Somalia - ReliefWeb News
Large-scale and unprecedented protests swept through Ethiopia’s largest region of Oromia beginning in November 2015, and in the Amhara region from July 2016. Ethiopian security forces cracked-down on these largely peaceful demonstrations, killing more than 500 people.
Scores of people fleeing security force gunfire and teargas during the annual Irreecha festival died in a stampede on October 2 in Bishoftu, Oromia region. On October 9, following the destruction of some government buildings and private property by youths, the government announced a draconian and far-reaching six-month countrywide state of emergency, which prescribes sweeping and vaguely worded restrictions on a broad range of actions and undermines free expression, association, and peaceful assembly. The directive also effectively codified many of the security forces’ abusive tactics, such as arbitrary detention.
The protests occurred against a background of nearly non-existent political space: in parliament, the ruling coalition has 100 percent of seats, there are restrictions on civil society and independent media, and those who do not actively support the government often face harassment and arbitrary detention.
Ethiopia deploys troops inside Somalia as part of the African Union mission (AMISOM). In 2016, there were reports that abusive “Liyu police,” a paramilitary force, were also deployed alongside the Ethiopian Defense Forces in Somalia. In July, Ethiopian forces operating outside the AMISOM mandate indiscriminately killed 14 civilians during an operation against Al-Shabab in Somalia’s Bay region. (See Somalia chapter.)
Freedom of Assembly
Concerns about the government’s proposed expansion of the municipal boundary of the capital, Addis Ababa, triggered widespread protests across Oromia and a heavy-handed response by security forces in 2016. Protesters feared that the Addis Ababa Integrated Development Master Plan would displace Oromo farmers, as has increasingly occurred over the past decade. There were broad doubts about the sincerity of the government’s announced cancellation of the Master Plan in January 2016, due largely to past broken promises. Protesters expressed concerns over decades of historical grievances and the wrongful use of lethal force by the security forces. There were some reports of violence by protesters, but protests were largely peaceful. Similar protests and a resultant crack-down occurred in Oromia in April and May 2014.
During the protests, security forces arrested tens of thousands of students, teachers, opposition politicians, health workers, and those who sheltered or assisted fleeing protesters. While many detainees have been released, an unknown number remain in detention without charge or access to legal counsel or family. Most of the leadership of the legally registered opposition party, Oromo Federalist Congress, have been charged under the anti-terrorism law, including Deputy-Chairman Bekele Gerba, a staunch advocate of non-violence.
In July, protests spread to the Amhara region, triggered by the arrest of Welkait Identity Committee members, a group seeking to resolve long-standing concerns over administrative boundaries. Protesters in Amhara region are primarily concerned with the unequal distribution of power and economic benefits in favor of those aligned to the government. On August 6 and 7, security forces killed over 100 people in Amhara and Oromia, including over 30 people killed in Bahir Dar alone. The town witnessed one of the largest protests. There were reports of large-scale arrests throughout Amhara.
In September, dozens of ethnic Konso were killed by security forces in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region (SNNPR) following protests over administrative boundaries in the Konso area.
The government has not shown a willingness to address the expressed grievances of the protesters in Amhara, Oromia, or Konso, blaming much of the unrest on lack of good governance and youth unemployment, exacerbated by “outside forces.”
The Ethiopian government failed to meaningfully investigate the killings of protesters in Oromia, Amhara, or Konso. In a report to parliament in June, the Ethiopia Human Rights Commission, a government body, concluded that the level of force used by security forces in Oromia was proportionate to the risk they faced from protesters, contrary to available evidence.
The October state of emergency directive banned all protests without government permission and permits arrest without court order in “a place assigned by the command post until the end of the state of emergency.”
The Liyu police, a Somali Regional State (SRS) paramilitary police force, continued to commit serious human rights abuses in their ongoing conflict with the Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF). There have been reports of extrajudicial killings, arbitrary detention, and violence against civilians accused of supporting or being sympathetic to the ONLF. Following a June 12 protest in Melbourne, Australia, against the visit of SRS President Abdi Iley, dozens of family members of protesters were arrested in Ethiopia.
Freedom of Expression and Association
Media continues to be under government stranglehold, exacerbated by the state of emergency at the end of 2016, with many journalists forced to choose between self-censorship, harassment and arrest, or exile. At least 75 journalists have fled into exile since 2010. In addition to threats against journalists, tactics used to restrict independent media include targeting publishers, printing presses, and distributors.
Scores of journalists—including Eskinder Nega and Woubshet Taye—protesters, and political opponents remain jailed under the anti- terrorism law. Journalist Getachew Shiferaw was convicted in November of criminal defamation and sentenced to one year in prison. On May 10, blogger Zelalem Workagegneu was sentenced to five years and two months under the anti-terrorism law after being detained for over 700 days. Journalist Yusuf Getachew, who was convicted in August 2015 also under the anti-terrorism law, was pardoned and released on September 10, after over four years in detention.
The government regularly restricts access to social media apps and some websites with content that challenges the government’s narrative on key issues. During particularly sensitive times, including after the Irreecha festival stampede, the government blocked access to the internet.
The government also jammed the signals of international radio stations like Deutsche Welle and Voice of America in August and September. Social media and diaspora television stations played key roles in the dissemination of information and mobilization during protests. Under the state of emergency, people are banned from watching diaspora television, sharing information on social media, and closing businesses as a gesture of protest, as well as curtailing opposition parties’ ability to communicate with media.
The 2009 Charities and Societies Proclamation (CSO law) continues to severely curtail the ability of independent nongovernmental organizations. The law bars work on human rights, governance, conflict resolution, and advocacy on the rights of women, children and people with disabilities if organizations receive more than 10 percent of their funds from foreign sources.
Questioning the government’s development policies is deemed particularly sensitive and activists face charges for doing so. For example, the trial of Pastor Omot Agwa, who had worked as the facilitator and interpreter for the World Bank’s Inspection Panel as it investigated abuses linked to a bank investment, continued in 2016. Two other individuals charged with Omot were acquitted in November. They were arrested in March 2015 at Addis Ababa airport on their way to a food security workshop in Nairobi, Kenya, and charged on September 7, 2015.
Torture and Arbitrary Detention
Ethiopian security personnel, including plainclothes security and intelligence officials, federal police, special police, and military, frequently tortured and otherwise ill-treated political detainees held in official and secret detention centers, to give confessions or provide information. Many of those arrested during recent protests said they were tortured in detention, including in military camps. Several women alleged that they were raped or sexually assaulted. There is little indication that security personnel are being investigated or punished for these abuses.
Allegations of forced displacement have arisen from commercial and industrial projects associated with Addis Ababa’s expansion and the continued development of state-owned sugar plantations in the Lower Omo Valley, home to about 200,000 indigenous people. Communities in Omo have seen grazing land cleared and access to the Omo River restricted. The reservoir behind the Omo River’s Gibe III dam began filling in January 2015, and there was no artificial flood in 2015 and a limited flood in 2016 contrary to government assurances. The flood is important in replenishing water levels in Kenya’s Lake Turkana and the agricultural lands along the banks of the Omo River.
Key International Actors
Ethiopia continues to enjoy strong support from foreign donors and most of its regional neighbors, due to its role as host of the African Union (AU) and as a strategic regional player, contribution to UN peacekeeping, regional counterterrorism, aid, and migration partnerships with Western countries, and its stated progress on development indicators. Ethiopia is also a country of origin, transit, and host for large numbers of migrants and refugees.
The brutal crackdown against protesters and the state of emergency announcement resulted in stronger than usual public statements from many of Ethiopia’s traditional allies. The AU and the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights both issued statements expressing concern, while the European parliament released a strong resolution, and resolutions were introduced in the US Senate and House of Representatives. The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights publicly stressed the need for an international investigation into the killings in July. Other donors, including the World Bank, have continued business as usual without publicly raising concerns.
In June, Ethiopia was elected to the UN Security Council. It is also vice president of the UN Human Rights Council despite a history of non-cooperation with UN special mechanisms. Despite these roles, Ethiopia has refused entry to all UN special rapporteurs, other than the UN special rapporteur on Eritrea, since 2006.
Somalia: AMISOM troops from the Djiboutian contingent donate medical supplies to needy residents in villages in Belet Weyne
BELET WEYNE – AMISOM troops from the Djiboutian contingent donate medical supplies to needy residents in villages in Belet Weyne
AMISOM troops under the Djiboutian contingent on Wednesday donated assorted medicines to populations affected by cholera and drought in Belet Weyne. The donations were distributed alongside a security operation that included foot patrols, in Jawiil and El gal districts, north of Belet Weyne.
A cholera outbreak was reported in 25 districts across Somalia late last year, with Belet Wayne and surrounding bearing the brunt of the disease. The region has also been hit hard by drought, with tens of households facing hunger and starvation.
Col Hassan Jama Farah, the contingent commander of the Djibouti troops says the donations will go along way in alleviating hunger and treating common ailments. He added that security patrols would continue to enhance security.
“Today, we have gone through several villages including El-gal Ba’aad, Kala Bayr, Jawiil, we are now with the people of Ditors. We carried some medical supplies to help the people affected by cholera, which we have handed over to the Jawiil deputy District Commissioner,”Col. Farah said.
“In our assessment, the area is largely peaceful. We held meetings with elders and the district leadership, and there was no major problem highlighted. We will continue with our mission of enforcing peace in Belet Weyne,” Col. Farah added.
Abdisalan Hassan Mursal, the Jawiil deputy District Commissioner thanks AMISOM for the timely assistance, which he said would save lives.
“We thank AMISOM troops and specifically the Djiboutian troops for the donation of medicines, coming at a time when we need them the most. Jawill has a heavy disease burden and we need much more assistance,” he said.
· The number of refugees in Turkey has reached over 3 million people, making Turkey the host country with the largest refugee population in the world.
· About 90% of Syrian refugees in Turkey remain outside of camp settings with limited access to basic services. The European Commission is providing humanitarian assistance to vulnerable refugees, particularly to those living outside of camps.
· The European Union and its Members States are funding the “Facility for Refugees in Turkey" which provides €3 billion to address needs of refugees and host communities with humanitarian and development assistance in 2016 and 2017.
· The European Commission in partnership with the World Food Programme (WFP), the Turkish Red Crescent and Turkish government institutions is rolling out the Emergency Social Safety Net (ESSN), a single card social assistance scheme that will allow up to 1 million refugees cover their basic daily needs. With an initial budget of €348 million, this represents the biggest humanitarian project in the history of the European Commission.
PROJECTED FOOD ASSISTANCE NEEDS FOR JULY 2017
This brief summarizes FEWS NET’s most forward-looking analysis of projected emergency food assistance needs in FEWS NET coverage countries. The projected size of each country’s acutely food insecure population (IPC Phase 3 and higher) is compared to last year and the recent five-year average and categorized as Higher ( p), Similar ( u), or Lower ( q). Countries where external emergency food assistance needs are anticipated are identified. Projected lean season months highlighted in red indicate either an early start or an extension to the typical lean season. Additional information is provided for countries with large food insecure populations, an expectation of high severity, or where other key issues warrant additional discussion. Analytical confidence is lower in remote monitoring countries, denoted by “RM”. Visit www.fews.net for detailed country reports.
- In total, as of 31st December, 39,316 Somali refugees had returned home since 8th December 2014, when UNHCR started supporting voluntary return of Somali refugees in Kenya, out of which 33,725 were supported in 2016 alone. The number of flights has been significantly increased as it remains the only mean of transportation to Somalia. Returns movements by air are organised to Mogadishu, Kismayu and Baidoa.
- UNHCR Dadaab will resume road movements to Somalia on 16th January 2017 and the plan is to organize four convoys a week (each convoy will carry 350 – 500 refugees).
- Verification, assessment and screening is ongoing for the registered refugees who have protection, health concerns and People with Specific Needs. These cases will be verified before being processed at the voluntary repatriation desk.
Relocation to Kakuma
- UNHCR Dadaab had a meeting with the Gambella community in Ifo camp on 17th December in order to update them and clarify their concerns relating to the relocation process. They had some concerns with the postponement of their relocation which should have started on 16th December 2016, as they were the next group scheduled for relocation.
- The relocation flights for the non-Somali refugees will most likely resume in the second week of January 2017. Dadaab office is working on the preparation of manifests and sharing information with the community leaders in coordination with Refugee Affair Secretariat (RAS) and other partners involved. The relocation will start with 1,401 refugees of the Gambella community from Ethiopia who are ready to be relocated.
Mogadishu, 13 January 2017 – The African Union Mission in Somalia Police Commissioner, Brig. Anand Pillay says the rebuilding of the Somali Police Force (SPF), remains a critical national security objective in its goal of institution building in the horn of Africa nation.
Speaking at the conclusion of an induction course for newly deployed Nigerian Police Officers on FrIday, Brig. Pillay asked them to support the rebuilding of Somalia’s police force.
“We all know that there is still a threat to security in this country and it’s our responsibility to support the Somali security institutions in building the security apparatus to take care of the country’s security,” Pillay said.
The police inductees will be the sixth contingent from Nigeria to serve the Mission. They replace a similar contingent, which left Somalia earlier this month, on completion a of year’s tour of duty.
The mandatory induction prepares police officers to better understand the Mission’s mandate and how it relates to their daily tasks in Somalia.
The unit will support Individual Police Officers (IPOs) in executing their duties, mentoring and carrying out joint policing with their counterparts of the Somali Police Force (SPF).
Assistant Commissioner of Police Francis Aryee, who is the AMISOM Police Training Coordinator, urged the newly deployed officers to execute their duties diligently.
“You are supposed to provide the necessary support to the Somali Police Force so that by the time we start drawing down, the Somali Police Force will be capable of taking over the internal security responsibilities of Somalia and deliver policing services that will meet internationally acceptable standards of democratic policing,” Aryee stated.
Agricultural support critical now to protect livestock, equip families to plant in rainy season
Countries in the Horn of Africa are likely to see a rise in hunger and further decline of local livelihoods in the coming months, as farming families struggle with the knock-on effects of multiple droughts that hit the region this year, FAO warned today. Growing numbers of refugees in East Africa, meanwhile, are expected to place even more burden on already strained food and nutrition security.
Currently, close to 12 million people across Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia are in need of food assistance, as families in the region face limited access to food and income, together with rising debt, low cereal and seed stocks, and low milk and meat production. Terms of trade are particularly bad for livestock farmers, as food prices are increasing at the same time that market prices for livestock are low.
Farmers in the region need urgent support to recover from consecutive lost harvests and to keep their breeding livestock healthy and productive at a time that pastures are the driest in years. Production outputs in the three countries are grim.
"We're dealing with a cyclical phenomenon in the Horn of Africa," said Dominique Burgeon, Director of FAO's Emergency and Rehabilitation Division. "But we also know from experience that timely support to farming families can significantly boost their ability to withstand the impacts of these droughts and soften the blow to their livelihoods," he stressed.
For this reason, FAO has already begun disbursing emergency funds for rapid interventions in Kenya and Somalia.
The funds will support emergency feed and vaccinations for breeding and weak animals, repairs of water points, and seeds and tools to plant in the spring season. FAO is also working with local officials to bolster countries' emergency preparedness across the region.
"Especially in those areas where we know natural hazards are recurring, working with the Government to further build-up their ability to mitigate future shocks is a smart intervention that can significantly reduce the need for humanitarian and food aid further down the line," Burgeon said.
Kenya is highly likely to see another drought in early 2017, and with it a rise in food insecurity. Current estimates show some 1.3 million people are food insecure.
Based on the latest predictions, the impacts of the current drought in the southern part of the country will lessen by mid-2017, but counties in the North - in particular Turkana, Marsabit, Wajir and Mandera - will steadily get worse.
Families in these areas are heavily dependent on livestock. Now, with their livelihoods already stressed - the last reliable rain they received was in December 2015- they will get little relief from the October-December short rains, which typically mark a recovery period but once again fell short this season.
In the affected counties, the terms of trade have become increasingly unfavourable for livestock keepers, as prices of staple foods are rising, while a flood of weakened sheep, goats and cows onto local markets has brought down livestock prices.
To ensure livestock markets remain functional throughout the dry season in 2017, FAO, is training local officials in better managing livestock markets -- in addition to providing feed, water and veterinary support.
After two poor rainy seasons this year, Somalia is in a countrywide state of drought emergency, ranging from moderate to extreme. As a result, the Gu cereal harvest - from April to June - was 50 percent below average, and prospects for the October-December Deyr season are very grim.
To make matters worse, the country's driest season - the Jilaal that begins in January- is expected to be even harsher than usual, which means Somali famers are unlikely to get a break anytime soon.
All indications are that crop farmers are already facing a second consecutive season with poor harvest. Pastoralists, meanwhile, are struggling to provide food for both their families and livestock, as pasture and water for grazing their animals are becoming poorer and scarcer by the day - in the south, pasture availability is the lowest it has been in the past five years.
Some five million Somalis are food insecure through December 2016. This includes 1.1 million people in Crisis and Emergency conditions of food insecurity (Phases 3 and 4 on the five-tier IPC scale used by humanitarian agencies). This is a 20 percent increase in just six months.
The latest analysis forecasts that the number of people in Crisis and Emergency conditions of food insecurity may further rise by more than a quarter of a million people between February and May 2017. Similar conditions in 2011 have resulted in famine and loss of lives, and therefore early action is urgently needed to avoid a repeat.
FAO calls on resource partners to urgently scale up assistance in rural areas, in the form of cash relief, emergency livestock support and agricultural inputs to plant in the April Gu season.
If farmers cannot plant during Gu - which traditionally produces 60 percent of the country's annual cereal output -- they will be left without another major harvest until 2018.
Farming families in Ethiopia, meanwhile, are extremely vulnerable as they have not been able to recover from the 2015 El Nino-induced drought. Some 5.6 million people remain food insecure, while millions more depend on livestock herds that need to be protected and treated to improve milk and meat production. Here, too, better access to feed and water is critical.
The crop situation is relatively stable after the country completed the most widespread emergency seed distribution in Ethiopia's history. FAO and more than 25 NGOs and agencies reached 1.5 million households with drought-resistant seeds.
As a result of enabling farming families to grow their own food, the government and humanitarian community saved close to $1 billion in emergency aid, underlining that investing in farmers is not only the right thing to do but also the most cost-efficient.
FAO's Early Warning early action work
Somalia and Kenya are among the first countries benefiting from FAO's new Early Warning Early Action Fund (EWEA). The fund ensures quick activation of emergency plans when there is a high likelihood of a disaster that would affect agriculture and people's food and nutrition security.
The fund will be part of a larger Early Warning Early Action System that tracks climate data and earth imaging to determine what areas are at risk of an imminent shock and will benefit from early intervention.
The present report, submitted pursuant to Security Council resolution 1612 (2005) and subsequent resolutions, is the fourth report of the Secretary-General on children and armed conflict in Somalia. It covers the period from 1 April 2010 to 31 July 2016. The report focuses on the six grave violations committed against children and provides information on the perpetrators and the context in which the violations took place.
The report sets out the trends and patterns of grave violations against children by all parties to the conflict and underlines the worsening impact of armed conflict on children. It also raises concerns about the detention of children. The report sets out progress made in addressing grave violations against children, including in the legislative framework of Somalia and through the adoption and implementation of action plans.
Lastly, the report provides a series of recommendations to end and prevent grave violations against children in Somalia and improve their protection.
The present report is submitted pursuant to Security Council resolution 1612 (2005) and subsequent resolutions on children and armed conflict and covers the period from 1 April 2010 to 31 July 2016. It describes the trends and patterns of grave violations committed against children since my previous report (S/2010/577) and outlines the progress and challenges since the adoption of the conclusions by the Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict in March 2011 (S/AC.51/2011/12). Where possible, the parties to the conflict that are responsible for grave violations are identified in the report. In that regard, in the annexes to my most recent annual report on children and armed conflict issued in June 2016 (A/70/836-S/2016/360), Al-Shabaab, Ahl al-Sunna wal-Jama‘a and the Somali National Army are listed for child recruitment and use. The Somali National Army is listed for killing and maiming and Al-Shabaab for the killing and maiming as well as abduction of children.
Notwithstanding significant political developments in Somalia during the reporting period, the security situation remained highly volatile, resulting in large numbers of civilian casualties, including children. Multiple national and international actors have been involved in the fight against Al-Shabaab. The reporting period also witnessed continued violence involving clan militias and the alignment of various regional forces, mostly composed of clan-based militias, with the emerging federal states. Those developments led to an extremely complex situation, which heavily affected children.
Monitoring and reporting activities were significantly hindered by the security situation, ongoing military operations and very limited access to affected populations. With much of southern and central Somalia remaining inaccessible during the reporting period, it is important to note that the information contained in the present report is only indicative of the full extent of grave violations committed against children.
II. Overview of the political and security situation and parties to conflict
A. Political and security developments
The eight-year political transition in Somalia concluded on 1 August 2012 following the adoption of the Provisional Federal Constitution and the establishment of the Federal Parliament and Government on 20 August. One of the major aspects of state-building was the envisaged establishment of a federal system through the creation of regional states. On 28 August 2013, the Interim Jubba Administration was formed, followed by the Interim South-West Administration, the Galmudug Interim Administration and the HirShabelle Interim Administration. The establishment of the Galmudug Interim Administration led to clashes with Puntland and between pro-Federal Government forces and Ahl al-Sunna wal-Jama‘a, resulting in civilian casualties.
Al-Shabaab announced its retreat from Mogadishu in August 2011 following military operations by the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) and Transitional Federal Government forces. With the subsequent intensification of operations against Al-Shabaab in southern and central Somalia, the country task force on monitoring and reporting received increasing reports of grave violations by all parties to conflict. During the reporting period, significant territorial gains were made in southern and central Somalia by the Somali National Army and allied militias, with the support of AMISOM. In mid-2015, AMISOM and the Somali National Army launched a joint military operation against Al-Shabaab, code named “Operation Juba Corridor”. With the loss of its strongholds and the weakening of its forces, Al-Shabaab increasingly resorted to asymmetrical attacks against the Somali National Army, AMISOM and soft targets, including through ambushes, hit-and-run attacks, suicide bombings and the use of improvised explosive devices, often resulting in heavy civilian casualties, including children. Later in the reporting period, Al-Shabaab extended its activities to Puntland. In March 2016, an attempted large-scale advance by Al-Shabaab into Puntland and Mudug was repelled by Puntland and Galmudug Interim Administration forces. The Government of Puntland reported that its forces had killed 208 Al-Shabaab fighters and captured 100, including children, while the Galmudug Interim Administration announced that its forces had killed 115 and captured 110, including children. Notwithstanding serious setbacks and loss of control of key towns and urban centres, large swa ths of territory and key transport routes remained in the hands of Al-Shabaab.
B. Parties to the conflict
Federal Government of Somalia security forces
- As specified in the Provisional Federal Constitution, the Federal Government of Somalia security forces are composed of its national army, intelligence services and police and prison forces. Additionally, various entities operated in different combinations in support of the Somali National Army, including clan militias and regional security forces. The integration of militia and regional forces into the Somali National Army progressed in the reporting period, albeit slowly. The lack of a precise overview of the composition, structure and deployment of the Somali National Army, frequent changes in allegiance by militias and the complexity of interactions among clan militias, the Somali National Army and regional forces rendered the identification of perpetrators difficult.
- Various regional forces, mostly composed of clan-based militias, aligned themselves with the emerging federal states and interim administrations, including the Interim Jubba Administration, Galmudug Interim Administration and Interim South-West Administration forces. In addition, Puntland and “Somaliland” maintained their own security forces.
Al-Shabaab emerged as an independent militant group around December 2006 after breaking away from the Union of Islamic Courts. While the group’s activities focused on targets within Somalia, it also carried out deadly strikes in the region. Al-Shabaab remained a major threat to Somalia and the region despite significant territorial losses.
Ahl al-Sunna wal-Jama‘a is a Somali militia that controls parts of Galmudug, including its capital Dhuusamarreeb. It joined forces with the Transitional Federal Government in 2010 to fight Al-Shabaab, presumably in exchange for positions in the Government. Not all members supported the move, and discord emerged. More recently, Ahl al-Sunna wal-Jama‘a factions boycotted the creation of the Galmudug Interim Administration and clashes erupted between Ahl al-Sunna wal-Jama‘a factions and the Somali National Army.
AMISOM was deployed to Somalia in March 2007 to, inter alia, reduce the threat posed by Al-Shabaab and other armed groups. At the time of writing, in December 2016, its military component comprised troops from Burundi, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda. While Ethiopian and Kenyan troops were rehatted into AMISOM in 2012 and 2014, respectively, both continued to also operate bilaterally in Somalia, outside of AMISOM command.
Towards the end of the reporting period, the United States of America also intensified its operations against Al-Shabaab in Somalia, including through air and drone strikes.
III. Grave violations committed against children
Given the challenging security context, the length of the reporting period and general lack of access for the country task force on monitoring and reporting throughout Somalia, data presented in the present report are only indicative of the scale, scope, patterns and trends of grave violations and the full impact of armed conflict on children. More specifically, the analysis by perpetrators started from 2012, the following sections focus on the period from 2012 to July 2016. In addition, the numbers provided in the sections on abduction and detention cover the period from 2014 to July 2016, given that related disaggregated data were available only from 2014 onwards. From 2012 to 2014, the country task force on monitoring and reporting identified clan militias as either allied with the Somali National Army or, in some cases, Al-Shabaab; they are thus presented under those classifications. Moreover, given that the establishment of interim federal administrations started to gain pace by the end of 2014, some of the clan-based militias evolved into regional security forces while several others remained separate and operated on the periphery of the Somali National Army. Disaggregated data on violations by regional security forces are therefore presented from 2015 onwards. Given the complexity of identifying perpetrators, grave violations that were not attributable to any specific party to the conflict are recorded as “unknown/unidentified armed element”.
In the light of the above premise, the majority of violations against children were documented in 2012 when the Somali National Army and AMISOM conducted major joint military operations against Al-Shabaab. A downward trend was observed in 2013 and 2014, which was largely attributable to the challenges faced by the country task force in gaining access for the purpose of monitoring and reporting. Against the background of an intensified military campaign against Al-Shabaab, violations increased again in 2015 and spiked during the first six months of 2016, exceeding the total numbers for 2013 and 2014 and approaching those of 2015.
Grave violations against children were carried out with impunity. The breakdown in law and order and the absence of State authority in large parts of Somalia exacerbated the situation. Traditional justice mechanisms were often preferred and led to financial settlements between families, at times in violation of victims’ rights and without the enforcement of any other form of punishment against perpetrators.
Switzerland - IOM reports that 1,159 migrants and refugees entered Europe by sea in 2017, through 12 January, arriving mostly in Greece and Italy, compared with 22,590 through the first 12 days of January, 2016.
A year ago, IOM reported 22,322 migrants and refugees had landed on Greece’s islands after short runs from Turkey – a number consistent with the surge of Turkey-to-Europe passages that began the previous summer. This year through 12 January, IOM Athens reports that only 430 migrants from Turkey have landed in Greece.
Arrivals in Italy, while also quite low, are running slightly ahead of 2016’s totals this winter. IOM Rome reports 729 migrant arrivals in Italy from North Africa in 2017, compared to 268 at this time last year. Deaths recorded at sea so far in 2017 total 27 – compared with 64 through the first 12 days of 2016 – based on a report this morning that 14 bodies were found off Libya Thursday.
“This report is rather alarming,” said Julia Black of IOM’s Missing Migrants Project in Berlin. “Bodies washing up in Libya is something we often see preceded by a large shipwreck in the Central Mediterranean."
IOM Rome reported that of the 181,436 migrants arriving in Italy in 2016, the largest number came from Nigeria – 37,551 or more than 20 percent of total arrivals. Of these, 11,700 were women and children. Just over 3,000 were unaccompanied minors.
Eritreans were the second largest group at 20,718, including 3,832 unaccompanied minors – the largest child contingent from any sending country on this route. Despite the high number, this is the lowest total from Eritrea in three years (see chart below).
Eritrea was the top country of origin for arrivals in Italy in 2015, with 39,162, and the second largest – after Syria – in 2014, when 34,329 Eritreans sailed to Italy from North Africa. Between the years 2014-2016 Italian authorities recorded a total of 94,209 Eritrean migrants arriving by sea.
IOM Rome also reported a steep decline in the number of Syrian migrants risking the central Mediterranean route from North Africa. From a high of 42,323 in 2014, Syrian arrivals in Italy fell to 7,448 in 2015 and just 1,200 in 2016.
“We saw very little evidence that Syrians, who were disembarking from Turkey in 2015, returned to the North African route last year,” said IOM Rome spokesperson Flavio Di Giacomo. “It is quite possible those few who did come on this route in 2016 were already based in Egypt, Jordan or elsewhere in the region.”
Among other surprising statistics reported by IOM Rome this week: arrivals in Italy from the Gambia (11,929), Cote d’Ivoire (12,396) and Guinea (13,342) all topped 10,000 in 2016. The three West African countries also sent a combined total of over 4,000 unaccompanied minors.
Other sending countries with at least 10,000 of their citizens rescued between Libya and Italy in 2016 included Senegal and Mali.
The only non-African sending country among the top ten on this route was Bangladesh, with 8,131 migrants rescued in 2016. Of these, over 1,000 were unaccompanied minors, but only five were women.
The total number of unaccompanied minors rescued on the central Mediterranean route in 2016 was 25,846. The total number of women was 24,133.
For further information please contact:
Joel Millman at IOM Geneva, Tel: +41.79.103 8720, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Flavio Di Giacomo at IOM Italy, Tel: +39 347 089 8996, Email: email@example.com
Sabine Schneider at IOM Germany, Tel: +49 30 278 778 17 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
IOM Greece: Daniel Esdras, Tel: +30 210 9912174, Email: email@example.com or Kelly Namia, Tel: +30 210 9919040, +30 210 9912174, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Julia Black at IOM GMDAC, Tel: +49 30 278 778 27, Email: email@example.com
Mazen Aboulhosn at IOM Turkey, Tel: +9031245-51202, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
IOM Libya: Othman Belbeisi, Tel: +216 29 600389, Email: email@example.com or Ashraf Hassan, Tel: +216297 94707, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The humanitarian situation in Somalia has become increasingly fragile. Some 5 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance. Of these, 1.1 million are acutely food insecure. Severe drought conditions are expanding across the country. (AWD)/Cholera outbreaks have been reported in some areas. To boost drought response, pooled funds have been released. Humanitarian partners are scaling up life-saving response to the most vulnerable people.
A worsening food security situation, due to a prolonged drought and ongoing conflict in Somalia, is threatening to unravel the fragile progress achieved since the famine of 2011. More than ever, WFP is counting on its partnership with ECHO to assist in meeting the needs of the most vulnerable Somalis.
Khadija Maalliim Ali is 25, divorced, jobless and singlehandedly raising six children. She lives with her sister, also a single mother with 4 children.
With little means to buy nutritious or diversified foods, Khadija relies on support from a mother and child nutrition centre in Yaaqshiid, northeast of Somalia’s capital, Mogadishu. In addition to pre and post-natal care and advice, she receives a monthly food ration from WFP as well as specialized nutrient-dense food supplements given to young children and a cash-based e-voucher to buy fresh food and vegetables. Together, these have helped Khadija and her small children avert malnutrition.
2016 was the year that Somalia’s food security situation reached a new threshold – 5 million Somalis, or 40% of the population, are now food insecure. Of that figure, 1.1. million people are unable to meet their daily food requirements and are in need of life-saving assistance, while 3.9 million are “stressed” and in need of livelihood support, without which they fall at risk of becoming even more acutely food insecure. The situation for children is also tenuous, with 350,000 children acutely malnourished, of whom 50,000 are severely malnourished.
ECHO funding is helping WFP reach vulnerable groups such as mothers and young children and internally displaced populations (IDPs). Wherever possible, WFP is using SCOPE, a digital platform that allows WFP to register beneficiaries using biometrics (fingerprint and photo), store information on the amount of food they are entitled to and – in the case of cash or vouchers – transfer the specific amount onto the cards.
Diversity and Choice
Xaliimo Mohamed Nuur is a divorced mother of six, ages 2 to 10 years, living in an IDP (internally displaced persons) camp in Bossaso. Life is difficult – none of her children attend school and she is unable to find work, but she says the security situation in Bossaso is far better than in Mogadishu, where she used to live. In the Bossaso camp, she has access to a health facility.
“I had nothing before except little support from my ex-husband. This food assistance has had a positive impact on my family – my children aren’t continuously hungry,” said Xaliimo who has been receiving food assistance from WFP for the last three months on her e-transfer card and finds it easy to use. “I know how to place my finger in the fingerprint scan when they verify my card in the machine. I like that I buy food of my choice.”
Learning new skills
ECHO funding is also enabling Somalis to acquire new skills to help get them back on their feet. Hinda Osman Hassan is a 32-year old widow and mother of six. Her inconsistent domestic jobs, such as washing clothes, have meant that only her two eldest can go to school, while her four younger children stay home. Hinda recently completed a 9-month training course in Bossaso that consisted of 3-months of numeracy and literacy, followed by 6-months of mobile phone repair training. Throughout the duration of both training modules, she received monthly food entitlements on her SCOPE e-transfer card to feed herself and her family.
After the graduation ceremony, Hinda will receive a mobile phone repair business startup kit. Her goals are clear.
“With my skills, I will be a big person with my own business, and food will not be a problem for me anymore. I will be able to send my children to school,” she explained.
Through its humanitarian funding to WFP, ECHO is making an impact each day. From a Somali family who sits down to a meal it could not otherwise afford, a single mother of six provides food for her children while learning skills so she can go from washing clothes to repairing mobile phones, to a mother and her children who get a better chance at a productive life when they receive food supplements to prevent malnutrition.
Written by Mireille Ferrari, with contributions by Habiba Bishar (Mogadishu, Somalia), Odette Kishabaga and Abdifatah Barre (Bossaso, Somalia) .
The United Nations, African Union, European Union, Inter-Governmental Authority on Development, Ethiopia, Italy, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States are concerned about the unfolding dispute within the Galmudug regional assembly and between members of the assembly and President Abdikarim Guled.
The dispute, which has led to a vote to remove the President from office, with the President and the Speaker of the assembly rejecting the vote as illegal, is potentially destabilizing.
The international partners call on all the stakeholders in Galmudug, in particular members of the regional assembly, the Speaker of the assembly and the President, to resolve the underlying issues through dialogue and refrain from resorting to any acts of violence.
The international partners call on all Somalis, including the security forces, to now focus on consolidating and building on the gains from the electoral and state-building processes and make every effort to avoid actions that could undermine the progress that is unfolding in the country.
The staff at the Garasbaley Health Centre found he was severely malnourished. He was treated for the diarrhoea and enrolled in the Outpatient Therapeutic Programme (OTP), which meant that his mother was given a regular supply of nutritious peanut paste to feed him.
“_I didn’t know what to do when he became sick and stopped eating,_” says Fowsiya Abdullahi, whose family moved to Mogadishu, Somalia, after drought in their hometown Baidoa led to food shortages. “_But after he was treated and put on the feeding programme, he recovered quickly._”
The centre is busy with mothers queuing to receive the peanut paste, and children being weighed and screened. Today, little Abdirahmani is being discharged because he now weighs a healthy seven kilos. A week ago his older sister, two-year-old Sabri Abdullahi who was also suffering from severe malnutrition, was also discharged, “_I’m very delighted to see my children healthy again,_” says Fowsiya with a smile.
Abdirahman and Sabri join over 50 000 Somali children who have recovered from severe acute malnutrition, which can be fatal This is possible thanks to UNICEF’s work supported by funding from the European Commission's humanitarian aid department.
“_We have been able to save tens of thousands of lives because of the generous funding from the European Commission and other donors,_” says Ezatullah Majeed, UNICEF Somalia’s Chief of Nutrition. “_The movement of people in the south, coupled with the effects of El Nino in the north means that the number of malnourished children is increasing once more and it is critical that we reach them as soon as possible._”
World: Preventing El Niño Southern Oscillation Episodes from Becoming Disasters: A ‘Blueprint for Action’
The 2015/16 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episode severely affected more than 60 million people around the world. The six-month period from January to June 2016 was the planet’s warmest half-year on record, with an average temperature of 1.3°C warmer than the later 19th century. The impact of drought, flooding and severe storms led 23 countries to appeal for international humanitarian assistance in East and Southern Africa, ‘Central America, the Caribbean and the Pacific. The most vulnerable groups bore the brunt of the emergency, including women, children, the elderly, the disabled and people living with HIV/ AIDS.
In May 2016, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Mrs. Mary Robinson of Ireland and Ambassador Macharia Kamau of Kenya as his Special Envoys on El Niño and Climate. The Special Envoys recognized the important progress of a number countries in preparing for and responding to the ENSO escalation. They also saw that ENSO’s severe weather threatened to overwhelm even the most proactive countries, tipping the scales toward economic loss and humanitarian need. They identified that a purely humanitarian response would not be sufficient to address the underlying vulnerability linked to the recurring and predictable ENSO phenomenon, and proposed an integrated approach which focused on prevention and bridged the humanitarian-development nexus.
Despite the progress made and an abundance of good practice examples, there is no question that a much greater sense of focus and urgency is required to ensure that future ENSO events do not result in the scale of emergency caused by the 2015/2016 El Niño. ‘Business as usual’ is no longer an option. The governments of at-risk countries must be supported to effectively and comprehensively plan, prepare and rapidly respond to these events, including by making integrated investments in climate resilience. The objectives of the Blueprint for Action (‘the Blueprint’) are to provide a tool to support integrated, nationally-led and equity-driven plans to prepare for ENSO and other climate hazards, absorbing risks without jeopardizing development gains, and informing climate-smart development plans to reduce risk; and to encourage the global, regional, national and local partnerships necessary to support the effective and sustainable implementation of these plans. Action is envisioned across the 15-year timeframe of the Agenda 2030, measured by progress against the targets and indicators of all eight international commitments and agreements which were endorsed/reviewed in 2014-2016.
With the underlying premise that ENSO and other weather events can be predicted, prepared for and mitigated, thus avoiding humanitarian crises, the Blueprint identifies eleven ‘building blocks’ which can be incorporated as appropriate into nationally led multihazard plans and other efforts to focus greater efforts on prevention and resilience:
A. Turning early warning into early action (Anticipate)
1. Collective risk analysis, early information sharing and early requests for support
2. Harmonised early action planning including agreed thresholds for action
3. Allocation of domestic resources for preparedness and early action
B. Managing risk to protect people and assets (Absorb)
1. Adaptive social protection programmes for resilience
2. Expanded use of insurance solutions whenever appropriate
3. Protecting dependent populations in institutions: Healthcare, Justice and Education
C. Climate-proofing development (Reshape)
1. Risk-informed national and local planning for disaster and climate resilience
2. Climate-proof strategies for resilience in key affected sectors
a. Food and nutrition security and agriculture/pastoralism
b. Health and nutrition
c. Water, sanitation and hygiene
d. Resilient livelihoods
The Blueprint’s success is predicated on strong national leadership of the process and continuing high-level engagement and monitoring of multi-sectoral implementation. Collaboration with a wide range of other partners will also be needed to achieve results. Four critical areas for partnerships were identified by the Special Envoys:
Partnerships for Financing
Partnerships for Capacity Development and Learning Partnerships With Research Institutions and Academia
The Blueprint implements the Agenda for Humanity`s Core Responsibility Four, which set out a ‘New Way of Working’ that seeks to move ‘from delivering aid to ending need’ by anticipating crises through risk management; reinforcing local institutions and actors for prevention, and increasing humanitarian-development collaboration to increase resilience and reduce vulnerability. The Blueprint is based within the Human Security Approach, and will work to put women and girls at the centre of national resilience planning and action.
The Blueprint is offered as tool to be used by any country. It is, however, envisioned that the Blueprint approach will be undertaken by a small number of ‘early mover’ countries most affected by the 2015/2016 El Niño. Work in these countries would begin in March 2017, when the immediate emergency has subsided.
Prioritize Accountability, Redress for Victims
(Nairobi) – Clampdowns by governments in East Africa on peaceful protests and free expression severely threatened human rights in the region in 2016, Human Rights Watch said today in its World Report 2017.
Government security forces in Ethiopia, as well as in Uganda and Kenya, used unnecessary and disproportionate force to disperse largely peaceful protests, causing deaths and injuries. In Ethiopia, hundreds of protesters were killed this year. East African governments also used a range of tactics to curtail criticism of government policies and obstruct the work of journalists, notably with physical force, arbitrary arrests, and criminal charges. Across the region, governments failed to investigate and prosecute security force personnel for serious human rights abuses. Refugees, particularly in Kenya, faced threats of forced return.
“East African governments showed little regard for the basic rights of their citizens to free expression and assembly in 2016,” said Maria Burnett, associate Africa director at Human Rights Watch. “Ethiopia’s brutal clampdown on unprecedented protests was an appalling low point for the region.”
In the 687-page World Report, its 27th edition, Human Rights Watch reviews human rights practices in more than 90 countries. In his introductory essay, Executive Director Kenneth Roth writes that a new generation of authoritarian populists seeks to overturn the concept of human rights protections, treating rights as an impediment to the majority will. For those who feel left behind by the global economy and increasingly fear violent crime, civil society groups, the media, and the public have key roles to play in reaffirming the values on which rights-respecting democracy has been built.
Governments throughout the region routinely failed to investigate serious abuses by state security forces, cutting off avenues of redress for victims, Human Rights Watch said. In Ethiopia, state security forces violently suppressed widespread protests against government policies, killing hundreds of people and detaining tens of thousands. The government later imposed a far-reaching state of emergency, restricting basic rights, following a stampede at a cultural festival triggered by the government’s response to the large crowds. The Ethiopian government has failed to meaningfully investigate the killings of protesters and other abuses.
In Kenya, security forces forcibly disappeared at least 34 people over the past two years during counterterrorism operations in northeastern Kenya and Nairobi. Two were eventually released, though one of those has been charged with terrorism. Ugandan police and army personnel killed at least 13 people during alleged arrest attempts in law enforcement operations in the western Rwenzori region. In Somalia, politically motivated violence took a heavy toll on civilians.
Conflict and persecution in South Sudan, Somalia and Burundi, among other countries, prompted East African countries to host hundreds of thousands of refugees with mixed results. While Uganda has worked to find ways to integrate refugees, the Kenyan government violated its commitments under international refugee law by announcing the closure of the Dadaab refugee camp, predominantly inhabited by Somali refugees. The decision forced thousands of Somali refugees to return home, despite ongoing armed conflict there, and left those remaining in fear for their safety and future.
Government-orchestrated threats and violence directed at the media remains rife throughout East Africa. Several independent journalists in Eritrea have been in solitary detention since September 2001. None have been brought to trial and no independent newspapers operate there. Ethiopia also detained journalists and bloggers, often under the Anti-Terrorism Proclamation, and many remain in detention. The Ethiopian government restricted access to diaspora television stations and jammed the signals of international radio stations like Deutsche Welle and Voice of America.
In Somalia, federal and regional authorities and the Islamist armed group Al-Shabab carried out targeted attacks on media, including harassment, and intimidation. At least two journalists were killed in targeted attacks. In May, a Kenyan court declared a section of the Information and Communications Act that police had used to arrest and charge journalists unconstitutional.
During Uganda’s 2016 elections, government officials and police arrested and beat over a dozen journalists – in some cases during live broadcasts. At least eight Kenyan journalists and bloggers were arrested and charged under vaguely worded provisions in new laws. In both Ethiopia and Uganda, at times of heightened criticism of the government, the authorities blocked access to the internet and social media networks, saying that it was necessary for “security reasons.”
In some instances, governments or national courts took positive steps to improve avenues for redress for victims of human rights abuses. The president of Somalia signed a law establishing a national human rights commission that can receive complaints and monitor prisons and unlawful detention facilities. Monitors should be able to visit prisons unannounced. In Uganda, the Constitutional Court ruled unconstitutional a provision of the Equal Opportunities Commission Act that permitted the commission to reject complaints from people considered “immoral or socially unacceptable” by the majority.
“In the name of security, patterns of abusive response have spread across East Africa, further alienating many already marginalized communities,” Burnett said. “Governments in the region and their international partners should rein in abusive forces and make accountability and tolerance for divergent views a priority.”
La planification humanitaire pour 2016 prévoit 4,3 millions de personnes dans le besoin dont 1,5 million ciblées pour une assistance humanitaire, reflétant des niveaux élevés de vulnérabilité dans tout le pays.
Le Tchad continue à ressentir l'impact de la crise nigériane dans la région du Lac ainsi que des conflits dans les pays voisins (Libye, Soudan et RCA). Le pays accueille 391 745 réfugiés dont 311 470 réfugiés soudanais depuis plus de 10 ans, 70 310 réfugiés centrafricains et 8 598 réfugiés nigérians. La région du Lac touchée par la crise nigériane accueille actuellement 121 720 personnes déplacées dont 108 476 déplacés internes, 12 920 retournés tchadiens et 324 ressortissants de pays tiers. En outre le pays accueille plus de 101 724 retournés tchadiens de la RCA, installés principalement dans les régions du sud et à N'djamena dans des sites ou villages d'accueil.
L'insécurité alimentaire et la malnutrition restent un problème chronique dans le pays, notamment dans la bande sahélienne. L'insécurité alimentaire touche environ 2,9 millions de personnes (soit 21% de la population totale) parmi lesquelles environ 500 000 sont en insécurité alimentaire sévère (source: cadre harmonisé nov 2016, période oct-déc 2016), auxquels s'ajoutent également les réfugiés et les retournés (non inclus dans le cadre harmonisé). La situation nutritionnelle est également préoccupante, avec des taux de malnutrition aigüe globale supérieurs à 15% (seuil d’urgence) dans 6 régions sur 23, et des taux de malnutrition aigüe sévère supérieurs à 2% (seuil d’urgence) dans 11 régions.
La forte prévalence des maladies à potentiel épidémique telles que le choléra et la rougeole, ainsi que celle du paludisme, combinée à une faiblesse du système sanitaire, sont des causes de morbidité et de mortalité accentuées parmi la population, en particulier chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans. Le Tchad occupe le 185e rang selon l'Indice de Développement Humain (IDH 2015), avec quelques-uns des indicateurs sociaux les plus alarmants (espérance de vie de 51 ans, taux de mortalité maternelle de 860 décès pour 100 000 naissances, rapport EDS-MICS 2014-2015).
Mogadishu, 11 January 2017 - The incumbent Speaker of the federal parliament’s House of the People, Mohamed Sheikh Osman Jawari, was re-elected to another four-year term during voting that was held today in the Somali capital.
Mr. Jawari received 141 votes to defeat three other candidates for the key legislative post.
In his victory speech, Mr. Jawari appealed to his fellow members of parliament (MPs) to put aside their political differences for the sake of their constituents. “Today there is no winner or loser. It is the Somali people who have won,” he said.
The runner-up in the voting for the Speaker’s post was Abdirashid Mohamed Hidig, who garnered 97 votes, followed by Abdifatah Mohamed Ibrahim Geesey and Idriss Abdi Dhaqtar, who received 17 votes and two votes, respectively. Two ballots were spoilt.
“It was an honour for me to contest for the seat of Speaker of Parliament. Speaker Jawari is my friend and I congratulate him for the win,” said Mr. Hidig, who pledged to explore other avenues for serving the Somali people.
Members of parliament expressed confidence in Mr. Jawari’s leadership. “I look forward to his leadership, seeing him set up parliamentary structures. We have high expectations of him because he has the experience,” said Mariam Haji Abdi Gedi, an MP from Galmudug state.
Two hundred and fifty-nine members of the House of the People voted in the landmark election that was witnessed by representatives of the international community, key stakeholders and senior federal government officials.
Mr. Jawari was elected Speaker of the country’s ninth federal Parliament in 2012, after having previously served as a cabinet minister in the Siad Barre regime.
As Speaker of the House of the People, he will preside over the election of two deputy speakers later this week. Mr. Jawari will then join his counterpart as speaker of the Upper House in overseeing the upcoming presidential election in both houses of the federal parliament.
In 2016, between January and November, 351,619 people crossed the Mediterranean Sea, risking their lives to reach Europe. These new arrivals are in addition to more than one million refugees and migrants who made the journey across the Mediterranean Sea on unseaworthy boats in 2015.
In 2016, the number of those arriving decreased substantially after March. Of those reaching European shores so far this year, 58% came from the ten countries currently producing the most refugees globally.
In November 2016, 16,352 refugees and migrants arrived by crossing the Mediterranean. Among those, 1,991 people arrived in Greece, 13,581 people in Italy and 780 people arrived in Spain. Total arrivals in Greece, Italy and Spain in November decreased by 48% compared to the previous month, (31,429), primarily due to the worsening weather conditions brought on by the onset of winter. Overall, arrivals also decreased by 89% compared to the same month in 2015 (154,975), largely due to the greater number of arrivals last year through the Eastern Mediterranean route.
Between January and November 2016, 351,619 people arrived by sea, including 171,785 in Greece, 173,008 in Italy and 6,826 in Spain. This constitutes a 61% decrease compared to the same period in 2015 (896,285).
In November 2016, arrivals most commonly originated Nigeria, Guinea and Côte d'Ivoire.
So far in 2016, the majority of arrivals are from the Syrian Arab Republic (23%), Afghanistan (12%), Nigeria (10%), Iraq (8%), Eritrea (6%), Guinea (4%), Côte d'Ivoire (4%), Gambia (4%) and Pakistan (3%).
South Sudan: Where is the Money? Donor Funding for Conflict and Violence Prevention in Eastern Africa
Mutahi, P. and Ruteere, M.
IDS Evidence Report 217
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In 2014, Kenya and Uganda were two of the top three recipients of official development assistance in Africa. The funding focused on education, health care, infrastructure, entrepreneurship development, HIV/AIDS treatment, conflict prevention and relief from natural crises such as droughts, famines or earthquakes.
Such a mixed bag of funding priorities points to the variegated nature of the development agenda of both the funding actors and the recipient countries. This broad scope, however, obscures the recent shifts and developments with regard to the major challenge of violence and conflict facing the region, and the growing importance of this field for donors and national governments.
The Eastern Africa region in general currently faces security and violence challenges linked to terrorism, internal armed conflicts and resources-based conflicts, as well as insecurity linked to everyday crime. These forms of insecurity and violence are seen both by the states of the region and by Western donor states as a threat to state stability as well as the region’s development ambitions. Violence reduction is therefore a shared goal both within Eastern Africa and among these Western donor nations.
This study seeks to critically examine the shifts and trends in current donor funding in Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, Somalia and South Sudan aimed at reducing violence and conflict. It analyses key issues being funded as well as trends in donor funding.
One of the strongest El Niño events ever recorded has affected more than 51 million people and placed more than 26.5 million children at risk of malnutrition, water shortages and disease in 10 countries in the region.In 2016, more than 1 million children were targeted for treatment for severe acute malnutrition (SAM), and water shortages, protection concerns and the deterioration of basic social services remain key concerns. South Sudan's ongoing crisis has left 1.9 million people internally displaced since the conflict began in December 2013 and more than 1.1 million people are living as refugees in Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda, as well as in the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Sudan. In Somalia, some 5 million people are food insecure. Burundi remains unstable, with more than 325,000 people having crossed the border into the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda since April 2015. Political tensions are growing in some areas, with general elections due in Angola, Kenya and Rwanda in 2017, which could trigger internal and cross-border displacement. A further deterioration in the political situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo may also generate wider implications for the region. The annual rain and cyclone season expected in the first quarter of 2017 may cause displacement and heighten the risk of disease outbreaks, particularly cholera.
Regional humanitarian strategy
The Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Office (ESARO) humanitarian strategy will focus on delivering results for children through sectoral responses in nutrition, health, child protection, education, HIV/AIDS, social protection and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). UNICEF will complement programmes with surge and technical support to crisis response, as well as humanitarian learning and logistical and operational support to ensure the timely and quality delivery of humanitarian action in line with the Core Commitments for Children in Humanitarian Action. ESARO support will focus on the effective implementation of inter-agency regional strategies and initiatives through the Regional Interagency Standing Committee, Southern Africa (RIASCO) Plan of Acton, the South Sudan and Burundi Regional Refugee Response Plans, the Democratic Republic of the Congo Regional Contingency Plan, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD)-led Cholera Response Plan, the Joint Southern Africa Cholera Initiative and ongoing humanitarian responses to chronic crises such as in Somalia. Through inter-agency partnerships and collaboration, ESARO will seek to strengthen coordination and promote timely, quality and accountable humanitarian responses. Evidence gathering and continued engagement with the African Union, IGAD, the IGAD Drought Disaster Resilience and Sustainability Initiative Steering Committee Resilience Analysis Unit, and the Southern African Development Community (SADC) will feed into regional and global policy briefs, with a focus on children and the promotion of childfriendly policies. Sectoral emergency preparedness and response training, coupled with improved risk analysis, will better prepare UNICEF country offices, governments and partners to manage multi-hazard disasters in the region. Risk-informed programming remains a key lens through which to strengthen UNICEF capacity to develop shock-resilient programmes.