Somalia - ReliefWeb News
Poorer countries host most of the forcibly displaced – report
According to a new UNHCR study, most of the 3.2 million who were driven from their homes in the first half of 2016 found shelter in low or middle income countries.
GENEVA – Conflict, persecution and violence newly uprooted at least 3.2 million people in the first half of last year, and low- and middle-income countries played the greatest role in sheltering the world’s displaced, a new report by UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, has found.
In the first half of last year, 1.7 million people were newly displaced within their own country, while 1.5 million had crossed an international border, UNHCR’s Mid-Year Trends 2016 report shows.
While the numbers of newly displaced were one third lower than during the same period in 2015, when 5 million people were newly displaced, the global total continued to rise. Prospects for displaced people to return to their homes remained slim while conflicts intensified.
More than half the new refugees in the first half of 2016 fled Syria’s conflict, with most staying in the immediate region – Turkey, Jordan, Lebanon and Egypt. Other sizable groups fled Iraq, Burundi, Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Somalia, South Sudan and Sudan.
While smaller in scale than the Syrian crisis, South Sudan’s refugee situation continues to grow and affect some of the world’s least developed countries – including Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, DRC, CAR, and Ethiopia. At mid-2016, there were a total of 854,200 refugees from South Sudan, a more than eight-fold increase in three years. Numbers grew even further in the second half of 2016.
Of all countries, Turkey sheltered the greatest number of refugees, hosting 2.8 million by mid-2016. It was followed by Pakistan (1.6 million), Lebanon (1 million), Iran (978,000), Ethiopia (742,700), Jordan (691,800), Kenya (523,500), Uganda (512,600), Germany (478,600) and Chad (386,100).
“Today we face not so much a crisis of numbers but of cooperation and solidarity – especially given that most refugees stay in the countries neighbouring their war-torn homelands,” said UN High Commissioner for Refugees Filippo Grandi.
By comparing the number of refugees to the size of a country’s population or its economy, UNHCR’s report brings the contribution made by host nations sharply into context. For example, relative to the sizes of their populations, Lebanon and Jordan host the largest number of refugees, while in terms of economic performance the biggest burdens are carried by South Sudan and Chad.
According to the latter economic measure, eight out of ten of the top countries hosting refugees are in Africa, with the remaining two in the Middle East. Lebanon and Jordan rank among the top ten hosting countries across all categories – absolute numbers, economic contribution and per capita.
At mid-2016, Syrians continued to be the largest group of refugees worldwide, making up 32 per cent (5.3 million out of 16.5 million) of the global total under UNHCR’s mandate.
Another key finding of UNHCR’s report was that submissions for resettlement increased, reflecting a rise in places allocated to the programme by a growing band of countries. More than 81,100 people were submitted to 34 states in the first half of 2016, with the final yearly figure having surpassed 160,000 – a 20-year high, and more than twice the number of submissions in 2012.
World: Desperate Journeys: Refugees and migrants entering and crossing Europe via the Mediterranean and Western Balkans routes
Refugees and migrants face heightened risks while trying to reach Europe – UNHCR report
In a new report, UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, details the impact of the increased border restrictions introduced in 2016 on refugee and migrant movements towards and inside Europe. It shows that people continued to move but undertook more diversified and dangerous journeys, often relying on smugglers because of the lack of accessible legal ways to Europe.
After the “closure” of the Western Balkan route and the EU-Turkey Statement in March 2016, the number of people reaching Greece via the Eastern Mediterranean route drastically decreased. The Central Mediterranean route from North Africa to Italy has since become the primary entry point to Europe. However, arrival trends in Italy show that the primary nationalities who crossed to Greece had not switched in significant numbers to the Central Mediterranean route.
In total, some 181,436 people arrived in Italy in 2016 by sea, out of which 90 per cent travelled by boat from Libya. Those who came to Italy in 2016 include people in need of international protection, and also victims of trafficking and migrants seeking better lives. The top two nationalities of those arriving in Italy were Nigerians (21%) and Eritreans (11%). A striking feature is the increasing number of unaccompanied and separated children making the journey, over 25,000 in 2016. They represented 14% of all new arrivals in Italy and their number more than doubled compared to the previous year.
The journey to Italy is particularly dangerous, with more deaths at sea in the Mediterranean recorded in 2016 than ever before. Of the 5,096 refugees and migrants reported dead or missing at sea last year, 90% travelled along the sea route to Italy, amounting to one death for every 40 people crossing.
The report also shows that, in the last part of 2016, more people reached Europe through the Western Mediterranean route, either by crossing the sea to Spain from Morocco and Algeria, or by entering the Spanish enclaves of Melilla and Ceuta.
People have continued to leave Turkey along the Eastern Mediterranean route from April onwards, but in much smaller numbers. Most cross the sea to Greece, but some also cross land borders to Greece and Bulgaria, or cross the sea to Cyprus. The use of this route includes a large number of people in need of protection, in 2016 87% of those arriving by sea to Greece came from the top ten refugee producing countries.
This is also the case for those who have continued to move along the Western Balkans route. In Serbia, for example, 82% of those who have arrived are from Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria and almost half are children – 20% of those unaccompanied, though numbers have reduced since April 2016. As a result of stronger border restrictions many rely on smugglers, taking high risks which resulted in several deaths in 2016, says the report.
According to the UNHCR study, tens of thousands of people have been reportedly pushed back by border authorities in Europe, including in Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Hungary, Serbia, Spain, and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, with many cases of alleged violence and abuses in an apparent attempt to deter further entry attempts.
In addition, UNHCR has received deeply worrying reports of refugees and migrants kidnapped, held against their will for several days, physically and sexually abused, tortured or extorted by smugglers and criminal gangs at several points along key routes.
“This report clearly shows that the lack of accessible and safe pathways leads refugees and migrants to take enormous risks while attempting to reach Europe, including those simply trying to join family members.” said Vincent Cochetel, Director of UNHCR’s Europe Bureau.
For more information please contact:
In Geneva, Cécile Pouilly, firstname.lastname@example.org,+41 79 108 26 25
In Croatia, Jan Kapic, email@example.com, +385 911 150 115
In Greece, Roland Schoenbauer, firstname.lastname@example.org, +30 69 48 088 544
In Hungary, Erno Simon, email@example.com, +36 30 657 03 23
In Italy, Carlotta Sami, firstname.lastname@example.org, +39 335 679 4746
In Serbia, Mirjana Ivanovic-Milenkovski, email@example.com, + 381 63 275 154
In Spain, María Jesús Vega, firstname.lastname@example.org, + 34 670661263
In the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Ljubinka Brashnarska, email@example.com, +389 722 693 46
The present report covers the period from 1 January to 31 December 2016, during which the Peacebuilding Fund allocated $70.9 million to 17 countries. The year was marked by an overall improvement in programmatic results, demonstrating that three years of dedicated Fund support to country partners during project design, monitoring and evaluation, including a near fivefold increase in evaluations and a sixfold increase in support missions, had been a sound investment. Among its achievements and historic firsts, the Fund exceeded the United Nations-wide commitment to allocate at least 15 per cent of resources to women’s empowerment, expanded its unique role in financing cross-border and regional peacebuilding initiatives, and launched the first United Nations dedicated funding stream in support of Security Council resolution 2250 (2015) on youth, peace and security. Against these achievements and despite expressions of support from a wide range of Member States, including $152.5 million raised during a September 2016 pledging conference, the Fund’s financial health remains in question at a time when the demand for its assistance has reached historic highs. Options for securing adequate, sustainable financing for peacebuilding will be outlined in my upcoming report on sustaining peace in 2017.
1. The present annual report, covering the period from 1 January to 31 December 2016, is the seventh report submitted to the General Assembly pursuant to Assembly resolution 63/282. It covers the third and final year of the Business Plan 2014-2016 of the Peacebuilding Fund. This report will be complemented by a financial report issued by the Multi-Partner Trust Fund Office no later than 1 May 2017. Additional information can be found at http://www.unpbf.org, and complete information on individual projects can be found on the Multi-Partner Trust Fund Office Gateway (http://mptf.undp.org).
II. Global performance and lessons learned
2. The year 2016 heralded the historic adoption by the General Assembly and the Security Council of concurrent resolutions on the review of the United Nations peacebuilding architecture (see A/69/968-S/2015/490), the most comprehensive and far-reaching resolutions on peacebuilding to date. The emphasis of Assembly resolution 70/262 and Council resolution 2282 (2016) on the centrality of sustaining peace, which encompasses the imperative of conflict prevention, the need to address all stages of the conflict cycle, the importance of breaking silos, both at Headquarters and in the field, and the need to ensure national ownership and inclusivity, has important implications for the strategic priorities of the Peacebuilding Fund. In those resolutions, the Assembly and the Council welcomed the valuable work undertaken by the Fund as a catalytic, rapid-response and flexible pooled fund and recognized the need for United Nations peacebuilding efforts to have adequate, predictable and sustained financing.
3. With a view to replenishing the Peacebuilding Fund, a ministerial-level pledging conference was organized on the margins of the seventy-first session of the General Assembly in September 2016. The conference, co-hosted by the Governments of Kenya, the Netherlands, Mexico, the Republic of Korea, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sweden and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, received strong political support from 32 ministers for foreign affairs who backed the Fund’s approach and its contribution to sustaining peace. Notwithstanding this significant endorsement, the resulting $152.5 million in pledges fell short of the $300 million goal, the minimum amount needed to sustain operations for three years. As highlighted by the Deputy Secretary-General at the closing, the conference signified not the end but the beginning of efforts to secure adequate, predictable resources for the Fund. Such efforts include options for funding United Nations peacebuilding which will be outlined in my forthcoming report, mandated by the aforementioned resolutions, on sustaining peace.
4. During 2016, the Peacebuilding Support Office continued to warn that without predictable financing, it would not be able to sustain current levels of support, let alone meet growing demands. The Peacebuilding Fund allocated $70,956,966 million to 17 countries in 2016 (see table 1 on the Fund’s active portfolio). By contrast, it received $57,760,692 million in contributions. The conference and multiple reviews and external evaluations of the Fund have recognized the singular role it plays in ensuring strategic coherence and funding politically risky yet necessary endeavours. Such recognition will soon need to translate into predictable and sustainable financing if the Fund is to remain a reliable partner of States and societies committed to sustaining peace.
World: Regional Overview of Food Security and Nutrition: Africa - The Challenges of Building Resilience to Shocks and Stresses
Food insecurity and poverty pose major challenge to goal of ending hunger by 2030 in sub-Saharan Africa
FAO report stresses need to increase agricultural productivity
24 February 2017, Freetown - Some 153 million people, representing about 26 percent of the population above 15 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa, suffered from severe food insecurity in 2014-15, according to a new FAO report.
The second edition of the Regional Overview of Food Insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa (2016) underscores how severe food insecurity and poverty pose a major challenge to the region's ability to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal of ending hunger by 2030.
"What it means is that, around one out of four individuals above 15 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa was hungry, meaning they did not eat or went without eating for a whole day for lack of money or other resources for food," Bukar Tijani, FAO Assistant Director-General and Regional Representative for Africa, said commenting on the findings of the report.
"This assessment underlines the significance of the challenge facing the region in meeting SDGs' target 2.1 and the relevance of sustainable and substantial support to food security and nutrition policies and programmes in the region," he added.
At the aggregate level, sub-Saharan Africa achieved adequate food availability, in terms od dietary energy supply, over the 2014-2016 period. However, several countries in the region remain highly dependent on food imports to ensure adequate food supplies, with some sub-regions depending on imports for up to a third of their cereal needs.
This indicates that substantial demand for food exists for these countries, and there is a need to increase agricultural productivity, food production and value addition, among other things.
Speaking at the launch of the report, Sierra Leone's Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Food Security, Patrick Monty Jones, noted that the agriculture sector in sub-Saharan Africa is strongly based on household, small-scale farming, and that the majority of African farmers cultivate less than 10 per cent of their land, which could be attributed to many factors including poor governance of land tenure and shocks and stresses due to climate change resulting in food insecurity.
"To overcome these challenges, the agricultural sector's strategic objectives and priority activities should include increased production and productivity of staple food crops through a value chain approach for food security, promote commercial agriculture; promote and increase value-adding activities for agricultural products, increase the production and export of cash crops, and improve access to finance for farmers", he recommended.
The report recognizes the need to spur a broad-based economic transformation, particularly in the agricultural sector, which is the major source of income in sub-Saharan Africa, to generate a substantial reduction in poverty and improve food accessibility.
It cites unstable food markets and commodity prices and natural disasters - including severe droughts and floods leading to failed crops, insufficient pasture feed and water for livestock - as well as persistent political instability, conflicts and other forms of violence, as the main triggers of food insecurity and malnutrition in the region.
The report noted that on average per capita income, is three times lower in sub-Saharan Africa than in other regions of the world in 2014, although the region witnessed a 30 percent increase between 1990 and 2014.
Also, poverty levels declined in the region but remained the highest in the world, with the region being far from halving the proportion of people living in poverty.
Moreover, even though some progress is being made in reducing malnutrition, evidence shows that many countries in the region suffer from a triple burden of malnutrition, that is, undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, and overweight and obesity, the latter being responsible for rising levels of non-communicable diseases.
Key social intervention strategies
According to the report, a varied number of comprehensive social protection policy frameworks and institutional arrangements have been introduced in the region to integrate nutrition and agriculture.
In this regard, Bukar Tijani observed that " it is imperative for countries to adopt multisectoral and multidisciplinary approaches in integrating agriculture, nutrition, social protection and related measures by realigning, integrating and coordinating activities and accountability mechanisms to deliver evidence-based sustainable nutrition solutions and outcomes."
The report also calls on countries to review and exert efforts in order to improve the translation of political commitments and declarations into effective programmes on the ground, particularly in the context of the ambitious targets set in the Malabo Declaration for 2025 and the Sustainable Development Agenda for 2030.
It laments that several documented policy commitments and strategies are yet to generate the expected results, but says that many country experiences illustrate the feasibility of eliminating hunger and malnutrition through the right combination of cross-sectoral policies and programmes.
The report advocates for continued policy reforms to sharpen their focus, and the creation of an enabling environment for investment and participation by all relevant stakeholders, saying that this is critical to ending hunger, and achieving food security and improved nutrition.
It specifically calls for the development of innovative resource mobilization from a broad set of stakeholders from the public and private sector and financial instruments that would enable the implementation of actions in a sustained and widespread manner to scale up food security and nutrition programmes in sub-Saharan Africa.
"As the magnitude and impact of crises and disasters increase - aggravated by the overexploitation of natural resources and climate change - more and more households, communities and governments in the region are less able to absorb, recover and adapt, making them increasingly vulnerable to future shocks," the report said.
The report urges governments to intensify their efforts to ensure that years of gradual agricultural development gains are not wiped out by recurrent shocks, adding that increasing the resilience of agricultural livelihoods and promoting and financing climate-smart agricultural practices would be a powerful lever to reach the pledge of the Sustainable Development Goals "to leave no one behind".
Furthermore, immediate short, medium and long-term measures are needed to promote and scale up appropriate technologies to adapt and mitigate climate variability and change, to develop resilience monitoring and evaluation frameworks, and to minimize the impacts of El Niño on affected communities.
"Building resilience through peace-building efforts is critical to food security and nutrition. In armed conflict and protracted crises, protecting, saving and rebuilding agricultural livelihoods to save lives and create the conditions for longer-term resilience is a key step towards ensuring peace and stability. The critical role of the agriculture sector in crisis situations must not be overlooked and necessary investments need to be made," the report recommends.
Regional mixed migration summary for January 2017 covering mixed migration events, trends and data for Djibouti, Eritrea, South Sudan, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Puntland, Somalia, Somaliland and Yemen.
Terminology: Throughout this report the term migrant/refugee is used to cover all those involved in the mixed migration flows (including asylum seekers, trafficked persons, smuggled economic migrants, refugees). If the caseload mentioned refers only to refugees or asylum seekers or trafficked persons it will be clearly stated.
In total, as of 15th February, 49,376 Somali refugees returned home since 8th December 2014, when UNHCR started supporting voluntary return of Somali refugees in Kenya, out of which 10,062 were supported in 2017 alone. Road convoys were organized from Dadaab to Dhobley respectively on Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays. For the time being, flights from Dadaab to Somalia remain suspended owing to the security alerts in Mogadishu since 23rd December 2016.
Go and See visits to Baidoa (27th February – 3rd March) and Kismayu (6th – 10th March) are being planned and selection and nomination of refugees expected to participate in these missions has already been concluded.
Relocation to Kakuma
In the framework of the relocation from Dadaab to Kakuma/Kalobeyei, a total of 10 flights per week were organized during the period under review.
As at 13th February, the total number of persons relocated to Kakuma/Kalobeyei was 2,431. Out of this number, 2,220 were relocated since the resumption of the relocation process on 16th January 2017.
On Thursday 9th February, UNHCR shared with IOM a list of 658 households, a total of 2,631 non-Somali refugees who have expressed so far their willingness to be relocated.
On Wednesday 10th February, a meeting was held with IOM on transportation of livelihood assets belong to the relocating refugees. IOM will be transporting the items and will hand them over back to beneficiaries once safely reach to Kalobeyei. This step was taken following the visit of IOM logistics officer based in Nairobi. UNHCR to share with IOM a list of recorded livelihood assets and departure manifests.
1. Brief description of the emergency and impact
Somalia is in the grip of an intense drought, induced by up to four consecutive seasons of poor rainfall. In the worst affected areas, poor rainfall and lack of water has wiped out crops and killed livestock, while communities are being forced to sell their assets, and borrow food and money to survive. Since mid-2015, drought conditions have been expanding with impact worsening over time. The drought situation is compounded by protracted conflict which is causing displacements, seasonal climatic shocks as a result of most extreme El Niño phenomenon in 50 years, and disease outbreaks.
The latest food security and nutrition analysis from the FAO-managed Food Security and Nutrition Analysis Unit (FSNAU) and the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWSNET) issued on 2 February 2017, reveals that the number of people in need of humanitarian assistance has increased from 5 million in September 2016 to 6.2 million between February 2017 and June 2017. That is more than half the population. The situation for children is especially grave. Some 363,000 acutely malnourished children are in need of critical nutrition support, including life-saving treatment for more than 71,000 severely malnourished children. Some 1.9 million people may die of preventable diseases due to lack of access to primary health care services. The maternal mortality ratio for Somalia is among the highest in the world at 732 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births.
Preliminary forecasts indicate that below average to near average rainfall is expected to prevail across most parts of Somalia during the forthcoming 2017 Gu (April-June) season. As a result, only minimal improvements are expected during this time and in some areas further deterioration in food security is possible.
2. Why is an ACT response needed?
The eminent lack of water in Somalia and high levels of malnutrition call for life saving interventions to ensure that previous gains made in Somalia are not lost. Following consecutive rain failure and lack of support from the international community despite all early warnings provided throughout 2016, there is need to give serious attention to the current drought situation to avert a crisis as witnessed during the 2011 famine.
3. National and international response
The Federal Government of Somalia issued a drought appeal, declaring a state of emergency while appealing to the Somali diaspora, the UN and international community to take swift lifesaving action in responding to the current drought situation to avert a crisis in the country. This call was echoed by the Puntland and Somaliland governments. Other international organisations and UN agencies have also placed alerts warning of impeding famine if immediate action is not taken.
4. ACT Alliance response
Norwegian Church Aid (NCA) with a combined funding of USD 416,298 from Ministry of foreign affairs Norway and Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) as well as Somalia Humanitarian Fund (SHF) have been able to respond to the needs of 22,000 beneficiaries (3,666 households) by enabling access to emergency water, rehabilitation of existing water facilities and through awareness creation on the need to adopt appropriate hygiene and sanitation practices to reduced exposure to disease outbreaks.
Diakonia Sweden through its partner, Kaalo Aid and Development (KAD), has intervened in Alla Amin IDP camp in North Galkayo district in Mudug Region, targeting 4’500 beneficiaries (750 households). The total amount in the intervention was US$100,000 from the Swedish PostCode Lottery. This two-month intervention, which started in December 2016, is providing food and water to the drought and conflict affected Internally Displaced Persons and also rehabilitating two shallow wells in the IDP camp. Finn Church Aid (FCA) is currently carrying out humanitarian activities on enhancing resilience of vulnerable returned IDPs and host community for 4,320 beneficiaries (720 households) in Burao and Odweyne districts, Toghdeer region. In this one-year project that started in April 2016, there are cash for work (CFW) activities which include: rehabilitation of dams, excavation of garbage pits, excavation of communal pit latrines, desilting of water channels and well.
5. Planned activities
ACT Somalia Forum members through NCA, FCA, LWF, Diakonia Sweden and DKH plan to respond by providing Water, Sanitation and Hygiene facilities and services, Education(school-feeding programs) Health and Nutrition, Cash based interventions, Livestock interventions, as well as Early recovery and Livelihoods support to the affected populations in various Districts in Puntland and Somaliland states.
Current challenges may include limited funding to respond to the increasing needs, access due to insecurity in territorially disputed regions and the influx of IDPS following the current drought conditions and returnees due to the closure of the refugee camps in Kenya.
Forum Contact and Information: Kirsten Engebak NCA Somalia Representative, (ACT Somalia Forum Chair); Email; firstname.lastname@example.org. +254 724 259 849.
Any funding indication or pledge should be communicated to the Head of Finance and Administration, Line Hempel (Line.Hempel@actalliance.org) and Senior Finance Officer, Lorenzo Correa (Lorenzo.Correa@actalliance.org).
Cairo, 27 February 2017 – The World Health Organization (WHO) is scaling up its response in Somalia to provide critical health services for 1.5 million people currently affected by severe drought conditions and a worsening food crisis. However, the Organization urgently requires US$ 10 million as part of the United Nations appeal for the first 6 months of 2017.
The humanitarian situation in Somalia continues to deteriorate, and there is a high risk that the country will face its third famine in 25 years. More than 6.2 million people – half of the total population – are in urgent need of humanitarian aid, including almost 3 million facing a food security crisis. Nearly 5.5 million people are at risk of contracting waterborne diseases, more than half of whom are women and children under 5 years of age.
Acute drought in many parts of Somalia has reduced the availability of clean water sources, and the food crisis has given way to malnutrition. More than 363 000 acutely malnourished children and 70 000 severely malnourished children are in need of urgent and life-saving support. According to United Nations estimates, if the current situation food and security continues, these numbers are estimated to double in 2017.
Drought conditions have increased the spread of epidemic-prone diseases such as acute watery diarrhoea, cholera and measles. In the first 7 weeks of 2017, over 6000 cases and 65 deaths by acute watery diarrhoea/ cholera have been reported, and a total of 2578 cases of suspected measles were reported as of September 2016.
“Somalia is now at a critical point as a result of this drought and environmental hazards and lack of basic services,” said WHO Regional Director for the Eastern Mediterranean Dr Mahmoud Fikri. “Less than half of the population in Somalia has access to basic health services. WHO is providing all possible support to address the ongoing challenges and reduce the dire consequences of drought and pre-famine. WHO Regional Office rapid response teams have been deployed to reinforce support in the areas of emergency response, disease outbreaks, health systems and nutrition.”
WHO’s Regional Office has delivered medicines and medical supplies to health facilities in drought-affected areas. A total of 265 sentinel sites are providing enhanced surveillance for epidemic-prone diseases such as cholera and measles. Cholera treatment centres have been established in 40 districts to manage cases of severe acute watery diarrhoea/ cholera.
The United Nations has launched an appeal for US$ 825 million for the first half of 2017 for the pre-famine response, of which US$ 85 million is required by the health sector, including US$ 10 million required by WHO.
For more information:
Senior Communication Officer
Direct: +20 2 22765552
Mobile: +20 1099756506
Humanitarian assistance continued across Somalia. In January, an estimated 491,500 people received food assistance, and more than 73,000 people were reached with activities aimed at building livelihoods. From August 2016 to January 2017, some 2 million people received livelihood seasonal inputs such as seeds, tools, fishing equipment, irrigation vouchers and livestock distribution and vaccination. In January, nearly 14,300 malnourished children under age 5 were admitted into nutrition programmes. More than 108,000 Somalis received basic health services in January, while some 90,000 people were provided with temporary and/or sustainable access to safe water. Over 12,500 people were assisted with safe sanitation and some 60,000 people were reached with hygiene promotion activities. Nearly 62,000 people were reached with protection services, while education partners reached some 29,000 learners with teaching activities and school feeding programmes. An estimated 6,500 people were assisted with non-food items in January and January and 6000 others with transitional shelter.
The humanitarian situation in Somalia is rapidly deteriorating as drought conditions worsen. Malnutrition and drought-related disease outbreaks and distress migration are already on the rise. Famine is a strong possibility in 2017, just six years after a devastating famine led to the death of more than a quarter million Somalis – half of them children. Humanitarian partners are scaling up assistance and protection and have issued an Operational Plan for Famine Prevention to immediately scale up humanitarian response to save lives and protect livelihoods. The plan reflects a significant shift from the drought response, which has been ongoing since late 2015, to scaled-up famine prevention.
In 2013, Somalia was affected by an outbreak of poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) with 194 cases followed by five cases in 2014. Although the last case of WPV1 in Somalia prior to this outbreak was reported six years ago, the country has experienced a continuous transmission of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) since 2008. The last outbreak of WPV1 initiated in May 2013 and has resulted in 199 WPV1 cases in South Central zone and Puntland including the five cases in Jariban district of Mudug region in 2014 in the months of May and June.
The outbreak was attributed to a large reservoir of children unvaccinated against poliovirus. Approximately one million children had not been immunized between 2009 and 2012 due to restricted access for humanitarian actors especially in the South Central zone. In addition, the cases in 2014 were closely related to nomadic groups, whose movements often make it difficult to track and implement health practices. While access challenges in insecure areas drove the initial waves of transmission, the tail end of the outbreak was seen in populations where access is limited due to remoteness and lifestyle (nomadic/pastoral).
A number of activities were implemented in response to the outbreak. Initially these focused on establishing structures to plan, respond and monitor the implementation of efforts to stem the outbreak. The Social Mobilization Network (SM Net) was also set up with the aim of raising awareness on polio and increasing coverage of the polio vaccine in access compromised areas. Funding for the SM Net has recently declined. This has translated into a lower number of polio immunization campaigns per year: in 2015, seven campaigns were carried out and in 2016 six campaigns were carried out. Only five campaigns are planned for 2017, and two for 2018. It is anticipated that the SM Net system could be used to deliver other campaigns including other immunizations (such as measles and tetanus), handwashing practices and infant and young child feeding (IYCF).
In response to the reduction in funding for SM Net, and in order to investigate whether this system could be used to deliver other health interventions, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) office for Somalia has commissioned an evaluation of the SM Net programme. This inception report presents the work undertaken during the inception phase of the SM Net evaluation. This primarily focused on developing a comprehensive understanding of the programme through the review of reports and secondary data, and the evaluation of similar programmes through an extensive literature review. Together these were used to define the Theory of Change (ToC), research questions, indicators and data collection tools to be employed in evaluating the programme. The report also explains the timeline and action plan for delivery of research outputs.
The report is organized as follows: Section 2. Background to SM Net and Polio in Somalia; Section 3. Literature Review; Section 4. Theory of Change; Section 5. Research Questions; Section 6. Proposed Methodology; Section 7. Key Themes and Data Analysis Plan; Section 8. Data Collection Tools; Section 9. Workplan and Timelines; Section 10. Risks and Assumptions; Section 11. Support and Advisory group and Section 12. Bibliography.
What is SCOPE?
Since February 2015, WFP Somalia has been using SCOPE, a digital beneficiary and transfer management platform that supports programme intervention cycles from beginning to end. It is a cloud-based solution used for biometric registration of beneficiaries, intervention setup, distribution planning, entitlement transfers and distribution reporting.
SCOPE has been designed to support all transfer modalities, such as e-vouchers, in-kind food and cash. Use of biometric signatures to redeem entitlements provide beneficiaries, donors and Government partners with the assurance that WFP assistance reaches the people it is intended for. SCOPE also offers the possibility of multiple interventions through its multi-wallet feature, enabling partner agencies to share the platform and beneficiary data.
Mogadishu, 23 February 2017 - One hundred and six Somali refugees returned to Somalia today after fleeing the ongoing conflict in Yemen.
The returnees, who consisted of the elderly, women and children, arrived at Mogadishu’s Aden Abdulle International Airport on Thursday morning on a commercial flight from Berbera, Somaliland, thus ending a difficult journey that began by boat in the Yemeni port of Aden.
Their return was facilitated by the International Organization for Migration (IOM), with the support of the King Salman Humanitarian Aid and Relief Centre and the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). The refugees’ arrival occurred three months after another group of 127 Somali evacuees was repatriated from Yemen last year.
The 106 returnees were received at the Airport by senior IOM and Federal Government of Somalia officials. They included the IOM Somalia Head of Operations and Emergencies Sam Grundy, the IOM Programme Manager Heidrun Salzer and the Commissioner of the Somalia National Commission for Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons, Ahmed Nur. More returnees are expected to arrive in Mogadishu in the coming days.
Some of the returning Somalis wept openly and thanked God for bringing them back home safely. They recounted the harrowing experiences they endured in Yemen, where many had originally sought refuge from Somalia’s civil war in the 1990s.
“We hated life in Yemen. It was bad, and we longed to return to our country to live with our people,” said Layla Mohamed Salah, 38, who spent 15 years in Yemen.
Aydurus Sharif Mohamed spent more than 20 years in Yemen, and he explained how hardship compounded by the deteriorating security situation in Yemen forced him to flee the capital Sana’a and move to other cities before returning to Somalia.
“There were a lot of clashes in Sana’a and intense aerial bombardments, which forced us to flee to Aden where we experienced a lot of difficulties,” said the 71-year-old returnee.
Mr. Grundy noted that security conditions in Aden had hampered efforts to evacuate more Somalis from the war-torn country.
“Given the deteriorating situation in Aden, (this has been) made possible by a very close partnership with the Government of Somalia and also UNHCR to make this happen. We have just heard from talking to the returnees that a much larger number are still there. The situation is getting worse, and they really do want to come back home,” the IOM official explained.
Mr. Nur hailed the safe arrival of the returnees, adding that their compatriots have welcomed them with open arms.
“They are saying that Yemen is worse in terms of security and livelihood, it’s much, much more risky than here. So with the assistance of the IOM as well as we hope UNHCR, they are better off, no doubt about this. As far as the government of Somalia, we always coordinate with international organizations, and we are prepared to assist more and more to return to their homeland,” he said.
The evacuees were taken to an IOM reception centre where they will receive more support to help them start a new life in Somalia.
IOM, the UN Migration Agency, is an intergovernmental organization that provides services and advice concerning migration to governments and migrants, including internally displaced persons, refugees, and migrant workers.
WFP has already mobilized its team on the ground to provide a robust and comprehensive response in all affected areas.
WFP has already started airlifting essential nutrition supplements, high energy biscuits and other in-kind food commodities to hard-to-reach locations in southern Somalia for immediate drought relief assistance.
Somalia is in a state of drought emergency, which has led to an acute food and nutrition crisis. In rural areas, consecutive seasons of poor rainfall and low river water levels have resulted in near total crop failures and reduced rural employment opportunities.
Throughout the country, there is widespread shortage of water and pasture, resulting in increases in livestock deaths, and rapidly diminishing access to food among poor households. Prices of local food staples have risen sharply while livestock prices have decreased significantly In the southern regions of Bay and Bakool and Gedo, these conditions are prompting migration into urban centres in Gedo region, Mogadishu and Ethiopia.
The approaching April-June rainfall is projected to be below normal and could contribute to further deterioration in food security, especially among the most vulnerable groups.
Due to worsening drought conditions, Acute Watery Diarrhoea/Cholera cases continue to spread to various parts of Somalia, particularly Lower Shabelle, Bay and Puntland. Most of the districts reporting cholera cases are along the Shebelle River where there is severe water shortage caused by drying up of the river.
During the reporting period, 913 suspected AWD/ Cholera cases and 10 deaths (Case Fatality Rate of 1.1 percent) were recorded from 38 districts across eight regions.
103,318 people (72,117 female and 36,074 male) were provided with primary and secondary health care services in January 2017.
In response to the ongoing drought, International Organization for Migration and Puntland Ministry of Health provided integrated lifesaving healthcare services through mobile clinics in Jariban, Goldogob and North Galkayo districts in Puntland.
Save the Children deployed an emergency health mobile team targeting seven Galkacyo IDP centres and host communities affected by drought and conflict.
An analysis based on actual persons registered in the UNHCR refugee database (proGres)
Mother-of-four says the drought in Somalia is the worst she has seen.
“We’ve had droughts here in the past but I don’t remember one as bad as this – and look at my age,” says 50-year-old widow Sareedo Barre Haji Muse.
“We lost our animals. Even our donkeys have died. This is the last one.”
In the Puntland state of Somalia, Sareedo used to own nearly 500 goats and sheep, living off the sale of their milk and meat.
“I have 60 goats left,” she says. “The rest have died. We have calculated that we have enough food for the next five days – that’s with one meal a day.”
With her four children, she left behind her home 75 miles (120km) away to go in search of water and support.
For the past three months they have been living alongside other families in a temporary camp in the small village of Baqbaq in the Dangoroyo district of Somalia’s Puntland state.
“We have no water left,” says Sareedo. “Until recently we were still able to walk for a couple hours with our donkeys to fetch water but now there is no water anywhere and we don’t even have donkeys to carry the water back. We are facing an emergency situation”.
Her children, she explains, are suffering from stomach cramps.
“We are lucky,” she sighs, “none have suffered complications yet, but we urgently need water and food or we will die.”
The United Nations has declared a famine in parts of South Sudan – the first to be announced anywhere in the world in six years – with concerns rising for millions more people across the Horn of Africa, including Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia.
Islamic Relief has distributed food to 140 households in the camp where Sareedo and her children live.
Addis Ababa February 25/2017 Ethiopia provided relief support for people affected by drought in Somaliland, the autonomous region of Somalia.
Mitiku Kassa, Commissioner for Disaster Risk Management told ENA that the support for drought affected people in Somaliland included biscuits, milk and grains.
Some 8,000 quintal various grains, 26,611 cartons of milk and 100 quintals of biscuits were provided to the people hit by drought in Somaliland, he noted.
Currently, millions of people are affected by drought in East Africa and need urgent response, of which 500,000 people are in Somaliland.
To alleviate the drought induced food shortage, the Somaliland administration has established a committee chaired by the vice-president and is working to provide urgent response.
According to the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), the Horn of Africa received only a quarter of the expected rainfall between October and December last year, leaving over 17 million people in crisis and emergency food insecurity levels.
123.8 M required for 2017
4.3 M contributions received, representing 3% of requirements
119.5 M funding gap for the Yemen Situation
All figures are displayed in USD