Emergency Humanitarian Response Plan for Kenya 2009
The crisis which followed the 2007 presidential elections in Kenya gave rise to a sudden and large-scale humanitarian emergency, the effects of which were felt far beyond Kenya’s borders. Violence in many parts of the country led to the killing of approximately 1,300 persons and the displacement of over 300,000. The disruption of livelihoods and essential services affected large numbers throughout the country and the interruption of transport hampered the delivery of humanitarian aid to neighbouring countries and economic activity in the region. Thanks to progress in political processes and the joint efforts of humanitarian stakeholders, the situation has stabilised over the course of the year with many IDPs returning to their homes and resuming their livelihood activities. The returns process was facilitated by the launch of the Government’s Operation Rudi Nyumbani (Return Home) in May. To date, the Government estimates that fewer than 10,000 people remain in IDP camps and more than 238,047 people have returned to pre-displacement areas and transit sites. Despite the many positive developments, the Government of Kenya estimates that at least 54,000 remain in transit sites and others have yet to return. Continued assistance is required to facilitate durable solutions for those who have yet to re-establish their homes and livelihoods.
Meanwhile, other multiple factors have affected livelihoods and food security throughout the country. Poor long rains, rising food and commodity prices, reduced cereal production and livestock diseases have converged to increase food insecurity among many vulnerable populations, including pastoralists in northeastern and northwestern arid and semi-arid land (ASAL) areas, coastal lowland areas and amongst the urban poor. As of September 2008, more than 1.3 million people were estimated to require food assistance. A lack of adequate water and pasture in affected parts of the ASAL regions has also contributed to an escalation in conflicts as communities compete for increasingly scarce resources. In October 2008, both Mandera and Turkana Districts were affected by substantial flooding: more than 9,600 people were displaced by floods and inter-clan conflict in Mandera and there was serious crop damage and significant loss of livestock in Turkana. Crises in other parts of the country also persist, including in Mount Elgon where activities of the Sabaot Land Defence Force (SLDF) militia and counter-insurgency efforts have led to displacements.
Regionally, Kenya’s porous borders have witnessed continued refugee flows. The deterioration in the situation in Somalia precipitated increased movements of Somalis over the border into Kenya. This influx adds to a refugee population which already far exceeds the capacity of existing refugee camps. Due to the continuing crisis in Somalia, new arrivals are expected to continue during 2009, increasing the strain on existing refugee support mechanisms.
During 2008, humanitarian actors have faced a multitude of challenges due to the changing nature of humanitarian needs in the country. Stakeholders have worked together to respond flexibly to new developments, despite the many competing priorities. Thanks to the generous support of donors, a total of $259.8 million has been committed to humanitarian action in Kenya, of which $146.4 million was received through the 2008 Emergency Humanitarian Response Plan (EHRP).
In light of the continued need to support post-election affected populations, those affected by climatic shocks, food and livelihood insecurity, and growing numbers of refugees, partners have agreed that a coordinated multi-sector approach to humanitarian assistance in Kenya continues to be necessary. As such, it has been agreed by IASC members that a Common Humanitarian Action Plan (CHAP) and associated appeal should be developed for Kenya. The process was facilitated through a two-day consultation with stakeholders and subsequent follow up to develop response plans and projects in all relevant clusters. The EHRP comprises a harmonised multi-sector strategy for response to humanitarian and early recovery needs, as well as for preparedness measures to mitigate the impact of new crises.
The plans and projects presented in this document have been developed with the participation of over 50 organisations, including the Government of Kenya, local and international NGOs, UN agencies and the Kenya Red Cross Society (KRCS). The appeal outlines key response and preparedness requirements as well as early recovery strategies in eleven sectors. A total of $390 million is requested to meet the most urgent needs of targeted populations.