Population movements from Darfur into eastern Chad declined significantly in 2005, and aid agencies were able to stabilise the humanitarian situation of the 220,000 Sudanese refugees in the region. Yet, the presence of a large aid-dependent refugee population in eastern Chad 's depleted environment continued to raise considerable humanitarian challenges. Ongoing violence in Darfur made the return of refugees impossible. Therefore, aid agencies had to explore more long-term interventions, including sustainable assistance to affected host communities.
Meanwhile, internal socio-economic and political difficulties, as well as mounting tensions with neighbouring Sudan , resulted in a deterioration of the overall security situation in eastern Chad . Though the level of humanitarian access remained satisfactory, relief organisations operated in an increasingly volatile and insecure environment. Growing insecurity in the north of the Central African Republic (CAR) triggered the displacement of about 15,000 Central Africans into southern Chad , adding to an existing caseload of 30,000 CAR refugees present in the area since 2003. This new situation raised serious humanitarian challenges, which were compounded by logistical difficulties and a lack of resources to address their needs.
OCHA consolidated its presence in Chad during 2005 to support the HC and humanitarian partners in setting up and supporting the functioning of coordination mechanisms. OCHA's limited presence in N'Djamena in 2005 is due to be reinforced in 2006 to strengthen the information management capacity of humanitarian actors.
. Provide effective humanitarian coordination and guidance in support of humanitarian partners
. Ensure sustainable and effective internal UN coordination
. Ensure effective operational coordination structures in Abéché and N'Djamena to ensure the provision of effective assistance to affected populations
OCHA provided a platform for humanitarian actors to plan activities and formulate strategies in response to the growing humanitarian needs. In particular, the OCHA team worked closely with UNHCR to improve information exchange and coordination between all actors. The strengthening of humanitarian coordination structures and various fora resulted in increased information sharing between Chadian authorities, UN Agencies, international and local NGOs, as well as with donors. OCHA was also instrumental in improving information sharing between the UNCTs in Chad and Sudan.
OCHA coordinated all CAP-related activities. It ensured the continuous monitoring and review of the CAP 2005, and led the preparation of the CAP 2006. It advocated on priority resource mobilization with donors, including through institutionalised humanitarian forums.
Together with UNHCR, OCHA supported the establishment and functioning of Sector Working Groups (SWG) in N'Djamena and Abéché. It endeavoured to ensure a smooth flow of information between working groups and other humanitarian actors.
OCHA also strengthened the information flow within the humanitarian community, by ensuring an appropriate dissemination of relevant humanitarian information in N'Djamena and Abéché, including WWW documents and databases on donors and host populations. OCHA initiated the set up of a humanitarian website, as well as of a humanitarian documentation centre in N'Djamena.
OCHA coordinated the improvement of the humanitarian coordination scheme for Chad . Five out of seven sectoral working groups were set up in 2005 and are currently functioning. The office coordinated numerous information sharing and analysis meetings with donors that served as a decisional tool for many agencies. Through maintaining and distributing products such as WWW and projects databases, it helped establish a broad understanding of the humanitarian situation.
Regular meetings with NGOs for analysis and exchange of information on the socio-political context proved a valuable tool of coordination. They gave rise to a shared analysis of the humanitarian situation in Chad . The humanitarian community agreed that Sudanese refugees in the east and Central African Republic refugees in the south, as well as the Chadian population directly affected by the refugee crisis, should be targeted as key beneficiaries of humanitarian assistance.
The CHAP and CAP 2005, and the 2005 mid-year review, facilitated by the OCHA office, set out humanitarian priorities and strategies for Chad . Nineteen organisations, including eight NGOs, participated in the CHAP/CAP 2005 and the 2005 mid-year review, a significant increase on 2004, when nine agencies, including one NGO, took part. The documents produced reflected a shared humanitarian understanding of the situation and agreed strategies to address it.
OCHA continued to monitor the functioning of existing working groups in Abéché. The office also facilitated and coordinated the establishment of sector working groups in N'Djamena. They allowed a coordinated response to the humanitarian needs of target beneficiaries, according to agreed priorities. Coordination mechanisms, such as sector working groups and donors fora, facilitated a smooth flow of information between humanitarian organizations and helped improved their shared understanding of the crisis.
The 2005 CAP, which appealed for US$ 227 million, was 59.9 percent funded - which was down on the 2004 funding level of 87.9 percent (US$ 145 million). In percentage terms, funding was down on 2004 levels in all sectors, but in actual sums received, many sectors (such as agriculture, coordination, health, food, protection and education) received more in 2005 than the year before. The multi-sector (refugee) sector was a big exception, however, receiving about US$ 16 million less in 2005 than the previous year, so that overall funding did not match increased humanitarian needs.