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World: Preventing El Niño Southern Oscillation Episodes from Becoming Disasters: A ‘Blueprint for Action’

12 January 2017 - 11:42am
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, UN Secretary-General's Special Envoys on El Niño & Climate Country: Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Marshall Islands, Namibia, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Timor-Leste, Viet Nam, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The 2015/16 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episode severely affected more than 60 million people around the world. The six-month period from January to June 2016 was the planet’s warmest half-year on record, with an average temperature of 1.3°C warmer than the later 19th century. The impact of drought, flooding and severe storms led 23 countries to appeal for international humanitarian assistance in East and Southern Africa, ‘Central America, the Caribbean and the Pacific. The most vulnerable groups bore the brunt of the emergency, including women, children, the elderly, the disabled and people living with HIV/ AIDS.

In May 2016, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Mrs. Mary Robinson of Ireland and Ambassador Macharia Kamau of Kenya as his Special Envoys on El Niño and Climate. The Special Envoys recognized the important progress of a number countries in preparing for and responding to the ENSO escalation. They also saw that ENSO’s severe weather threatened to overwhelm even the most proactive countries, tipping the scales toward economic loss and humanitarian need. They identified that a purely humanitarian response would not be sufficient to address the underlying vulnerability linked to the recurring and predictable ENSO phenomenon, and proposed an integrated approach which focused on prevention and bridged the humanitarian-development nexus.

Despite the progress made and an abundance of good practice examples, there is no question that a much greater sense of focus and urgency is required to ensure that future ENSO events do not result in the scale of emergency caused by the 2015/2016 El Niño. ‘Business as usual’ is no longer an option. The governments of at-risk countries must be supported to effectively and comprehensively plan, prepare and rapidly respond to these events, including by making integrated investments in climate resilience. The objectives of the Blueprint for Action (‘the Blueprint’) are to provide a tool to support integrated, nationally-led and equity-driven plans to prepare for ENSO and other climate hazards, absorbing risks without jeopardizing development gains, and informing climate-smart development plans to reduce risk; and to encourage the global, regional, national and local partnerships necessary to support the effective and sustainable implementation of these plans. Action is envisioned across the 15-year timeframe of the Agenda 2030, measured by progress against the targets and indicators of all eight international commitments and agreements which were endorsed/reviewed in 2014-2016.

With the underlying premise that ENSO and other weather events can be predicted, prepared for and mitigated, thus avoiding humanitarian crises, the Blueprint identifies eleven ‘building blocks’ which can be incorporated as appropriate into nationally led multihazard plans and other efforts to focus greater efforts on prevention and resilience:

A. Turning early warning into early action (Anticipate)
1. Collective risk analysis, early information sharing and early requests for support
2. Harmonised early action planning including agreed thresholds for action
3. Allocation of domestic resources for preparedness and early action
B. Managing risk to protect people and assets (Absorb)
1. Adaptive social protection programmes for resilience
2. Expanded use of insurance solutions whenever appropriate
3. Protecting dependent populations in institutions: Healthcare, Justice and Education
C. Climate-proofing development (Reshape)
1. Risk-informed national and local planning for disaster and climate resilience
2. Climate-proof strategies for resilience in key affected sectors
a. Food and nutrition security and agriculture/pastoralism
b. Health and nutrition
c. Water, sanitation and hygiene
d. Resilient livelihoods

The Blueprint’s success is predicated on strong national leadership of the process and continuing high-level engagement and monitoring of multi-sectoral implementation. Collaboration with a wide range of other partners will also be needed to achieve results. Four critical areas for partnerships were identified by the Special Envoys:

Partnerships for Financing
Public-Private Partnerships
Partnerships for Capacity Development and Learning Partnerships With Research Institutions and Academia

The Blueprint implements the Agenda for Humanity`s Core Responsibility Four, which set out a ‘New Way of Working’ that seeks to move ‘from delivering aid to ending need’ by anticipating crises through risk management; reinforcing local institutions and actors for prevention, and increasing humanitarian-development collaboration to increase resilience and reduce vulnerability. The Blueprint is based within the Human Security Approach, and will work to put women and girls at the centre of national resilience planning and action.

The Blueprint is offered as tool to be used by any country. It is, however, envisioned that the Blueprint approach will be undertaken by a small number of ‘early mover’ countries most affected by the 2015/2016 El Niño. Work in these countries would begin in March 2017, when the immediate emergency has subsided.

Chad: Tchad : Vue Générale des Opérations - Statistiques par camp, bureau et région de la population de personnes relevant de la compétence du HCR (Au 31/12/2016)

12 January 2017 - 11:39am
Source: Government of Chad, UN High Commissioner for Refugees Country: Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Nigeria, Sudan

Chad: Tchad : Tableau de bord humanitaire (au 30 novembre 2016)

12 January 2017 - 9:27am
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Country: Angola, Central African Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Somalia, Sudan, Turkey, Uganda

Contexte actuel

La planification humanitaire pour 2016 prévoit 4,3 millions de personnes dans le besoin dont 1,5 million ciblées pour une assistance humanitaire, reflétant des niveaux élevés de vulnérabilité dans tout le pays.
Le Tchad continue à ressentir l'impact de la crise nigériane dans la région du Lac ainsi que des conflits dans les pays voisins (Libye, Soudan et RCA). Le pays accueille 391 745 réfugiés dont 311 470 réfugiés soudanais depuis plus de 10 ans, 70 310 réfugiés centrafricains et 8 598 réfugiés nigérians. La région du Lac touchée par la crise nigériane accueille actuellement 121 720 personnes déplacées dont 108 476 déplacés internes, 12 920 retournés tchadiens et 324 ressortissants de pays tiers. En outre le pays accueille plus de 101 724 retournés tchadiens de la RCA, installés principalement dans les régions du sud et à N'djamena dans des sites ou villages d'accueil.

L'insécurité alimentaire et la malnutrition restent un problème chronique dans le pays, notamment dans la bande sahélienne. L'insécurité alimentaire touche environ 2,9 millions de personnes (soit 21% de la population totale) parmi lesquelles environ 500 000 sont en insécurité alimentaire sévère (source: cadre harmonisé nov 2016, période oct-déc 2016), auxquels s'ajoutent également les réfugiés et les retournés (non inclus dans le cadre harmonisé). La situation nutritionnelle est également préoccupante, avec des taux de malnutrition aigüe globale supérieurs à 15% (seuil d’urgence) dans 6 régions sur 23, et des taux de malnutrition aigüe sévère supérieurs à 2% (seuil d’urgence) dans 11 régions.

La forte prévalence des maladies à potentiel épidémique telles que le choléra et la rougeole, ainsi que celle du paludisme, combinée à une faiblesse du système sanitaire, sont des causes de morbidité et de mortalité accentuées parmi la population, en particulier chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans. Le Tchad occupe le 185e rang selon l'Indice de Développement Humain (IDH 2015), avec quelques-uns des indicateurs sociaux les plus alarmants (espérance de vie de 51 ans, taux de mortalité maternelle de 860 décès pour 100 000 naissances, rapport EDS-MICS 2014-2015).

Sudan: Sudan: Providing Medical Care to South Sudanese Refugees in White Nile State

12 January 2017 - 7:32am
Source: Médecins Sans Frontières Country: South Sudan, Sudan

January 11, 2017

In the last three years, the continuous conflict between government and opposition forces in South Sudan’s oil-rich Upper Nile State has forced many families to make a desperate decision: stay and risk being killed, or leave and risk having their property stolen.

Across the border to the north lies Sudan’s more peaceful White Nile State, to which many South Sudanese people have fled to escape the violence. Earlier in 2016, the rainy season brought a brief lull to the fighting in to the south, but now hostilities have resumed between the warring parties. The renewed fighting has pushed many more families to migrate to safety across the border. Currently, six refugee camps host 83,000 people in White Nile, with many more living outside these designated zones.

In response to the growing needs, MSF runs a 40-bed hospital in White Nile State. It is based just outside Al Kashafa Camp, where over 17,000 refugees have been allowed to settle. A wide range of services are provided in the hospital’s inpatient and outpatient departments. The most common concerns relate to reproductive health issues, respiratory infections, and malnutrition.

“We Didn’t Stop to Think, We Just Ran”

“When the armed men came to Kaka they showed no mercy,” says Mary, a refugee from the town in South Sudan’s Upper Nile State. “Neither the young nor the old were spared. As soon as we heard that the killing had started we didn’t stop to think, we just ran from the village taking what we could carry, embarking on our frightening journey.”

“To pass through some of the military checkpoints we had to lie about the tribe we belonged to, otherwise we would have been stopped and the worst would have happened,” she explains. “We feel very lucky, as miraculously nobody was hurt.”

Mary’s four-year-old daughter is a patient in the MSF hospital because she arrived malnourished. “She became sick on the journey and stopped eating, had diarrhea, and started coughing,” says Mary. “When we got here the doctor told me that she needed help and put her on the special nutrition program run by MSF. I hope that this will make her strong again.”

“By far our biggest cause for concern is the sanitation and hygiene in the camp,” says MSF project coordinator Mohamed Jibril. “People are living so closely together [in the camp] and there aren’t enough toilets and latrines. They are openly defecating near their shelters and their neighbors.”

“There is a huge risk of multiple cases of measles or acute watery diarrhea spreading throughout the community,” says Jibril. “Young children are particularly at risk, as they play in these unsanitary conditions with their friends. The hospital is always ready to deal with an outbreak, despite our limited capacity. The only solution is to upgrade the sanitation facilities.”

Upgrading Facilities

MSF is contributing to such an upgrade with the construction of latrines in two camps (Al Kashafa and Joury). Community health promotion activities are also part of the package offered by MSF, with the aim of increasing awareness of healthy hygiene and behavior.

The hospital also serves as a referral point for other camps, and is the only nutritional stabilization center in the area. The most serious cases of malnutrition are referred to Kosti Hospital, some 50 miles away.

The MSF medical facility is not just being used by the new arrivals. Nearly half of all consultations are for local people living outside Al Kashafa Camp, which includes the host Sudanese community and refugees from the other five camps.

Before MSF arrived, the local community had very few options when it came to medical care, and the MSF hospital became a point of reference for the local population as well. Elizabeth, from the local village of Alseror, explains why she came to the MSF hospital: “For weeks I was suffering from a very bad headache and a sore throat. My family wanted me to try some traditional medicine. It’s all they could suggest, but I knew it wouldn’t work. So I came to the MSF hospital, where the treatment is free and the doctors know what they are doing.”

Unique Circumstances

Many of the refugees living in the camps find themselves in unique circumstances. Until 2011 Sudan and South Sudan were one country, and until recently the authorities in Khartoum gave those raised in the south the rights of Sudanese citizens. As many have family in Sudan (North), understand northern culture, and speak Arabic, they may choose to move on to one of the larger towns in White Nile State. Refugees with the money and family connections to do so might even go as far as Khartoum, where they can start a new life.

Those without connections will stay in the camp, hoping for the situation to improve. Life in the camps remains hard—while international nongovernmental organizations provide basic education for children, there is little for adults to do. Some try to eke out a small income by selling fish or trading in the local market. Others find work laboring on local farms. This enables their families to supplement their food rations and maybe save a little for a better life.

The future remains deeply uncertain for many of the refugees in White Nile State. If things improve then many might go home. For now this is only wishful thinking.

Sudan: Sudan: Humanitarian Bulletin | Issue 1 | 26 December 2016 – 8 January 2017 [EN/AR]

12 January 2017 - 6:44am
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Country: South Sudan, Sudan

HIGHLIGHTS

• Many Jebel Marra IDPs in Central Darfur State need winter supplies, according to the national NGOs Labena and Sanad Charity Foundation.

• About 12,000 returnees in Kutum locality (North Darfur) need more assistance.

• MoU on the delivery of aid to South Sudan through Sudan has been extended for another six months.

• As of the end of 2016, the health sector requirements for the year were only 44% funded against the 2016 Sudan HRP.

FIGURES 2016 HRP

# people in need in Sudan (2016 HNO) 5.8 million

# people in need in Darfur (2016 HNO) 3.3 million

GAM caseload 2.1 million

South Sudanese refugee arrivals in Sudan - since 15 Dec 2013 (registered by UNHCR) - as of 15 Nov 2016 263,245

Refugees of other nationalities (registered by UNHCR) - as of 31 Oct 2016 140,626

FUNDING

557.6 million US$ received in 2016

57% Reported funding (as of 8 January 2017)

IDPs in Jebel Marra need winter supplies

Many internally displaced persons (IDPs) who fled their homes in Jebel Marra in 2016 and are currently taking refuge in various locations in Central Darfur State need winter supplies, according to the national NGOs (NNGOs) Labena and Sanad Charity Foundation (SCF). With temperatures dropping to 7-8 degrees Celsius or lower at night, many Jebel Marra IDPs need appropriate shelter and winter household supplies— including blankets and warm clothes—as they left their homes with almost nothing, the two NNGOs report. The displaced people also reportedly said they need fuel for heating and cooking, as firewood collection outside camps in some areas poses protection risks.
The international NGO Norwegian Church Aid (NCA) is carrying out assessments in IDP camps and gathering areas in Zalingei, Nertiti and Guldo to identify the needs and the number of people in need of winter shelter and essential household supplies.

According to the Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC) in Central Darfur, there are an estimated 10,000 IDPs from Jebel Marra in Golo and 4,200 Jebel Marra IDPs in Fanga Suk. In addition, HAC and humanitarian partners estimate 10,500 Jebel Marra IDPs in Guldo.
The most recent Jebel Marra Crisis Fact Sheet produced by OCHA based on information from partners indicates that in 2016 more than 80,000 people were reportedly displaced in the Central Darfur area of Jebel Marra. The majority have not yet been veified.

A joint mission by the government and humanitarian partners to Golo from 8-13 December 2016 recommended the registration of IDPs and returnees in Golo town and surrounding villages to provide accurate figures to determine the response. It also recommended the assessment and registration of vulnerable groups that need to be supported with emergency shelter and household supplies. In addition, there needs to be targeted distribution of emergency shelter and household supplies to new IDPs who are reportedly still arriving in Golo from villages south of Golo, according to the mission report.

Aid organisations have already provided 5,000 families (25,000 people) in Fanga Suk and 3,000 families (15,000 people) in Nertiti with emergency shelter and household supplies following verification by the Sudanese Red Crescent Society (SRCS). In addition, the NNGO Labena provided blankets and some other household supplies to 1,500 newly displaced families (7,500 people) in parts of Central Darfur in late September ahead of the winter season. The NNGO Sanad Charity Foundation also provided 1,000 displaced families (an estimated 5,000 people) from Jebel Marra in Zalingei with cooking sets in October.

Sudan: Sudan: Humanitarian Bulletin | Issue 1 | 26 December 2016 – 8 January 2017

12 January 2017 - 6:44am
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Country: South Sudan, Sudan

HIGHLIGHTS

• Many Jebel Marra IDPs in Central Darfur State need winter supplies, according to the national NGOs Labena and Sanad Charity Foundation.

• About 12,000 returnees in Kutum locality (North Darfur) need more assistance.

• MoU on the delivery of aid to South Sudan through Sudan has been extended for another six months.

• As of the end of 2016, the health sector requirements for the year were only 44% funded against the 2016 Sudan HRP.

FIGURES 2016 HRP

# people in need in Sudan (2016 HNO) 5.8 million

# people in need in Darfur (2016 HNO) 3.3 million

GAM caseload 2.1 million

South Sudanese refugee arrivals in Sudan - since 15 Dec 2013 (registered by UNHCR) - as of 15 Nov 2016 263,245

Refugees of other nationalities (registered by UNHCR) - as of 31 Oct 2016 140,626

FUNDING

557.6 million US$ received in 2016

57% Reported funding (as of 8 January 2017)

IDPs in Jebel Marra need winter supplies

Many internally displaced persons (IDPs) who fled their homes in Jebel Marra in 2016 and are currently taking refuge in various locations in Central Darfur State need winter supplies, according to the national NGOs (NNGOs) Labena and Sanad Charity Foundation (SCF). With temperatures dropping to 7-8 degrees Celsius or lower at night, many Jebel Marra IDPs need appropriate shelter and winter household supplies— including blankets and warm clothes—as they left their homes with almost nothing, the two NNGOs report. The displaced people also reportedly said they need fuel for heating and cooking, as firewood collection outside camps in some areas poses protection risks.
The international NGO Norwegian Church Aid (NCA) is carrying out assessments in IDP camps and gathering areas in Zalingei, Nertiti and Guldo to identify the needs and the number of people in need of winter shelter and essential household supplies.

According to the Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC) in Central Darfur, there are an estimated 10,000 IDPs from Jebel Marra in Golo and 4,200 Jebel Marra IDPs in Fanga Suk. In addition, HAC and humanitarian partners estimate 10,500 Jebel Marra IDPs in Guldo.
The most recent Jebel Marra Crisis Fact Sheet produced by OCHA based on information from partners indicates that in 2016 more than 80,000 people were reportedly displaced in the Central Darfur area of Jebel Marra. The majority have not yet been veified.

A joint mission by the government and humanitarian partners to Golo from 8-13 December 2016 recommended the registration of IDPs and returnees in Golo town and surrounding villages to provide accurate figures to determine the response. It also recommended the assessment and registration of vulnerable groups that need to be supported with emergency shelter and household supplies. In addition, there needs to be targeted distribution of emergency shelter and household supplies to new IDPs who are reportedly still arriving in Golo from villages south of Golo, according to the mission report.

Aid organisations have already provided 5,000 families (25,000 people) in Fanga Suk and 3,000 families (15,000 people) in Nertiti with emergency shelter and household supplies following verification by the Sudanese Red Crescent Society (SRCS). In addition, the NNGO Labena provided blankets and some other household supplies to 1,500 newly displaced families (7,500 people) in parts of Central Darfur in late September ahead of the winter season. The NNGO Sanad Charity Foundation also provided 1,000 displaced families (an estimated 5,000 people) from Jebel Marra in Zalingei with cooking sets in October.

World: Global Weather Hazards Summary January 11 -18, 2017

12 January 2017 - 5:46am
Source: Famine Early Warning System Network Country: Afghanistan, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Tajikistan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Western Sahara, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Heavy rainfall is expected to provide relief for southeastern Africa, but will increase the risk of flooding

Africa Weather Hazards

  1. Since December, increased locust numbers and breeding have been reported in western Mauritania, Western Sahara, and northeastern Sudan according to the Food and Agriculture Organization.

  2. Below-average and erratic rainfall over the past several weeks has resulted in strong moisture deficits, degraded ground conditions, and poor crop prospects across many parts of Uganda, Rwanda, Kenya, bimodal and unimodal areas of Tanzania. Strengthening dryness has also been observed across southern Tanzania and northern Mozambique.

  3. Insufficient rain during November has led to large moisture deficits and abnormal dryness, which have negatively affected cropping activities over parts of the Eastern Cape, KwaZuluNatal, and Free State provinces of South Africa.

  4. Insufficient rain since late November has strengthened rainfall deficits, resulting in abnormal dryness in eastern and southern Madagascar.

  5. Several weeks of enhanced rainfall has resulted in excess ground moisture and is likely to trigger floods and elevate river levels throughout Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Malawi. Inundation along the Limpopo River has reportedly led to crop losses in the Gaza province of Mozambique.

South Sudan: South Sudan UNHCR Operational Update 24/2016 15-31 December 2016

12 January 2017 - 4:27am
Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees Country: Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda

HIGHLIGHTS

  • UNHCR provides assistance in Maban after inter-community conflict: in the aftermath of conflict which broke out between 25 and 28 December in Doro refugee camp between refugees and host community, UNHCR and its partners have now been able to undertake assessments in all four camps of Maban, home to over 137,000 refugees from Sudan’s Blue Nile State. Initial findings suggest over 8,000 local community members have been displaced locally. Approximately 10,000 refugees in Doro, one fifth of the camp, have relocated themselves to alternative nearby locations. Partners have already begun distribution of food and aid packages to IDPs, with assistance to displaced refugees and overall General Food Distribution for January scheduled to take place over the course of the next week. Provision of additional water supply, sanitation facilities and shelter are currently being assessed and scaled up.

  • Access hinders assistance to displaced refugees around Yei: UNHCR and its partner UMCOR continue to remotely monitor the situation of refugees living in five locations in the bushes of Lasu payam as a result of the outbreak violence in July and ongoing conflict that continues to prevent refugees from returning to the settlement. Lack of humanitarian services in the five locations remains a major concern among the refugee population in the Lasu area, as UNHCR has no access to the Lasu refugee settlement and its environs due to insecurity. UNHCR was able to relocate 61 Nuba refugees to Ajuong Thok refugee camp. These refugees were displaced into urban Yei as a result of the renewed violence in July.

  • UNHCR participates in an Inter-Agency Rapid Assessment in Kajo Keji: During the reporting period, UNHCR participated in the OCHA-led Inter- Agency Rapid Needs Assessment (IRNA) to Kajo Keji County. The team met with IDPs, Church leaders and county commissioners. The team also visited three IDP locations of Ajio, Kerwa and logo. Approximately 30,000 IDPs were reported in the county and the assessment’s findings have been shared with the respective clusters for review and humanitarian response.

  • UNHCR equips refugee students with computers and internet in Juba: UNHCR partner Humanitarian Development Consortium (HDC) established a space at HDC’s premises with six computers fully equipped with the internet for the 27 refugee students being supported by DAFI scholarships. These computers will facilitate their coursework and easy access to reading materials online and enhance their academic performance.

South Sudan: South Sudan Regional Refugee Response Plan Funding snapshot as of 01 January 2017

12 January 2017 - 12:24am
Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees Country: Ethiopia, Kenya, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda

The requirements presented in this funding snapshot refer to the 2016 Regional Refugee Response Plan covering the period January to December 2016

Funding level*

  • RRP requirements: $759,046,304
  • Funding received: $285,454,510
  • % funded: 38%

    *The funding level refers only to funding received against the Inter-Agency Appeal 2016

Chad: Une initiative conjointe en faveur du développement socioéconomique des réfugiées et des tchadiens

11 January 2017 - 5:25pm
Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees Country: Chad, Sudan

N’Djamena, 11 janvier 2017 – Une importante délégation dirigée conjointement par les Représentants de l’Agence des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés, le HCR, et de la Banque Mondiale, a entamé mercredi une mission d’évaluation à Goz Beida, dans l’est du Tchad. Cette visite dans les régions et localités abritant les camps de réfugiés se rendra également dans le sud et l’ouest (le Lac) du Tchad.

Cette mission marque une étape importante dans l’adoption d’un projet pilote de brassage socioéconomique et de protection sociale des réfugiés et des communautés d’accueil dans le département de la Nya-Pende dans le sud du Tchad. Le projet vise quelque 65.000 personnes dont environ 20.000 réfugiés des camps d’Amboko et Gondje. Une expansion de ce projet a toutes les zones affectées par la présence des réfugiés dans le pays est envisagée.

Ce projet, première du genre au Tchad, associera les préoccupations des réfugiés des populations tchadiennes dans les zones affectées par la présence de ces réfugiés, conciliant ainsi les besoins humanitaires et les défis de développements.

Le HCR se félicite de la collaboration avec la Banque Mondiale dans cette initiative, laquelle bénéficie aussi du soutien de l’ensemble du système des Nations Unies à travers son coordinateur, Monsieur Stephen Tull, qui participera également à cette mission pour évaluer les modalités de sa mise en œuvre et s’imprégner des besoins des bénéficiaires. Pour le Système des Nations Unies au Tchad, il s’agit aussi d’intégrer fermement les réfugiés dans l’UNDAF et dans l’esprit « Unis dans l’Action ».

Selon les deux institutions, cette stratégie conduira à une approche intégrée et inclusive qui préserve la responsabilité et le mandat du HCR et corrigera aussi l’accès inéquitable des populations tchadiennes aux services de base par rapport aux réfugiés. La qualité de ces services est souvent meilleure dans les camps de réfugiés que dans les villages environnants, selon toutes les observations.

Pour le Représentant du HCR au Tchad, Jose Antonio Canhandula, « le succès de ce projet devrait marquer un tournant dans les approches par rapport à la situation prolongée de déplacement forcé des réfugiés au Tchad. Il devra aussi renforcer le contrat social entre le HCR et l’état Tchadien ».

Plus de 400.000 réfugiés vivent dans des camps au Tchad dont 80% sont des Soudanais, installés dans l’est du pays depuis plus d’une décennie. Il y a également des réfugiés centrafricains et nigérians. Ceci fait du Tchad un des 10 plus importants pays d’accueil de réfugiés dans le monde, et le quatrième en Afrique après l’Ethiopie, le Kenya et l’Ouganda, selon le classement annuel du HCR. Au taux moyen d’un réfugié pour 33 Tchadiens, le pays accueille le plus de réfugiés comparativement à sa population. Si globalement les réfugiés représentent 3% de la démographie nationale, par endroits, comme c’est le cas dans la Région du Sila, ils représentent 8%. « Ce qui nous interpelle tous à valoriser cette population », explique M. Canhandula. La coopération que le HCR cherche à nouer avec la Banque Mondiale et les autres agences développementales du système des Nations Unies représente un effort dans ce sens.

La mission conjointe HCR/BM, démarrée ce mercredi 11 janvier à Goz Beida, se rendra ensuite à Gore à partir du 13 janvier puis à Baga Sola, dans la région du Lac, du 15 au 16 janvier. La délégation comprendra également le Représentant de la Banque Africaine de Développement.

Pour plus d’informations, veuillez contacter

Ibrahima Diane, Mob. +235 65 27 47 75 – Email : dianei@unhcr.org

Suivez-nous :

@UNHCRTchad

@Afrikibou

Greece: Refugees & Migrants Sea Arrivals in Europe - Monthly Data Update: November 2016

11 January 2017 - 2:04pm
Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Italy, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Spain, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, World

OVERVIEW

In 2016, between January and November, 351,619 people crossed the Mediterranean Sea, risking their lives to reach Europe. These new arrivals are in addition to more than one million refugees and migrants who made the journey across the Mediterranean Sea on unseaworthy boats in 2015.

In 2016, the number of those arriving decreased substantially after March. Of those reaching European shores so far this year, 58% came from the ten countries currently producing the most refugees globally.

MAIN TRENDS

  • In November 2016, 16,352 refugees and migrants arrived by crossing the Mediterranean. Among those, 1,991 people arrived in Greece, 13,581 people in Italy and 780 people arrived in Spain. Total arrivals in Greece, Italy and Spain in November decreased by 48% compared to the previous month, (31,429), primarily due to the worsening weather conditions brought on by the onset of winter. Overall, arrivals also decreased by 89% compared to the same month in 2015 (154,975), largely due to the greater number of arrivals last year through the Eastern Mediterranean route.

  • Between January and November 2016, 351,619 people arrived by sea, including 171,785 in Greece, 173,008 in Italy and 6,826 in Spain. This constitutes a 61% decrease compared to the same period in 2015 (896,285).

  • In November 2016, arrivals most commonly originated Nigeria, Guinea and Côte d'Ivoire.

  • So far in 2016, the majority of arrivals are from the Syrian Arab Republic (23%), Afghanistan (12%), Nigeria (10%), Iraq (8%), Eritrea (6%), Guinea (4%), Côte d'Ivoire (4%), Gambia (4%) and Pakistan (3%).

Chad: Humanitarian Bulletin Chad, Issue 07 | November 2016

11 January 2017 - 11:44am
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Country: Central African Republic, Chad, Sudan

HIGHLIGHTS

  • In 2017, more than 4.7 million people will need humanitarian assistance in Chad.

  • According to the SMART Nutrition Survey of November 2016, 10 regions have severe acute malnutrition (SAM) rates above the WHO emergency threshold (2%).

  • Chad loses about 9.5 per cent of its gross domestic product (GDP) each year, or more than 578 billion CFA francs because of undernutrition.

Over 4.7 million people will need humanitarian assistance in Chad in 2017

Multiple humanitarian crises

Low human development exacerbated by climatic and health risks associated with severe food insecurity and population displacement precipitate the majority of the Chadian population, about 8 million people, into acute or chronic vulnerability. According to the Humanitarian needs overview (HNO) of 2017, over 4.7 million1 people among whom 52% are women will need humanitarian assistance next year.

Regarding food security and nutrition, despite good prospects for the 2016/2017 crop year compared to the previous year, the analysis from the Harmonised Framework of November 2016 estimated that about 3.9 million people will be food insecure, including over one million severely food insecure during the next lean period (JuneAugust 2017). This represents an increase by 100,000 people compared to the 2016 lean period. Over two million people will be food insecure as of June in the eight regions of the Sahel belt (Batha, Kanem, Barh El Ghazal, Ouaddai, Sila, Wadi Fira, Guera and Hadjer Lamis), including about 702,000 people in severe food insecurity. These people will need emergency food assistance as well as support for agricultural production and livestock to help them get out of their vulnerable situation. In addition, nearly 500,000 people in displacement still need food assistance2 .

The nutritional situation remains worrisome, with almost 438,101 expected malnutrition cases in 2017 (a deterioration compared to 410,314 expected cases in 2016), including 237,8073 moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) cases and 200,294 cases of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) affecting children under five years old who will require urgent nutritional treatment. Given the correlation between food insecurity and malnutrition, food assistance should be combined with the treatment and prevention of malnutrition in children and pregnant and lactating women. To reduce the prevalence of acute malnutrition, an integrated nutrition - health - education - water, hygiene and sanitation response is needed.

Sudan: Four children die during cold wave in Darfur

11 January 2017 - 2:32am
Source: Radio Dabanga Country: Sudan

A cold wave has the western region of Sudan in its grip, resulting in the death of four children on Monday morning. Two weeks ago, malnourished children also succumbed to the cold.

Speaking from Jebel Marra, a relative of one of the children reported that Dola, south of Deribat, has witnessed a severe cold wave these days. There is a shortage of food, blankets and warm shelter, amid the absence of health centres and medicines in the mountainous area, he said.

The four children who died on Monday are Mohsen Hassan Ibrahim (1 year), Yagoub Adam Abdelkarim (3), Halima Ibrahim Adam (3) and Mariam Yousif Hamid (7).

Two weeks ago, three children died in Souni in East Jebel Marra. They were suffering from malnutrition and their health was worsened by the severe cold, a family member said.

To avoid the cold, Sheikhs in camps in East Jebel Marra then said that parent councils in most of the schools have delayed the start of school for pupils of basic schools for one hour in the morning.

In addition, food security is proving even more critical in Jebel Marra than it is in the rest of Darfur, for one because farmers risk confrontations with gunmen who let their cattle graze on the fields. Aerial bombardments on villages and farmlands have forced many residents to flee to the camps for displaced people or take refuge in the mountains.

Yemen: 2016 Yemen Situation - Regional Refugee and Migrant Response Plan - Funding snapshot as at 01 January 2017

11 January 2017 - 1:13am
Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees Country: Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan, Yemen

The requirements presented in this funding snapshot refer to the 2016 Regional Refugee and Migrant Response Plan covering the period January to December 2016.

Funding level

RRP requirements: $94,130,731

Funding received: $34,817,523

% funded: 37%

Yemen: Yemen Situation - 2016 Funding Update as of 10 January 2017

11 January 2017 - 1:05am
Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees Country: Djibouti, Egypt, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan, Yemen

172.2 M required for 2016
79.5 M contributions received, representing 44% of requirements
92.7 M funding gap for the Yemen Situation

South Sudan: South Sudan: Emergency Dashboard, January 2017

10 January 2017 - 11:39pm
Source: World Food Programme Country: Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda

Sudan: Sudan: White Nile State becomes a haven for those fleeing South Sudan's war

10 January 2017 - 12:02pm
Source: Médecins Sans Frontières Country: South Sudan, Sudan

Essential emergency medical care provided by MSF to refugees

10 January 2017

Over the last three years, the oil rich state of the Upper Nile in South Sudan has seen continuous conflict between government and opposition forces. This has forced many families to make a drastic decision – stay and risk being killed, or leave and maybe have their property stolen.

Across the border to the north lies Sudan's more peaceful White Nile State, where many South Sudanese have decided to flee to in order to escape the violence. Currently, six refugee camps host 83,000 people and many more live outside these designated zones.

Earlier in 2016, the rainy season brought a brief lull to the fighting in the south, but now it is over and there is a return of hostilities between the warring sides. Families have resumed their migration to find safety across the border.

MSF currently runs a 40-bed hospital in White Nile State. It is based just outside Al Kashafa camp where over 17,000 refugees have been allowed to settle. A wide range of services are provided in the inpatient and outpatient departments, where the most common concerns relate to reproductive health issues, throat infections and malnutrition.

Mary, a refugee from Kaka in South Sudan's Upper Nile state, explained, "When the armed men came to our village they showed no mercy. Neither the young nor the old were spared. As soon as we heard that the killing had started we didn't stop to think, we just ran from the village taking what we could carry."

"To pass through some of the military checkpoints we had to lie about the tribe we belonged to, otherwise we would have been stopped and the worst would have happened. We feel very lucky, as miraculously nobody was hurt."

While some arrive worn out from their ordeal, suffering from malnutrition and malaria, the majority endure the journey well enough, walking up to eight days to get to the camps.

Mary's four-year-old daughter is a patient at the MSF hospital because she arrived malnourished. "She fell sick on the journey and stopped eating, had severe diarrhoea and started coughing," explains Mary. "When we got here the doctor told me that she needed help and put her on the special nutrition programme run by MSF. I hope that this will make her strong again."

Water and sanitation in the refugee camps

"By far our biggest cause for concern is the sanitation and hygiene in the camp. People live so closely together and there aren't enough toilets and latrines. They are openly defecating near their shelters and those of their neighbours," says Mohamed Jibril, the MSF project coordinator for the hospital.

"There is a huge risk of acute watery diarrhoea spreading throughout the community, and the hospital is always ready to deal with an outbreak despite our limited capacity. Young children are particularly at risk as they play in these unsanitary conditions with their friends."

MSF is contributing to the upgrading of the sanitation standards with the construction of latrines in two camps (Al Kashafa and Joury). Community health promotion activities are also part of the package offered by MSF, with the aim of increasing the awareness on health behaviour.

MSF’s hospital in Al Kashafa camp

MSF's hospital also functions as a referral point for other camps, and it has the only nutritional stabilisation centre in the area. The most serious medical cases are referred to Kosti hospital which is 80 kilometres away on a sandy and difficult road.

The medical facility is not just being used by the new arrivals. Nearly half of all consultations are for local people living around Al Kashafa camp, which includes the host Sudanese community and refugees from the other five camps.

Before MSF arrived, the local community had very few alternatives when it came to medical care and the MSF hospital has become a point of reference for the local population as well.

"For weeks I was suffering from a very bad headache and a sore throat. My family wanted me to try some traditional medicine. It's all they could suggest, but I knew it wouldn't work. So I came to the MSF hospital where the treatment is free and the doctors know what they are doing," explains Elizabeth, from the nearby village of Alseror,

Looking to the future

Many of the people living in the refugee camps have family in Sudan, understand the culture and speak Arabic so they may choose to move on to one of the larger towns in White Nile State. Those with money and family connections might even travel as far as Khartoum to start a new life.

Others will stay in the camps, hoping the situation will improve. While international NGOs are providing basic education for children, there is little for the adults to do. Some try to eke out a small living by selling fish or trading in the local market. Others find work labouring on local farms. This enables their families to supplement their food rations and maybe save a little for a better life.

If things improve in South Sudan and the fighting abates then many may decide to go home. For now though, this is only wishful thinking.

Lebanon: Guidelines for Referral Health Care in Lebanon Standard Operating Procedures - Updated Dec 2016

10 January 2017 - 11:41am
Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees Country: Iraq, Lebanon, Somalia, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic

1. Introduction

Since the onset of the civil war in Syria, people have fled to neighboring countries. By September 2016, 1,017,433 Syrian refugees have been registered with UNHCR Lebanon. Refugees are living predominantly in urban settings. Lebanon also hosts around 22,007 refugees mainly from Iraq, Sudan, and Somalia.

According to the 2013 UNHCR Public Health Operational Guidance Document, UNHCR’s responsibility towards the population under its mandate is to facilitate and advocate for access through existing services and health service providers and to monitor access to health care services. While the primary health care strategy is the core of all interventions; referral care is an essential part of access to comprehensive health services.

These standard operating procedures (SOPs) outline the policy and procedures for referral care applicable to all UNHCR registered refugees and persons of concern in Lebanon.

2. Definition of Referral Care

Referral health care is here defined as care that is too advanced for primary health care facilities and therefore needs to be provided at health care facilities of secondary or higher level i.e. in provincial, regional or central hospitals. Normally it requires admission of the patient.

3. Persons Eligible for Referral Care Support

Anyone residing in Lebanon who is recognized by UNHCR as a refugee or a person of concern (PoC) is eligible for supported referral care. This includes children born in Lebanon whose fathers are refugees, even though their mothers are not.

The following are not eligible for UNHCR supported referral care:

  • Palestinians (fall under mandate of UNRWA)
  • Lebanese or Palestinian spouses of refugees
  • Migrants

4. Provision of Referral Care Support

UNHCR contracts a third party administrator (TPA) who in turn contracts hospitals throughout the country where refugees can access care. The hospitals under contract are a mix of private and public and form the so called UNHCR hospital network. Inclusion in this network depends mainly on proximity to beneficiaries and availability of services. The network is subject to continuous review according to the changing needs of the refugee population. As a general rule UNHCR does not support care given in hospitals outside of the network.

UNHCR supports provision of referral care to refugees through a cost-sharing mechanism. The TPA agrees with the contracted hospital upon standardized fees following Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) fixed rates. When care has been provided, UNHCR contributes by paying a certain proportion of the charges for the care given. The proportion covered is a function of socio-economic vulnerability of the beneficiary as well as type and cost of the treatment given.

The TPA is responsible for the medical and financial audit of referral care and is in turn audited by UNHCR.

5. Guiding Principles

The below principles are based on UNHCR’s Principles and Guidance for Referral Health Care for Refugees and Other Persons of Concern (2009):

1. Equity of care and access between PoCs and host population
UNHCR aims ultimately to provide refugees with access to and quality of referral care at similar levels as received by Lebanese citizens in government health facilities.

2. Prioritizations should be based on prognosis and cost
Since funds are limited, prioritizations need to be done in order to deliver the most necessary care to the highest number of people. The two most important factors determining whether to make treatments available are therefore prognosis and cost. Due to current budget restraints the referral care supported by UNHCR is either for deliveries, potentially life threatening conditions or conditions that might lead to severe permanent disability. Very expensive treatments are beyond UNHCRs capacity to support, even if they are potentially lifesaving (i.e. chemotherapy for cancer).

3. The decision to provide referral care is medical
The medical aspect should always remain central in the decision making about what treatment should be available for whom and the responsibility for final decisions should lie with a medical doctor.

4. The decision making procedure should be consistent and transparent
Decisions should be made following available SOPs and guidelines and involve qualified experts according to the nature of the different cases.

5. Medical confidentiality is ensured throughout the referral care process
Please refer to Annex 1

Sudan: South Sudan “arrivals” in the White Nile State (Sudan). Not citizens, not IDPs, not Refugees: What are they?

10 January 2017 - 11:23am
Source: CMI - Chr. Michelsen Institute Country: South Sudan, Sudan

This paper discusses the living conditions of the so called “arrivals,”{1} South Sudanese refugees in Sudan, most of whom now reside in the White Nile State (58 %) and in Khartoum (23 %), and the rest of which live in different parts of Sudan. The focus of this paper, however, is on those who live in the White Nile State. It is no longer possible to apply the conventional perspectives used in refugee studies to understand the complex situation of South Sudanese “arrivals” in Sudan. It is also not possible to apply the terms usually used to describe and define refugees, IDPs, asylum seekers, the stateless, and “other people of concern,” to analyze the conditions of these “arrivals,” as they do not fall in any of these categories. Repatriation, resettlement, and reintegration are not possible solutions in the case of the South Sudanese refugees as they may be for other categories. Unlike the handling of straightforward cases of refugees, the international community does not have any laws or means to pressure or sanction either the Sudan or South Sudan governments for their treatment of the “arrivals.” This is so because there is no recognized international definition of “arrivals” and no standard international procedures to apply in such unprecedented circumstances. This could be viewed as a symptom of the worldwide shift from a humanitarian attitude towards refugees (typical of the post-WWII era) to a political and, subsequently, security-driven one due to the explosion, in the 1990s and until now, of the refugee phenomenon (Malkki 1995). Sudan and South Sudan are acting very much the same way other countries, and particularly European countries, do. European countries, in fact, have not set up generally agreed upon rules and measures to collectively deal with refugee issues up to now; they singularly adopt a political stance that guarantees the security of their societies and national borders instead.

The recording of the conditions that brought the “arrivals” in Sudan{2} has no precedent in the literature on refugees. There are a number of factors that can explain the phenomenon. The most important of them is globalization. The new global dynamics have compressed time and space and weakened barriers between countries for the passage of capital, commodities, ideas, and, to a lesser degree, human beings (specifically labor). On the one hand, the strength of national sovereignty and controls (especially of the developing countries) have largely been reduced, while internal and regional conflicts have significantly increased. On the other hand, the current capitalist system led by the U.S. is running into difficulties that might bring about its total collapse, and hence the rise of new world structures or systems. The outcome of the previous dynamics and factors is manifested in a wide, international population mobility and re-drawing of the demographic map. The old rules of the game guaranteeing the stability of the world since WWII appear to have lost much of their efficacy. It should not come as a surprise that every country pursues its own interests and strives to protect its political, social, and cultural security and identity.{3}

The argument here is simply that it will not be possible to understand the present situation of the refugees in general, and that of the South Sudanese “arrivals” in particular, without locating the issue within the larger framework of international population mobility. In any case, it is the refugees, however they may be defined, who suffer the burdens of the changing international circumstances. New global perspectives have to be pursued in order to address the emerging refugee issue. No country, however, seems to care about them; and the international community does not appear to be ready to provide them with proper protection and sound solutions.

{1} This is a term used by the Sudan Government. Why the Sudan Government has opted to use the term “arrivals” rather than “refugees” for this category of individuals will be explained further in this paper.

{2} The only case that might be somewhat similar to that of Sudan is East Timor. For a comparison between South Sudanese refugees and East Timorese refer to Krista Davina (2014) and UNHCR (2002).

{3} The latest withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union could be seen as the beginning of this process.

Jordan: Jordan Medical Referral Report: Mid-Year, January - June, 2016

10 January 2017 - 11:07am
Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees Country: Iraq, Jordan, Somalia, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Yemen

Overview

Since the onset of the civil war in Syria, people have fled to neighboring countries. Over 650,000 Syrians have been registered with UNHCR Jordan office. In addition, Jordan hosts refugees from Iraq, Sudan and Somalia. Access to health care services for refugees in Jordan varies by refugee country of origin and level of required service. UNHCR has adapted a policy of structured provision of health services for different nationalities in order to maintain affordable access to primary, secondary and tertiary health services. UNHCR’s Public Health approach is based on the Primary Health Care (PHC) strategy whereby UNHCR’s role is to facilitate and advocate for access through existing services and to monitor access. Essential secondary and tertiary health services are available to eligible refugees who have been registered with UNHCR and offered through government hospitals and other hospitals supported by UNHCR’s referral partner, Jordan Health Aid Society (JHAS). In order to facilitate the referral process UNHCR has established two levels of authority with the implementing partner. If the estimated treatment cost is less than JODs 750 per person per year then the UNHCR partner will manage the referral directly, while if the referral cost is more than JODs 750 per person per year, the case has to be approved by the UNHCR health unit (for emergency cases) and/or Exceptional Care Committee (ECC) for non-emergency cases before the referral takes place.

The standard operating procedures (SOP) for medical referral care outlines the policy and procedures which are applicable to all the UNHCR registered refugees in Jordan. Referral care considered as an essential part of access to comprehensive health services, thus UNHCR since 2014 has maintained a medical referral database in order to monitor referral trends in urban and camp settings in Jordan. In summary; the Public Health Care Services (PHC) are available to Iraqi refugees at Ministry of Health (MoH) facilities at the non-insured Jordanian rate while they must pay the foreigners’ rate to access secondary and tertiary level services. Syrian refugees, with valid UNHCR registration and security card, can use government health services at all levels at the non-insured Jordanian rate. Non-Iraqi/non-Syrian refugees are charged the foreigners’ rate when utilizing MoH services at all levels. These costs for health services mean that many refugees are unable to access essential and life-saving health care services without additional support.

This report contains results from analyzing data that were collected during the period of January to June 2016, from 10 urban, camp and transit sites clinics. The six urban sites include: Amman, Zarqa, Mafraq, Irbid, Ramtha and the South Mobile Medical Unit. The four camp sites include: Zaatari camp, Azraq camp, King Abdullah Park and Cyber City.

Methodology

Medical referral data were collected on-site daily then compiled and shared on a monthly basis with the JHAS referral hub who conducted the initial data compilation and cleaning. JHAS then shared the clean data with the UNHCR Public Health Unit who then recruited a consultant to support with cleaning and data analysis. Descriptive data analysis was conducted using Microsoft Excel.

Summary of findings

o Between January and June, 2016, a total of 15,524 referrals were conducted. Of these, 10,761 (69.3%) were elective referrals and 4,763 (30.7%) were emergency referrals

o 32 (0.7%) of the 4,763 emergency referrals and 24 (0.2%) of the 10,761 elective referrals died

o Average no of monthly referrals was 2,587, with a low of 1,832 (May) and a high of 3,450 in March.

o 23.6% of refugees were referred at least twice for specialized hospital care in the first half of 2016. The majority of refugees were referred only once (76.4%)

o Syrian refugees (81.4%) were the main nationalities referred while Somali refugees accounted for the least proportion of referrals (0.3%); Females accounted for majority of medical referrals during the reporting period (55.5%)

o Almaqased hospital received 23.6% of the total medical referrals, followed by Al Basheer (13.6%), and Qasr Shabeeb (12.0%). Zaatari camp referred 34.5% of referrals, followed by Madina (26.2%) and Azraq camp (19.7%).

o Average referral expenditure per patient during the reporting period was 149.91 JOD, and the total referral expenditure during the reporting period was 2,327,279 JOD

o 19.6% (455,272.13 JOD) of overall referral expenditure was spent on maternity services with the average cost per maternity referral being 153.14 JOD

o Referrals for maternity services accounted for majority of referrals (23.5%), followed by referrals for diseases of the genitourinary system (22.0%), and circulatory system (10.2%)

o Largest proportion of cost was incurred by referrals for maternity services (19.6%) followed by trauma (17.9%)

o 56 mortalities occurred during the reporting period primarily among infants (28.6%) and the elderly (39.3%)