mental health services and psychological support to people affected by trauma.

Nigeria

The long-running Boko Haram-linked conflict has devastated communities of north-eastern Nigeria, compounding the poverty and underdevelopment in the area. More than 8 million people across Borno, Adamawa and Yobe States require humanitarian assistance. Food insecurity in the three states has almost doubled and almost 2 million people have been displaced.

Health sector objectives

Objective 1: Provide assistance to 5.9 million people, including 1.7 million IDPs and 4.2 million people in host communities, through services for reproductive health, maternal and child health, gender-based violence and the management of malnutrition and non-communicable diseases.

Objective 2: Establish, expand and strengthen communicable disease surveillance and outbreak prevention, control and response.

Objective 3: Strengthen coordination and health system restoration to improve life-saving response for people in need.

Nigeria: Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator Stephen O’Brien Remarks to the press at the Oslo Humanitarian Conference on Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region Oslo, 24 February 2017

24 February 2017 - 12:01pm
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

We have a humanitarian crisis in the Lake Chad Region which is truly massive: a staggering 10.7 million people need immediate humanitarian assistance – that is twice the population of Norway as a whole – and who urgently need life-saving relief and protection tonight. And 8.5 million of that 10.7 million are in north-eastern Nigeria around the epicenter of Maiduguri.

With our international community’s increased support, beginning today, affected families and communities - and that includes these very important first responders and host communities who often have very little for themselves but are the ones who step up first and support people who have had to flee through no fault of their own - if we don’t step up, they will all face a life of hunger, even famine in some areas of north-east Nigeria, as announced on Tuesday at the United Nations – so disease, gender-based violence and continued displacement accompany all that. Children will face a bleak future of illiteracy, malnutrition, risk of forced recruitment into armed groups and premature death.

Today, I have launched the Nigeria Humanitarian Fund to support life-saving operations in the North-East. This fund will enable donors to pool their contributions to deliver a more effective, collective and immediate response and I have encouraged all donors to support this initiative. I am deeply grateful to those who have already so committed. What lies behind this is that catastrophes such as a famine can be averted now if we step up in a timely, sufficiently advanced manner.

We are sending a very clear message today: as the international community is stepping up, and is supporting a scale-up, supporting the governments of the region, we can stop and reverse a further descent into an ever-deepening crisis with unimaginable consequences for millions of people and an entire generation of children and youth.

With [the affected] governments, in concert with those governments, and the leadership in-country – and local governments – we, the international community representing all the people behind the governments of those who donate, the UN agencies, the ICRC, the local and international NGOs, we can bring hope.

The UN and our partners in Nigeria have already been reaching 2.1 million people with food assistance, over four million with emergency care and over 1.7 million with water and sanitation, despite the high-risk environment of reaching people with access. We already have a track record of success behind which the donors can generously get behind and back us as we now see the compound factors leading to the need for scale-up.

Particular for this region, the humanitarian appeal is for US$1.5 billion for the Lake Chad Basin region in 2017. And in one morning, we have raised a third of that. That is genuine success for 2017. We have other [donors] who will be able to come in in the course of the coming months as their transition of budgetary cycles allow, and that will help us aim for our target which will help the neighbours meet all the needs as we have seen them. So I am deeply grateful for the support. We have the ability therefore to deliver on a plan, and to step up. We are ready, we need the finance, and I am delighted that as finances are coming in, we can save lives.

World: Watch List 2017, Special Report N°3 | 24 February 2017

24 February 2017 - 11:38am
Source: International Crisis Group Country: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Cameroon, Chad, Libya, Mali, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Somalia, Syrian Arab Republic, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

Global Overview

Whether unprecedented or not, the challenges currently facing our global security are immense and cause for considerable alarm. It is difficult to think of a time in recent history when there has been such a confluence of destabilising factors – local, regional and global – hindering collective capacity to better manage violence. These overlapping risks, unchecked, could coalesce into a major crisis – indeed we are currently experiencing a spike in global conflict violence – without the safety net of solid structures to deal with it.

When Crisis Group was founded, its premise was that bringing field-based expert analysis to the attention of (principally) Western policymakers could effect positive change in both preventing and ending situations of deadly conflict. Much of that premise still holds, but for us, as for others, it is no longer sufficient: the West can no longer be viewed either as homogenous or an oasis of tranquility. Increasingly, too, its self-projected image as an unalloyed force for good is becoming exposed. Greater efforts are needed, and urgently, both to understand better the growing dangers of conflict seeping from one arena to another; and to engage a broader array of actors with the capacity to effect positive change.

This document seeks to do two things. First, it aims to highlight those conflicts which Crisis Group believes threaten to worsen significantly unless remedial action is taken. Inevitably perhaps, the countries selected represent a partial snapshot. For that reason we place them explicitly in their regional contexts. But even so, strong arguments can be made for the inclusion of others: examples include Afghanistan, Ukraine, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the South China Sea and Democratic Republic of Congo. A case could be made, too, for the Western Balkans, perhaps, or Central Asian states. That we could provide a rival, equally valid list is itself cause for concern. For each conflict, we seek to indicate the contours of possible policy responses based on ground-up analysis. In putting forward tentative prescriptions, our principal target is the European Union (EU), its institutions and member states, whether working directly or in conjunction with others. An underlying premise of this report is our belief that the EU has the potential – indeed faces an imperative – to bring to bear all the tools at its disposal fully to do its bit, in concert with others, to preserve the threatened field of conflict prevention.

Second, the list can be read as one document. Percolating through it are the range of interlinked dangers and stresses that makes this era so perilous. Essentially, these can be distilled down to three. First, an increasing fusion of the domestic with the international. Second, a sense of crisis overload. And third, growing uncertainty about hitherto assumed structures and institutions to collectively manage danger.

All ten conflicts possess international dimensions, in many instances overwhelmingly so. In such crowded landscapes – with a multitude of actors and equally broad range of motivations – navigating a route to peace becomes immeasurably more difficult. The growing prevalence of non-state armed groups and in some instances their propensity to fracture, together with the blending of licit and illicit economies, churns yet more this complex terrain. This increasing fusion of local and global is reflected further in heightened nationalism and ideological dogmatism, with – as things stand – the triumph of policies designed to cater to short-term tactical imperatives as much if not more than preserving or ensuring long-term stability. This can be seen in burgeoning intolerance to the mass movement of people, as actions are taken to stem or push back the flow without trying adequately to address the reasons why such movement is underway on such an unprecedented scale.

It can be witnessed in the resort to muscular security responses that can neither fully contain the threat nor address its underlying causes. And it is manifested in some actors resorting too readily to the rallying cry of counter- terrorism, with its playbook of repressive measures and eschewing the very inclusivity invariably essential to sustained peace. In the balance between soft and hard power, the latter currently is dominant.

All this, of course, is playing out against – and in part driven by – a growing diffusion of power globally. This in and of itself is not a bad thing, but the uncertainties such a shift throws up are cause for concern. Further, the stresses to which Europe is currently exposed; the revival of geopolitics; and uncertainty about the future direction of the trans-Atlantic alliance and the underlying commitment to the UN of its traditional power-brokers, represent significant challenges to hitherto durable assumptions about the role of international institutions and law, and the web of alliances built up in the past 70 years. So far so gloomy (and without touching on climate change or demographic trends). But this report also, we believe, contains within it ideas which might contribute to a needed course correction. In essence, it constitutes a call to learn old lessons amid these new dynamics.

What, in particular, might this mean for the EU? We posit two broad observations, outlined in more detail in the following pages. They sit on top of an underlying imperative to ensure that through their actions the EU and its member states do not contribute to generating further harm. In many instances where room for positive change is currently heavily circumscribed, avoiding worse constitutes progress.

First, we seek to identify what Europe’s leverage is with regards to specific conflicts and regions. Often it is indirect, but no less important for that. Frequently, too, we suggest it will involve maximising opportunities presented of shared interests and a division of responsibilities in their pursuit. In this regard, as in all others, speaking with as unified a voice as possible is imperative: dissonance can be exploited. Providing maximum support to the new UN Secretary-General in his efforts to revive that organisation’s work in conflict prevention must also be a priority.

Second, in virtually every crisis we cite, a better balance is required between the desire for quick impact and the need to put in place sustainable solutions. The two need not be at odds with each other – we should reject the notion that it is a binary choice. But it will require Europe to speak out more clearly in defence of core values – in deed, not simply rhetoric; to make clear that its humanitarian and development assistance is for those most in need, not solely for the pursuit of political ends; to nudge conflict parties toward pursuing peace through inclusive dialogue, not simply force; and to prioritise the pursuit of better models of governance, the absence of which is at the root of so many of today’s conflicts.

To some these may appear as thin reeds on which to float notions of charting a more positive course. But in the current atmosphere of uncertainty, through articulating clear, principled and strategic goals and how, tactically, it will seek to work toward them in conjunction with others, Europe has the opportunity to make a significant contribution toward a more stable and peaceful future. by dialogues with other regional organisations to develop an understanding

Nigeria: Lake Chad Basin Crisis and DG ECHO Support - ECHO Daily Map | 24/02/2017

24 February 2017 - 11:30am
Source: European Commission's Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

Nigeria: Statement on Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region in Oslo Humanitarian Conference

24 February 2017 - 10:57am
Source: World Health Organization Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

by Dr Rick Brennan, WHO Director of Emergency Operations

Oslo, Norway 24 February 2017

As several speakers have noted today, while there are enormous food security, nutrition and protection dimensions to the crisis in the Lake Chad Region, this is also a public health crisis, with rates of death, malnutrition and disease rarely seen over the past 20 years.

In Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region, lack of qualified health workers, essential medicines and the destruction of medical facilities hamper the delivery of lifesaving health care. Widespread food insecurity and malnutrition are associated with severe health consequences. As you know, malnutrition lowers the body’s capacity to fight infection – a malnourished child is far more prone to contract an infectious disease such as pneumonia, diarrhoea and measles – and then to die from that disease. As one of our local staff in Niger said to me once – between malnutrition and death, there is always disease.

All four countries in the Lake Chad Region have similar health priorities: rapidly expanding access to a package of essential health care – including child and reproductive health; boosting immunization rates; preventing, detecting and responding to disease outbreaks; effectively treating malnutrition and its consequences. We also must address psychosocial problems, sexual and gender-based violence, and violent trauma leading to physical injuries. Together, health sector partners seek to help 8.2 million people this year.

The most urgent needs are in north-eastern Nigeria, particularly Borno State. This is the heart of the Lake Chad Region crisis, where at least 6.9 million people, including 1.8 million internally displaced persons, urgently need the expansion of life-saving health services.

In Borno State, people in many communities have not received any form of health care in years due to conflict. A major health assessment by WHO found that 60% of health facilities are not functional. Of those facilities that are still functioning, only a modest proportion is supported by one or more of our 18 health sector partners. We invite more partners and ask for more resources to expand the response, and we know other sectors face similar capacity constraints.

Over 2016 there were serious outbreaks of measles and polio – in fact, the eradication of polio in Africa, and globally, is threatened by the crisis in Northern Nigeria. The risk of further disease outbreaks is compounded by weak surveillance networks and the limited capacities of outbreak alert and response. This also highlights the importance of a sub-regional approach for disease control across the four affected countries.

The situation is grave, but progress is being made. We are inspired by the spirit and resilience of the communities that we serve and we are doing what we can, where we can with the limited resources we have.

When local responders, WHO and health sector partners gain access, we see results. Government authorities are key to securing that access. Together we are operating over 100 mobile medical teams across Borno State that are providing life-saving services to the most vulnerable countries. We have increased disease surveillance to 160 sites covering 85% of internally displaced persons. Working with the governments, UNICEF and partners, together we vaccinated 10 million children across the region against polio and 4.7 million people against measles.

We need rapid disbursement of humanitarian funds and sustained commitments from partners to expand our impact. But during 2016, the health sector received only 32% of all requested funds across the region, including 22% for northern Nigeria. In 2017, the health sector has collectively appealed for US$ 125 million for the region. We can only hope that an appropriate proportion of the pledges committed today will be directed to health partners

Finally, we have repeatedly heard from speakers over the past two days that we must address the underlying causes of the crisis. No one appreciates this better than the health sector – where the principle that prevention is better than cure is one of our greatest truisms. Perhaps this can be the guiding principle that we apply collectively, as we commit to moving from providing humanitarian assistance to promoting integral human development in the Lake Chad Region and beyond.

Thank you

Nigeria: Oslo humanitarian conference for Nigeria and the Lake Chad region raises $672 million to help people in need

24 February 2017 - 10:49am
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Country: Cameroon, Chad, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Republic of Korea, Sweden, Switzerland
  • Pledges of US$458 million for 2017 and $214 million for 2018 and beyond announced by 14 donors

  • The conference gave voice to people affected by the conflict and crisis

  • Agreement to address longer-term development needs and seek durable solutions to crises

Oslo 24 February 2017 - Some 170 representatives from 40 countries, UN, regional organisations and civil society organisations gathered at the Oslo Humanitarian Conference on Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region today. The conference was co-hosted by Norway, Nigeria, Germany and the UN and followed a civil society meeting with large participation from local organisations working in Nigeria, Chad, Niger and Cameroon.

One of the world’s largest humanitarian crises is currently unfolding in the Lake Chad region with 17 million people living in the most affected areas. Nearly 11 million people urgently need humanitarian assistance. At the conference, 14 donors pledged $458 million for relief in 2017 and an additional $214 million was announced for 2018 and beyond. Pledges were announced by the European Commission, Norway, Germany, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, France, Italy, Ireland, Finland, Denmark, Luxembourg, Netherlands and Republic of Korea.

Humanitarian partners agreed to further scale up their response to reach the most vulnerable groups threatened by famine, including children with severe acute malnutrition. Special attention was given to the protection needs of women, children and youth, as well as the need for longer-term support and durable solutions for the displaced populations.

Foreign Minister Borge Brende of Norway said:

“The conference has helped raising awareness and increased support for millions of people affected by this crisis, not least for the many children and young people who are currently out of school. It is crucial to provide and protect education to safeguard their rights and pave the way for a peaceful development in the region. Our goal must be to ensure quality education for all, for girls as much as for boys. It is of critical importance also to enhance the protection of women and girls, who often carry the main burden of crisis and conflict, and ensure that women are involved in ongoing processes related to peace and development in the region.”

The Foreign minister of Nigeria, Geoffrey Onyeama, said:

“Nigeria is suffering from violent extremism at the same time as it is dealing with low oil prices and an economic recession. While the Government is committing significant budgetary allocations to confront the security and humanitarian situation arising from the insurgency, we also need all the help and support we can get from the international community.”

The Foreign Minister of Germany, Sigmar Gabriel, said:

“With today’s pledges, humanitarian agencies can now concentrate on their work – to save lives and offer help to those in urgent need. Germany contributes 120 million Euro over the course of the next three years to those efforts. We will provide 100 million Euro for humanitarian assistance and 20 million Euro for stabilization efforts in the region. In the long run, we have to strengthen our partnership with the countries involved to address the root causes of terror, displacement and poverty. For that purpose, we established today a Consultative Group on Prevention and Stabilisation with our counterparts from the region.”

United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator Stephen O’Brien said:

“The humanitarian crisis in the Lake Chad Region is truly massive with a staggering 10.7 million people in need of immediate humanitarian assistance. Without our increased support, affected communities will face a life of hunger, disease, gender-based violence and continued displacement. But there is another future within grasp: as the international community scales up support, we can stop a further descent into an ever-deepening crisis with unimaginable consequences for millions of people. I am grateful for the generous support to humanitarian action we have heard this morning. The UN and our partners are ready and mobilised to further scale up our life-saving response - the people in the region have no time to wait.”

Gambia: Monthly Mixed Migration Summary West Africa, January 2017

24 February 2017 - 10:33am
Source: Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat Country: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Guinea, Italy, Liberia, Libya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Spain, World

Monthly regional mixed migration summary for January 2017 covering mixed migration events, incidents, trends and data for the West Africa region.

World: Monthly Mixed Migration Summary West Africa, January 2017

24 February 2017 - 10:33am
Source: Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat Country: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Spain, World

Monthly regional mixed migration summary for January 2017 covering mixed migration events, incidents, trends and data for the West Africa region.

Nigeria: Childhood in Crisis

24 February 2017 - 10:04am
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Country: Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria

An interview with photographer Vincent Tremeau on children’s lives and aspirations in one of the world’s worst crises

Encompassing north-eastern Nigeria and parts of Cameroon, Chad and Niger, the Lake Chad region has become plagued by one of Africa’s worst humanitarian crises due to conflict, extreme poverty and climate change. Over 10 million people need humanitarian assistance to survive, including 2 million people who have been forced to flee their homes. Thousands have been killed, abducted or raped by the armed group Boko Haram.

Vincent Tremeau is a French photographer helping to shed light on one of the groups most affected by the crisis: children. He has travelled to the region several times, bringing little more than a camera and a simple question with him: “What do you want to be when you grow up?” We sat down with Vincent to talk about his photos, many of which are being featured in an Instagram takeover marking the Oslo Humanitarian Conference on Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region.

In your project ‘One Day, I Will’, you ask children to portray what they want to be when they grow up. What was the inspiration for this project?

I was on assignment in the Central African Republic in 2014, which was in the middle of a violent conflict. I spent two days there photographing a Muslim community that had taken refuge in a church. They could not leave the compound–not even for a minute–and the children had been out of school for over a year.

I was interviewing a young girl about her situation, but her experience was so terrible and her testimony so overwhelming that she started crying. I stopped the interview, as I did not want her to cry or experience more trauma, and tried instead to think of a way for the children to express themselves while having fun at the same time.

So I came up with a game for the kids, where I asked them what they wanted to be when they grow up, and they had an hour or two to find toys, clothes and props to illustrate this. I was really impressed by their creativity and how they managed to express their desires and futures with so little, so I decided to replicate the activity during my next assignment. At this point, I have done the series in every crisis-affected country I have visited, and photographed over 200 children.

How do the photo shoots work?

Generally, I talk to school teachers in the communities I visit, and they help to explain the project to their classes. The kids then have a certain amount of time–from an hour to a day–to think about what they want to be and to pick out their costumes. There are no rules; the kids are encouraged to be as creative as they want, using whatever they can find in their environment.

I am always astounded by the creativity the children show during the shoots. Many of them have very little but they manage to illustrate their aspirations so beautifully. One time, a boy arrived at the shoot with a chicken in his arms, as he wants to be a chicken farmer like his father. In Chad, I met a girl who used a chalkboard as a tablet to illustrate her dream of working in IT. These kinds of surprises happen all the time, and they are one of my favourite parts of the project.

You are taking over OCHA’s Instagram this week to highlight the situation for children in the Lake Chad region. What is the core message that people should take away from these photos?

I think the photos reach people on various levels since they touch on so many different themes, such as the impact of conflict, violence against women, malnutrition and many others.

But for me, the core of the project centres on peacebuilding. In many countries, boys and girls are growing up in a context of brutal conflict, where soldiers are often seen as role models and violence is a common tool for resolving grievances. And these environments directly shape the desires and aspirations that children have for their own lives. Many of the kids I photograph want to become soldiers, a trend that not only reflects their current context but also gives a glimpse into what might become their futures and what the world may encounter years down the road.

In other words, what happens to the youngest generation influences all of our futures. And by investing early on, through education, safe spaces and other initiatives, we can help to make lasting change. Looking ahead, I hope this project leads to real impact for the communities I have visited and the children I have met. It is a side project for me, something I do during my lunch breaks when I am on assignment in different countries. What I would like to see is for the pictures to turn into concrete projects that help to promote peace and ensure access to education for children affected by crises.

You ask the children what they want to be when they grow up. What about you? Did you always want to be a photographer?

Actually, no! I discovered photography when I was a law student in Argentina. It was a great way for me to get to know the city I was living in, and also, since I was quite shy, it was a good excuse to interact with new people.

After my law studies, I started managing humanitarian projects. I went to several countries affected by disasters and conflict, where I met photographers and was inspired by their work. I felt like I would be better at this kind of job, using photography as a medium to raise awareness and advocate for others. You can see Vincent’s photos in his Instagram takeover of @UNOCHA and on his own Instagram account @vtremeau.