Consolidated Appeal for Somalia 2007

30 November 2006

In 2007, United Nations agencies and NGOs intend to further expand work with local NGOs and Somali partners to address the human suffering through the following four strategic priorities:

·         Save lives and increase access to basic humanitarian services for 1.4 million people identified as being in a state of Humanitarian Emergency and Acute Food and Livelihood Crisis, and strengthen the resiliency of Somali livelihoods to better withstand natural or conflict-related disasters;

·         Alleviate the suffering of and increase access to basic humanitarian services for the estimated 400,000 internally displaced people living in public buildings or settlements without clan-based protection, including the 250,000 residing in Mogadishu;

·         Enhance the protection of and respect for the human rights and dignity of affected populations;

·         Through local partners, strengthen capacity for social service delivery and response to natural or conflict-related disaster.

These strategic priorities have been designed to ensure continuity and remain in line with the strategic priorities of 2006.

The rapid military rise of the Islamic Courts Union[1] (ICU) in Mogadishu immediately changed the nature of Somalia’s political landscape.  In June 2006, the ICU took control of Mogadishu and quickly dismantled roadblocks in the city, greatly increasingfreedom of movement and general security.  These measures were welcomed by residents and have also broughtnew realities and opportunities for humanitarian engagement in 2007.  By mid-September, the ICU had also gained control over eight of the eighteen administrative regions of Somalia, including Lower and Middle Shabelle, Lower and Middle Juba (which includes the entire southern coastline) and Hiran. 

The ability of the ICU and the Transitional Federal Government(TFG) to come to an agreement through dialogue on critical power-sharing, constitutional, and security issues will likely determine the near future of Somalia.  Although there is a risk of a wider TFG-ICU confrontation, with the possible involvement of neighbouring countries, such a conflict is likely to be characterised as a proxy war on Somali territory, involving traditional enemies and their allies.  Throughout 2006, there have been persistent reports of foreign military presence or support for both the TFG and the ICU.  However, it is hoped that even if talks are long and laborious, the dialogue between the TFG and ICU will proceed and move slowly towards agreement on key issues.

Due to inter- and intra-clan fighting, Somalia has been without an effective central government for sixteen years, leading to the destruction of infrastructure, the disintegration of basic health and social servicesand widespread human rights abuses.  The country also has some of the worst human development indicators in the world.

At the start of 2006, the country was experiencing an aggravated humanitarian emergency brought on by the worst drought in over a decade.  Of an estimated population of 7.7 million (UNDP working estimate 2006), around 2.1 million people countrywide were in need of critical assistance[2], including an estimated 400,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs).  However, the worst-case scenario of a famine evolving in the first half of the year was largely averted due to massive humanitarian actions, as well as the deeply embedded clan-based social support system and the absence of countrywide conflict.  However, despite a slight improvement, in 2007 around 1.8 million people (as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization Food Security Analysis Unit) – including 400,000 IDPs – will require urgent assistance.  Acute malnutrition rates continue to exceed the emergency threshold of 15% in districts of the south and central regions.  Of the 1.4 million food-insecure, 1.1 million or 80% are located in south and central regions.  The two regions remain the most under served in terms of provision of humanitarian assistance.  CAP 2007 seeks to address this urgently.

In 2007, the humanitarian community is committed to making a difference in the lives of IDPsin Bossaso and Galkayo and will secure access and improve response to the most urgent needs of the IDPs in south and central regions, including Mogadishu and Kismayo.  In May 2006, the UN Special Advisor on Internally Displaced Persons visited several settlements, including in southern Somalia, where he commented that Somalia’s displaced people were living in some of the worst conditions he had seen in Africa; and Mogadishu remained the only capital in the world where about a quarter of a million of them are not accessible for sustained assistance and protection.  Their number living in settlements and public buildings is roughly 400,000[3] although these figures may be adjusted after an on-going IDP profiling exercise which commenced in 2006.  Between April and August 2006 an additional 133,000 have been displaced within Somalia, the majority of them in south and central regions, due to clan conflicts, floods, drought and Mogadishu clashes. 

The operating environment for humanitarian relief operations remains varied throughout Somalia.  While Somaliland and Puntland in the north experience political development, economic recovery and relative stability with humanitarian access in general unhindered, in the south and central regions access remains problematic due to prevailing insecurity.  Despite significant efforts in 2006 to increase activities and response in south and central regions, where over 60% of the population is, most of the humanitarian assistance (except for the food sector) has been channelled to the north.  CAP Somalia 2007 focuses on encouraging more international organisations to be present in the south and central regions to tackle the dire humanitarian needs found there.

In 2006, security incidents including the murder of a Swedish cameraman in Mogadishu (June), the assassination attempt on the TFG President, Abdullahi Yusuf, in Baidoa and the murder of an Italian nun in Mogadishu (September), reflect the precarious, dangerous and unpredictable humanitarian-operational environment.  There has been no sustained UN international presence in Mogadishu since the mid-1990’s.  In 2007, an innovative approach to build and consolidate humanitarian space and bring political, religious and business leadership to adhere to basic humanitarian principles will be required.

While UN agencies and international NGOs have not been in a position to provide a comprehensive network of humanitarian programming in the south and central regions due to access constraints; many local Somali implementing partners on the ground do not have the necessary qualified staff and technical expertise, making it difficult and challenging for international organisations to work through them.  CAP Somalia 2007 focuses on increased cooperation and capacity building of local NGO capacity and community-based organisations enabling the expansion of operations and enhanced implementation of humanitarian activities through Somali channels.

In 2007, the CAP will be structured along two pillars: humanitarian relief and early recovery.  While the first (and by far the largest) pillar will focus only on humanitarian relief, the early recovery pillar will allow donors to fund priority early recovery activities, consistent with the Reconstruction Development Programme priorities for 2007, preferably to be resourced through the Interim Support Fund for Somalia.  Early recovery programming in humanitarian settings works to restore services, livelihood opportunities and governance capacity and aims to stabilise human security and address underlying risks that triggers “shocks” such as conflict, drought and floods.  Where access permits in the South, an integrated area-based approach to early recovery will be implemented.

While the CAP concentrates on meeting urgent humanitarian needs, the Somalia Reconstruction and Development Plan, which builds on the Joint Needs Assessment for Somalia[4], is unlikely to be implemented at the beginning of 2007.  The Early Recovery pillar of the Somalia CAP 2007 focuses on strengthening the impact of humanitarian assistance and laying the foundation for later-stage recovery.  It is therefore separate from, but linked to, the implementation of the Reconstruction and Development Programme.  Likewise, early recovery links up with the UNHCR-initiated Comprehensive Plan of Action for Somali Refugees, Returnees and IDPs, which aims at durable solutions for displaced Somalis in the region, partly through creating conditions conducive to their return and reintegration in their country of origin. 

In 2006, in line with global humanitarian reform initiatives, Somalia was one of four countries that piloted a national Inter-agency Standing Committee[5] – chaired by the Humanitarian Coordinator with membership from seven UN agencies, seven NGOs and the International Committee of the Red Cross as an observer – and developed clusters[6] of relevant partners in order to improve preparedness and response and fill gaps across the sectors and cross-cutting issues.  The cluster approach will be continued in 2007 to meet the humanitarian needs of highly vulnerable Somalis.

The 2007 Consolidated Appeal for Somalia seeks US$[7] 237,112,824 for 128 projects through 14 UN agencies, 16 International NGOs and nine Local NGOs[8] in the eight sectors of Access; Food Security and Livelihoods; Protection; Shelter; Health; Nutrition; Water and Sanitation; Education and the three cross-cutting sectors of Early Recovery, Gender and HIV/AIDS as well as the two support sectors of Logistics and Coordination and Support Services.  Somalia CAP 2007 seeks a balanced sectoral response from donors and encourages them to build lasting partnerships, to enable partners working in Somalia to build adequate operational support.  Generous contributions from the international community across all sectors will enable UN agencies and NGOs to ensure a coherent response and an integrated approach in 2007, enhanced by the new cluster coordination mechanism.

[1]Also known as the Supreme Council of the Islamic Courts (SCIC) or Union of Islamic Courts (UIC).

[2]Food and Agriculture Organization/Food Security Analysis Unit (FAO/FSAU) produced new working figures for number of people affected by the worst drought in a decade to hit Somalia.  A Revised 2006 CAP was launched in March to reflect the deteriorating drought conditions.

[3]Source OCHA Somalia updated April 2004 (376,630) and UNHCR IDP Map Dec 2005 (407,000) rounded to 400,000 as a working estimate.

[4]The objective of the Joint Needs Assessment (JNA) is to help Somalia achieve sustained reconstruction and development through the assessment of needs and subsequent elaboration of a long term five year Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP).  The RDP will function as an instrument for mobilising, distributing and coordinating international recovery assistance.

[5]The IASC membership includes OCHA, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), World Food Programme (WFP), FAO, World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), CARE, Gedo Health Consortium (GHC), Danish Refugee Council (DRC), Oxford Committee for Famine Relief (OXFAM)/Nederlandse Organisatie voor Internationale Bijstand (NOVIB), CONCERN, Save the Children (SC)-UK and Advancement for Small Enterprise Programme (ASEP).  International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is an observer, while FAO/FSAU and Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS-Net) are technical advisors.  It meets on a monthly basis. 

[6]Somalia’s Eight Clusters: Health, Nutrition, Water and Sanitation (WatSan), Food, Education, Agriculture and Livelihood, Protection and Logistics.

[7]All dollar figures in this document are United States dollars.  Funding for this appeal should be reported to the Financial Tracking Service (FTS,, which will display its requirements and funding on the FTS website (CAP 2007 page).

[8]Additional local NGOs may come in when projects are eventually implemented through Letters of Agreement.


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