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Philippines: Philippines: Typhoon Haiyan Three-year progress report

8 November 2016 - 11:45am
Source: International Committee of the Red Cross, International Federation of Red Cross And Red Crescent Societies, Philippine National Red Cross Country: Philippines

Operational overview

The Philippine Red Cross together with the Movement partners, guided by a coordinated approach and the Movement-wide framework, has supported thousands of households across different provinces affected by the strongest typhoon to make landfall in country’s recorded history.

The emergency relief operation was launched immediately to provide assistance to the people affected across the Central Visayas region. Food, water, clothes and emergency shelter materials were dispatched and more than 8,000 volunteers were mobilized.

To support recovery efforts of the affected people, Movement partners contributed to the operational plan of the Philippine Red Cross. Coordination was maintained to ensure efficient and effective utilization of resources, and to reach the affected communities with quality service and appropriate assistance.

The recovery of households entailed support for shelter repair and reconstruction, recovery of livelihoods and income generation activities, construction of water and sanitation facilities, rehabilitation of health infrastructure and health promotion initiatives, and improved educational facilities. Awareness raising sessions were also carried out with the communities to improve their knowledge of disaster preparedness.

Shelters were built using the build back safer techniques. The government mandated no-build zone in areas that are susceptible to landslides, floods or storm surges was observed. Households were engaged to contribute in the construction of their homes, creating a sense of ownership. Some members of the communities were also employed in cash-for-work programmes to support the construction process.

Individuals and communities were provided livelihood assistance in the form of cash grants. Young people were provided with formal vocational trainings on welding, dressmaking, food and beverage handling, among others, to enhance their skills. Communities were also provided with the opportunity to manage livelihood projects that are economically and environmentally sustainable and beneficial to the members of the community.

Water and sanitation facilities were provided to households and schools to ensure access to safe water and improved sanitation to reduce risks of waterborne, water-related and other communicable diseases. These facilities were complemented with hygiene and sanitation transformation activities for community members and students to improve their knowledge on the importance of maintaining good personal hygiene and health.

Health facilities were constructed and re-equipped to provide quality service to the population. Through facilities and improved knowledge, communities have better access and opportunities to prevent and address health problems.

Classrooms and educational facilities were repaired to provide a safe learning space for school-going children. In the event of a disaster these facilities will be used as evacuation centres. Children also received psychosocial support to ease the trauma of their experience during the typhoon.

In a country that is highly susceptible to disasters, the communities’ ability to prepare for, cope with and respond to disasters is crucial in saving lives and property. Proper knowledge, training and sufficient support from Red Cross chapters empowers the community in identifying risks and implementing mitigation measures and response plans. Trained Philippine Red Cross volunteers are at the frontline to respond during emergencies and act as advocates of health and disaster risk reduction principles within the communities.

The Movement remains committed to being accountable to funding agencies, stakeholders and the communities. Monitoring and evaluation activities are being implemented to gauge the appropriateness and impact of the programmes.

Philippines: Factors Associated with the Time of Admission among Notified Dengue Fever Cases in Region VIII Philippines from 2008 to 2014

8 November 2016 - 9:44am
Source: Public Library of Science Country: Philippines

Jason Echavez Abello , Julita Gil Cuesta, Boyd Roderick Cerro, Debarati Guha-Sapir

Published: October 25, 2016


In cases of Dengue fever, late hospital admission can lead to treatment delay and even death. In order to improve early disease notification and management, it is essential to investigate the factors affecting the time of admission of Dengue cases. This study determined the factors associated with the time of admission among notified Dengue cases. The study covered the period between 2008 and 2014 in Region VIII, Philippines. The factors assessed were age, sex, hospital sector, hospital level, disease severity based on the 1997 WHO Dengue classification, and period of admission (distinguishing between the 2010 Dengue epidemic and non-epidemic time). We analysed secondary data from the surveillance of notified Dengue cases. We calculated the association through chi-square test, ordinal logistic regression and linear regression at p value < 0.05. The study included 16,357 admitted Dengue cases. The reported cases included a majority of children (70.09%), mild cases of the disease (64.00%), patients from the public sector (69.82%), and non-tertiary hospitals (62.76%). Only 1.40% of cases had a laboratory confirmation. The epidemic period in 2010 comprised 48.68% of all the admitted cases during this period. Late admission was more likely among adults than children (p<0.05). The severe type of the disease was more likely to be admitted late than the mild type (p<0.05). Late admission was also more likely in public hospitals than in private hospitals (p<0.05); and within tertiary level hospitals than non-tertiary hospitals (p<0.05). Late admission was more likely during the non-epidemic period than the 2010 epidemic period (p<0.05). A case fatality rate of 1 or greater was significantly associated with children, severe diseases, tertiary hospitals and public hospitals when admitted late (p<0.05). Data suggests that early admission among child cases was common in Region VIII. This behavior is encouraging, and should be continued. However, further study is needed on the late admission among tertiary, public hospitals and non-epidemic period with reference to the quality of care, patient volume, out of pocket expense, and accessibility We recommend the consistent use of the 2009 WHO Dengue guidelines in order to standardize the admission criteria and time across hospitals.

Author Summary

A variety of factors affect the time of admission of Dengue fever cases. These must be investigated, as delayed treatment of this disease can result in death. The authors of this study determined the factors associated with the time of admission among notified Dengue cases of Region VIII, Philippines, from 2008 to 2014. The factors assessed were age and sex of the patient, hospital sector, hospital level, disease severity and the presence of Dengue epidemic. A secondary surveillance data of Dengue was used. The associations were determined using chi-square test and regression. Late admission was more likely amongst adults, severe cases of the disease, public hospitals, tertiary level hospitals, and during the non-epidemic period. In comparison, early admission was more likely in cases concerning children, mild cases of the disease, private hospitals, non-tertiary hospitals and during an epidemic period. Case fatality was significantly associated to children, severe diseases, public hospitals and tertiary hospitals when admitted late. The routine early admission of children should be promoted, as severe cases of Dengue fever are more likely among children. Consistent admission criteria for Dengue should be implemented across all hospital sectors and levels.