Philippines - ReliefWeb News
I. SITUATION OVERVIEW (as 0101 April 2015, 5:00 PM)
• At 4:00 PM today, the eye of Typhoon Maysak (international name) outside the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) was situated based on all available data at 1,165 km east of Guivan, Eastern Samar (11.3°N, 136.4°E), with maximum sustained winds of 190 kph near the center and gustiness of up to 225 kph. It is forecast to move West Northwest at 20 kph
QUEZON CITY, April 2 -- The national government has declared its readiness in the coming typhoon, expected to hit the country this weekend.
National Disaster Risk Reduction & Management Council (NDRRMC) chair Undersecretary Alexander Pama, in a media briefing on Friday, said, members of the Pre Disaster Risk Assessment (PDRA) has made assessments on the ground to help government in its preparations and response actions.
Local Disaster Risk Reduction & Management Councils in Bicol and Samar with their teams have been activated since Thursday following advisories from Local Government Secretary Mar Roxas. The DILG heads the Preparedness Cluster of the NDRRMC.
DILG Undersecretary Austere Panadero said LGUs in Northern Luzon, the Eastern Seaboard and Central Luzon are already making preparations.
“The PNP Operations Center has been activated and disaster teams are prepositioning the necessary equipment and personnel to assist local government units and the public,” he said.
The Philippine Coast Guard has also issued advisories on ports for those will be travelling bysea.
The regional offices of the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD), which heads the Response Cluster, have been coordinating with the Regional Disaster Risk Reduction & Management Councils (RDRRMC) on augmentation support to local government nits. Undersecretary Vilma Cabrera reported that they have already prepositioned food and non-food items for LGUs.
Moreover, DSWD offices in nearby regions which will not be affected by the typhoon can provide support to affected regions, she said.
Undersecretary Pama said the government will continuously issue advisories as he called on the public, particularly those who have travelled to the provinces to be hit by the typhoon, to monitor these advisories and coordinate with the local government office on necessary protocols.
Department of National Defense Secretary Voltaire Gazmin, for his part, asked those travelling to “make necessary adjustments, especially when the typhoon makes landfall this weekend.”
As of 11 pm update of PAGASA, Typhoon Chedeng with the international name "Maysak" has already entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) and was located at 1,015 km East Northeast of Guiuan, Eastern Samar. It has maximum sustained winds of 180 kph near the center and gustiness of up to 215 kph. It is forecast to move West Northwest at 19 kph.
Typhoon Chedeng is estimated to make landfall over eastern coast of Aurora, Quezon or Isabela by late Saturday (April 4) to early Sunday (April 5).
PAGASA is expected to raise Public Storm Warning Signal #1 over Bicol and Samar Provinces within the next 18 hours.
The public is alerted against possible flashfloods over low-lying areas and landslides along mountain slopes, particularly over Aurora-Quezon area.
Storm surges and sea surface waves of up to 4 meters are possible over the eastern coast of Samar, Bicol and Aurora-Quezon.
Fisherfolks are advised not to venture out over the eastern seaboard of Bicol Region and of Visayas. (Carlo P. Canares)
PHILIPPINES. Typhoon “MAYSAK” (Chedeng) has reduced its strength while entering Philippines Area of Responsibilities (PAR). The Typhoon comes with 180 kph maximum sustained wind as Category 3 Typhoon, cruising at the speed of 19 kph. This Typhoon can potentially cause well-built framed homes incur major damage or removal of roof decking. Many trees will be snapped or uprooted, blocking numerous roads. Electricity and water will be unavailable for several days to weeks after the storm passes.
Estimated Typhoon “MAYSAK”affected area:
Multi sources of Typhoon warning centres are relatively in agreement with the estimation of the projected track of this typhoon. PAGASA estimated this Typhoon will make landfall around Eastern coast of Aurora, Quezon or Isabela on Saturday evening or early Sunday. PAGASA will raise Public Storm Warning Signal No.1 for Samar and Bicol Region in the next 18hrs. Government of Philippines conducted Pre-Disaster Risk Assessment as preparedness measures.
Micronesia (Federated States of): Philippines, Federated States of Micronesia – Tropical Cyclone MAYSAK (ECHO Daily Map | 1/4/2015)
FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIA
• TC MAYSAK's centre passed north of Fais, Ulithi and Yap Island (Micronesia) on 31 March. Strong winds and heavy rainfall affected the Yap Islands with 91mm measured in 24h. Media report nearly total destruction of the infrastructure on Fais and Ulithi atolls, including contamination of drinking water on Fais, and damage also on Yap, as of 1 April.
• The location of MAYSAK's centre was approximately 250 km north-west of Yap Island on 1 April, at 06.00 UTC. It was a Super Typhoon, with 241 km/h maximum sustained winds, and it was moving northwest. Over the next few hours, it was forecast to enter the Philippine Area of Responsibility and continue on its north-western track, intensifying further. MAYSAK may approach central/northern Philippines on 4 April.
• As of 1 April, there are no Warnings or Watches in effect for the islands of Micronesia. NDRRMC has issued a weather advisory.
• TC MAYSAK (its local name is Chedeng) is forecast to continue moving further west, north-west towards the northern Philippines, slightly weakening, but still remaining a Typhoon. According to the data of 1 April 06.00 UTC, it may reach Luzon over 4 - 5 April with max. sust. winds of between 150 - 170 km/h. However, the uncertainty on the forecast track and intensity is still high.
• NDRRMC has issued a weather advisory
Manila, Philippines (1 April 2015) – Typhoon Maysak (local name: Typhoon Chedeng) was last located at 1,410 kilometer east of Philippines carrying wind speeds of 175kph. Typhoon Maysak is due to make landfall in the Philippines at the weekend, while most people in the country are enjoying the Easter holidays.
Despite the storm being outside of the usual storm season, communities are preparing for the impact. The national government has already issued a statement for local officials in the eastern part of Visayas and southern part of Luzon to prepare for the weather disturbance and initiate pre-emptive evacuation of families in low-lying areas and mountainous areas if situation warrants.
Save the Children is closely monitoring the development of the situation, and is now working on the necessary preparations for a possible emergency response. It still cannot be determined where Typhoon Maysak will make landfall, although early reports suggest that the province of Aurora at the North East of Manila may bear the brunt of the storm.
Save the Children has emergency supplies in place to get to those affected, if necessary. It has three main warehouses across the country—one in Luzon, one in Visayas and one in Mindanao—that are stocked with emergency relief items such as tarpaulins that can serve as emergency shelter, basic household items, hygiene items and water kits good for 10,000 families.
Ned Olney, Country Director of Save the Children Philippines says, “This isn't typhoon season, and Save the Children is concerned about the millions of people that will be traveling this weekend to spend time with family at Easter. It's still too early to know what this storm will do, but we would ask everyone to heed safety warnings and prepare as if this storm is going to be a big one. In this situation, you can never be too cautious. Save the Children is ready with staff and emergency supplies, if needed, to get to people as soon as possible, after the typhoon to lessen any impact Typhoon Maysak may have."
The Philippines is hit by an average of 20 typhoons a year, and upon entering the Philippine area of responsibility, Typhoon Maysak will be the third typhoon for this year.
Save the Children has been responding to emergencies in the Philippines since 2009. Some of its recent emergency responses include the Typhoon Haiyan emergency in November 2013 which affected more than 14 million people in Eastern Visayas, and the Typhoon Hagupit emergency which hit the same region in December 2014.
Note to Editors: Save the Children is the leading independent organization for children in need working in over 120 countries. We aim to inspire breakthroughs in the way the world treats children, and to achieve immediate and lasting change in their lives.
Dedicated to helping children, Save the Children has worked in the Philippines for over three decades, providing both emergency and long-term support to improve the quality of life for children. For more information about Save the Children, you can e-mail our National Media Manager, April Sumaylo, at email@example.com or call her at +639173011240.
We have been responding to a number of emergencies across the country for the past few years. Save the Children, mounted large-scale emergency responses to Typhoon Washi (Sendong) in 2011, Typhoon Bopha (Pablo) and Manila floods in 2012. We are currently one of the largest responders in the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan, which had killed at least 6000 people. We have also responded to typhoon (Hagupit) Ruby in December 2014.
Save the Children is currently implementing a disaster risk reduction project with other agencies in Aurora province aimed at enhancing the resilience of children, youth and their communities against unavoidable impacts of climate change.
Moving northward from the Pacific, Typhoon Maysak continues to make its way towards the Philippines as a Category 4 cyclone. As of 11:00 am today, 1 April 2015, the eye of the storm was located at 1,280 km east of Guiuan, Eastern Samar, with maximum sustained winds up to 250 kph near the centre and wind gusts projected up to 310 kph1 .
This weather system is currently moving west-northwest at some 20 kph, and is expected to enter the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) between the evening of Wednesday, 1 April and early morning of Thursday, 2 April 2015. Upon entering the PAR, Maysak will be locally named Chedeng.
While it is still uncertain where Typhoon Maysak will make an initial first landfall in the Philippines, various models seem to agree that the typhoon will first strike the central region of Luzon Island. The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) indicates there is also an existing possibility that Maysak may curve northeast instead of crossing the Philippine archipelago or weaken prior to making landfall. However, given the topography of where it is currently projected to make landfall, there exists the very real risk of flash floods and landslides. Rough to very rough sea conditions are expected across the eastern seaboard of the Philippines from the afternoon of 1 April 2015.
MANILA, 1 April 2015 – The Philippines is bracing for Super Typhoon Maysak (local name Chedeng) as it enters the country’s area of responsibility this Lenten week.
According to latest reports, Maysak is located at 1,280 km east of Guiuan, Eastern Samar (10.7°N, 137.4°E). It has maximum sustained winds of 215 kph near the center and gustiness of up to 250 kph. (PAG-ASA Weather Advisory, 1 April 2015).
Maysak is expected to enter the Philippine Area of Responsibility in the morning of 2 April, Thursday. Its present course indicates a landfall over the Eastern Bicol region.
“UNICEF is ready to support the government with pre-positioned emergency supplies from our local warehouses in Manila, Tacloban, and Cotabato once the emergency hits. In times of disasters, children face the risk of disease outbreaks, malnutrition, violence and disrupted education. Our priority is to ensure that children and their rights and welfare are protected before, during and after disasters,” said Lotta Sylwander, UNICEF Philippines Representative.
UNICEF has pre-positioned essential supplies that include water kits, hygiene kits, water purification units, school tents, student and teacher materials, child-friendly space tents, medical supplies, nutritional therapeutic food items to combat malnutrition, oral rehydration salts, tarpaulins and generators for at least 10,000 families.
UNICEF has staff on standby in Manila, Tacloban and Cotabato City ready to be deployed in rapid assessments as soon as it is safe to travel. UNICEF, with the Philippine government, co-leads the joint response in the areas of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH), Nutrition and Child Protection.
This is an OCHA Flash Update on Typhoon Maysak.
As of 1 April (10 a.m., Manila time), Category 4 Typhoon Maysak was located 1,280 km east of Guiuan, Eastern Samar province in central Philippines, with maximum sustained winds of 215 km/h and gusts of up to 250 km/h according to the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), the country's weather bureau. Typhoon Maysak is moving west-northwest at 17 km/h and is expected to enter the Philippine Area of Responsibility either tonight or in the early morning of 2 April and make landfall along the eastern coast of central Luzon on 4 or 5 April.
According to forecast models, Typhoon Maysak is moving towards the Philippines with a diameter of about 700 km and a 24-hour rain accumulation of about 100 to 300 mm (considered heavy to extreme). While the typhoon is projected to slightly weaken in the next 24 hours, it may maintain Category 3 status when it makes landfall.
On 30 March, the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC) conducted a Pre-Disaster Risk Assessment (PDRA) as a preparedness measure. The NDRRMC's PDRA core group re-convened this morning to evaluate the situation.
The Emergency Response Preparedness Working Group of the Humanitarian Country Team (HCT) met on 31 March to discuss possible scenarios concerning the typhoon’s expected paths and potential impacts. The HCT will meet this afternoon to agree on next steps, building on the Government’s PDRA and preparedness actions. Assessment teams of humanitarian agencies will be on call to support the Government as needed.
Typhoon Maysak formed into a tropical storm on 27 March and gained strength as it moved across the western Pacific before reaching Category 5 status on 31 March.
The next Flash Update will be issued as soon as more information is available. For more information, contact: Akiko Yoshida, Humanitarian Affairs Officer, firstname.lastname@example.org, Mobile: +63-917-543-7251
To be added to the OCHA Philippines mailing list, please email email@example.com.
Philippines: IOM Philippines - Response to displacement due to conflict in Mindanao, Situation Report #7, 27 March 2015
On 7 March, the Philippine Army, the Philippine Marines and the Philippine National Police launched a joint law enforcement operation against the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF) in the town of Datu Unsay, Maguindanao. Only two weeks later, the joint law enforcement operation has spanned across 15 towns in Maguindanao, affecting 25,067 families or 125,302 persons as per map above and table below. The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) Regional Government is spending approximately 13 million PHP (USD 290,000) weekly to address the needs, mainly on food assistance for the internally displaced persons (IDPs).
From 2012 to 2014, armed conflicts in Mindanao involving non-state armed groups displaced over 370,000 people. In North Cotabato and Maguindanao, intermittent firefights became repeated phenomenon disrupting physical and psychological wellbeing as well as livelihoods of many residents.
In February and March 2015, a-month-long law and order operations lead by the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) against the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF) left over 91,000 people displaced in 13 municipalities of the province of Maguindanao.
Snapshot 25–31 March 2015
Ukraine: Fears are growing of a new offensive in Mariupol, as non-government troops appear to be gathering nearby. A recent assessment has found that more than 1.6 million people need humanitarian assistance, nearly 1.1 million of whom are in non-government-controlled areas. 20–30% of IDPs are at risk of losing their status and benefits, due to a new mechanism to verify the addresses of IDPs.
Nigeria: Opposition candidate Buharu has been declared winner of the presidential election, but irregularities have been alleged, and there have already been protests in Rivers state. Boko Haram is suspected of attacks in Gombe state, including on polling stations, which killed seven, and there have been attacks on polling stations in Bauchi.
Yemen: Saudi-led aerial bombing has reportedly disabled the Houthis’ air force. It has also displaced some 4,500 people to refugee camps in Hajjah. Airstrikes killed 45 people in Mazraq refugee camp, and 25 in Sanaa. The Houthis advance south continued; they and their allies have taken Lahj governorate and Aden airport
Updated: 31/03/2015. Next update: 08/04/2015
Philippines: Recovery efforts expand as people try to rebuild their lives following Haiyan (30 03 2015 - Operational Update - The Philippines)
In the Philippines, the Red Cross and Red Crescent Typhoon Haiyan recovery operation in the Central Visayas and Palawan is targeting 500,000 vulnerable people as they restore their homes and livelihoods. The operation, one of the largest and most complex yet mounted by the movement, has 17 in-country partners supporting the work of the Philippine Red Cross, including the IFRC and ICRC. See the latest recovery programme targets and achievements (March 2015).
At the end of last year thousands of people in the same regions were badly hit by two typhoons, Hagupit and Seniang, which brought landslides and some of the heaviest rainfall ever recorded in some areas. Luckily, the population heeded the lessons of Typhoon Haiyan and government warnings to evacuate, with well over one million people pre-emptively sheltering in evacuation centres or secure private dwellings.
Since April last year, when the operation moved to early recovery, more than 51,300 homes have been built or repaired and 55,320 households have received cash to buy livestock or start a business. In other key sectors, the Haiyan operation is also rehabilitating and equipping health clinics, restoring latrines and sanitation facilities in schools and repairing 388 classrooms destroyed or damaged by the typhoon. Improving health and providing volunteer training is a clear priority for the Philippine Red Cross, which is training community health volunteers in Community Based Health and First Aid as well running hygiene promotion activities in schools and communities. The programmes also include sessions on prevention of communicable and non-communicable diseases, such as dengue and diarrhoea, many of which become more common with the arrival of the monsoon.
Building Back Safer
Repairing or re-building housing and helping to restore people’s lost livelihoods is a significant part of the Red Cross recovery programme. While emergency shelter materials such as tarpaulins are still needed, support for self-recovery is fast becoming the priority. The vast majority of families have already started rebuilding and repairing their homes, however most of them require help. We provide shelter and tool kits to support that process. The focus is not only on providing materials but also on technical help to ensure homes are built back safer and stronger. The Government has begun constructing bunkhouses for people living in evacuation centres or informal settlements. Building Back Safer is an important message of the shelter programme that has been reinforced through community workshops and training. All new homes are designed to be more resistant to typhoons and incorporate simple design features that make roofs and foundations stronger. Beneficiaries who are able to contribute their labour to the construction process, and Red Cross provides materials and skilled workers. In all, the Haiyan operation has provided work and skills enhancement for at least 5,000 people, many of whom have been able to find work on other projects. Some skilled workers are now employing others and passing on vital knowledge about safer building techniques to others.
Tens of thousands of livelihoods beneficiaries received the equivalent of USD220 to buy livestock, equipment or goods for a nominated project. While the majority in rural areas opt for farm animals and seed crops that can be grown and sold at the local market, the more adventurous, especially women, have set up small businesses selling produce or cooked items. The Red Cross is now documenting their experiences in a project called Stories for Change that will be published later this year.
Soon the next phase of livelihoods support will see Philippine Red Cross partner with technical colleges to offer hundreds of young people from disadvantaged backgrounds a range of courses designed to improve their chances of employment. In addition, Red Cross will also support up to 100 communities in income-generating projects and initiatives.
Follow @philredcross for updates on Philippine Red Cross preparedness and response actions.
- Over 91,000 people displaced by armed clashes in Central Mindanao
- Protection Cluster continues to advocate durable solutions for all IDPs in Zamboanga
- IDP women in Mampang take an active role in camp management
- Weak El Niño may trigger drought and erratic behaviours of tropical cyclones in the coming months
Central Mindanao Displacement
Number of displaced population 91,600 Number of IDPs in evacuation centres 75,400 Number of evacuation centres 79 Number of IDPs hosted by relatives and friends 16,200
Number of IDPs evacuation centres 5,100 Number of IDPs in transitional sites 12,500 Number of IDPs hosted by relatives and friends15,000
Micronesia (Federated States of): Typhoon Maysak: Federated States of Micronesia brace for super storm; reports up to five dead
Remote island communities in the Federated States of Micronesia brace as Typhoon Maysak approaches, as unconfirmed reports surface that up to five people have died in Chuuk state.
Remote island communities in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) are bracing for Typhoon Maysak, following unconfirmed reports up to five people have died in Chuuk state.
Maysak is expected to strengthen into a super typhoon before it passes over Fais and Ulithi in Yap state tonight.
Meteorologists warn there could be winds of up to 270 kilometres an hour near the typhoon's centre, with gusts of up to 330 kilometres an hour.
Residents have been urged to remain indoors with adequate food and water, and check local authorities for updated information.
A dangerous wave warning has been put in place for western Micronesia and a high surf warning was issued for Koror, Palau
The islands of Chuuk - home to nearly 50,000 people - received a direct hit from the storm late on Sunday.
The Pacific News Centre in Guam said FSM public information officer Marz Akapito reported: "five people have died in Chuuk state due to typhoon Maysak".
The consul-general for FSM based in Guam, Robert Ruecho, told news agency AFP he had heard various casualty counts of one and later five, but "cannot confirm anything right now".
Mr Ruecho told the Marianas Variety newspaper in Guam he had not been able to make contact with people in Chuuk.
"I haven't been able to speak with the governor," Mr Ruecho said.
"The phone lines have been difficult today, power is down and so my information is second hand from the (FSM) capital in Pohnpei.
"Lots of flooding and many of the roofs ... we heard they were torn off many of the residences and buildings - maybe 80 to 90 per cent of homes."
Micronesia's Chuuk state first hit in Maysak's path
Lawyer Kembo Mida said in an email to the Ayuda Foundation relief organisation, based in Guam, "Chuuk was devastated".
"Houses were blown away and trees snapped in half. It was very dangerous and scary ... a ship sank too."
FSM's emergency management office director, Andrew Yatilman, said a state of emergency had been declared in Chuuk and that emergency measures were in place for Yap, where the storm is heading.
"Local authorities in Yap ... provid[ed] early warnings to all residents of the islands located in the path of the typhoon," he told Radio Australia.
[They are] advising people to seek typhoon shelters and board up their houses and secure whatever is loose so that the flying debris is minimised if the typhoon makes landfall."
He said emergency accommodation in school facilities and community centres had been provided to Yap residents, but people were concerned.
"The people in this part of the world are worried because we're beginning to experience typhoons at different times of the year," he said.
Neville Koop, from Fiji's Na Draki Weather Service in Fiji, said the typhoon was certainly of major concern to the people of FSM.
"This is a very strong typhoon now. It will probably reach an intensity equivalent to Tropical Cyclone Pam when it peaks," he said.
He said the typhoon was expected to pass over the disparate islands of Yap over the next 24 hours.
"It's a very intense storm, it's going to affect a lot of islands. But the worst of the winds will be over the more remote atolls to the north of the capital," he said.
Maysak formed two weeks after Severe Tropical Cyclone Pam slammed into Vanuatu causing widespread damage and leaving 11 people dead in the South Pacific island nation.
In 2002, heavy rains from Tropical Storm Chataan caused several landslides that killed 47 people in Chuuk's deadliest weather disaster.
The Philippines state weather forecaster said it was too early to say if the latest typhoon would likely affect the country but that it would reassess the situation when the storm entered its area of responsibility on Wednesday or Thursday.
The Philippines is still recovering from Super Typhoon Haiyan, which struck in November 2013, leaving more than 7,350 people dead or missing.
Micronesia (Federated States of): Typhoon Maysak, heading toward Philippines, could be as bad as Cyclone Pam, meteorologist says
A typhoon heading towards the Philippines could be as severe as Tropical Cyclone Pam, which tore through Vanuatu this month, a meteorologist says.
At 5:00pm (AEDT) on Monday, Maysak's centre was located approximately 130 kilometres north-east of Faraulep Island, in the Federated States of Micronesia.
Over the next 48 hours, the typhoon is expected to intensify significantly before hitting Yap Island and continuing north-west towards the Philippine Sea.
Neville Koop, a meteorologist with Fiji's Na Draki weather service, said Typhoon Maysak was expected to become a super typhoon, with winds near the centre exceeding 270 kilometres per hour with gusts of up to 340 kilometres per hour.
"It already is quite a large one," he told Radio Australia's Pacific Beat program.
"This is a very strong typhoon now. It will probably reach an intensity equivalent to Tropical Cyclone Pam when it peaks later tomorrow."
Typhoon warnings have been issued for Yap, one of the four states that make up the Federated States of Micronesia.
There are reports that three people have died due to the typhoon in the islands of Chuuk state to the east.
"As a very intense storm, it's going to affect a lot of islands ... [some] up to 200 kilometres away from the centre," Mr Koop said.
Mr Koop said Maysak was tracking at about 10 knots on a north-north-west path.
"It's been on a very consistent path ... that's taking it towards Luzon Island in the Philippines eventually," he said.
"In this case, the track forecasts are fairly reliable."
Cyclone Pam was one of the worst natural disasters to hit Vanuatu in living memory.
Eleven people lost their lives and tens of thousands were left homeless.
Philippines: The quest for peace: the Aquino administration’s peace negotiations with the MILF and CPP-NPA-NDF
Richard Javad Heydarian
This report examines the Aquino administration’s efforts to end hostilities and negotiate a long-term peace agreement between the Government of the Republic of the Philippine (GRP), on the one hand, and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and CPP-NPA-NDF (CNN), on the other. The report has two central arguments. Firstly, the Aquino administration has been more invested (and successful) in pursuing peace negotiations with the MILF than the CNN. This can largely be explained by the greater compatibility of the strategic and ideological goals of the GRP and the MILF’s top leadership. Secondly, the administration has struggled to insulate the peace negotiations with the MILF from external interference/disruptions. The ongoing peace negotiations, however, have been vulnerable to sabotage by hardline elements, whether within the ranks of the negotiating parties or among other non-state actors and rebel groups opposed to peace negotiations. Meanwhile, long-running GRP-CNN negotiations have been repeatedly undermined by failed (unilateral or mutually agreed on) ceasefire agreements and the apparent disconnect between the relatively conciliatory negotiating position of the Netherlands-based José María Sison, the chief ideologue of the Communist Party of the Philippines, and the more hawkish negotiating position of the CNN leadership on the ground, long led by Benito and Wilma Tiamzon.