Part III
Coordination Activities in the Field

Somalia

 

 

  Requirements 3,629,262  
  Income from Voluntary Contributions1 4,834,691  
  EXPENDITURE    
  Staff Costs 1,585,590  
  Consultant Fees and Travel 39,087  
  Travel 392,000  
  Operating Expenses 245,825  
  Contractual Services 7,000  
  Supplies, Materials, Furniture and Equipment 159,389  
  Fellowships, Grants and Contributions 60,700  
  Programme Support Costs 323,646  
  Total Expenditure (US$) 2,813,237  
1 Includes allocations from the Field Coordination Reserve Fund of US$ 19,000

 

Context

In 2006 Somalia faced a series of crises, starting with the worst drought in over a decade and conflict in Mogadishu between militia forces and the emerging Islamic Courts Union (ICU), followed by the Deyr flooding and more fighting between the ICU and the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) – openly supported by Ethiopian forces. By the end of the year, the TFG had regained control of all territory in southern Somalia from the ICU, and Ethiopian forces were still in the country backing the TFG. Flood response and other post-drought life-saving activities effectively ground to a halt by December because of the fighting. Access to the most vulnerable areas (such as Lower and Middle Juba and Gedo) was obstructed by ongoing military operations, renewed presence of militia, and inter- and intra-clan conflicts.

The humanitarian presence during 2006 was, as in past years, characterized by intermittent access, particularly in South/Central Somalia. The flooding and conflict caused significant displacement, although much of it was localized and many people soon returned to their areas of origin. The IASC and cluster approach established in early 2006 helped to ensure a level of coherence and strategic coordination in the drought and flood response, although rolling out the clusters in the field was more challenging. The Somalia operation benefited from three CERF grants providing much-needed resources– two for the drought response (total US$ 6.1 million) and one for the floods (US$ 10.3 million – the majority of the funding covering the Flood Response Plan).

Objectives

Activities and Accomplishments

OCHA led the United Nations’ initiative to negotiate improved access, particularly at the local level. It also drafted an IASC advocacy strategy promoting access and protection. In early 2006, OCHA supported local reconciliation in Bay and Bakool among the Rahanweyn clan, eventually leading to the establishment of local administrations and increased security throughout these regions. Later in 2006, as access diminished with growing insecurity, OCHA developed a concept note for the re-engagement of United Nations international staff in South/Central Somalia, which was endorsed by the Secretary-General.

OCHA was crucial in coordinating and facilitating the implementation of a phased multi-agency response in Boosaaso to improve the living conditions of IDPs and vulnerable populations, while also working towards durable solutions. It later promoted a similar approach in Hargeysa. OCHA supported IDP profiling and Protection Monitoring initiatives, and mobilized resources (Danish Refugee Council secondees) to make progress on their implementation.

OCHA supported the training of humanitarian partners and cluster leads in Nairobi and Somaliland on sexual and gender-based violence. It also supported a workshop for humanitarian actors and cluster leads on IASC gender guidelines and on mainstreaming of gender into the cluster response. Through the CAP, clusters were requested to provide gender-disaggregated data.

In June, OCHA updated the United Nations contingency plan for Mogadishu and planned for the intensification of activities to support around 250,000 IDPs in the city. In July, OCHA led the development of an IASC Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan for South/Central Somalia based on the most likely scenario of a protracted stalemate. The Plan was continuously updated with the IASC and regional partners in Ethiopia and Kenya. As conflict became more likely, OCHA, with its partners, developed planning figures for additional IDP and refugee caseloads. OCHA also supported a series of regional contingency planning efforts to develop response plans for the worst-case scenario of conflict combined with flooding.

In September, the Flood Working Group, chaired by OCHA, was reactivated in response to increasing flooding; this became a forum for inter-cluster coordination and decision-making. It also helped to disseminate the Inter-Agency Action Plan for Flood Preparedness and shared early warning information which enhanced planning and response. Lessons learned during the flooding that will build local capacity to respond to future floods include: the need for more systematic river-level gauging and early warning; the need for pre-positioning of boats; standby plans to rapidly contract civilian helicopters; and disaster risk mitigation and early recovery programmes.

OCHA administered the Humanitarian Response Fund (HRF), which during 2006 funded 22 projects to alleviate the suffering of drought- and flood-affected communities, build resilience and reduce vulnerability to future shocks. Efforts were made to make the HRF more accessible to local NGOs, enhance local capacity and increase access.

The 2006 Somalia CAP maintained links with the Joint Needs Assessment (JNA). During the JNA phase, which coincided with CAP consultations, the JNA built on CAP conclusions to ensure appropriate linkages and avoid duplication. The Flood Response Plan, with the inclusion of rehabilitation projects, encouraged the transition to development. Unlike previous years, and given the JNA process, in 2006 the Somalia CAP’s strategic goals shifted to emphasize humanitarian priorities, while ensuring links to longer-term rehabilitation and development. For example, in the absence of a multi-donor trust fund the Interim Support Fund for Somalia was included in the CAP to address the country’s transitional needs.

Performance Evaluation