Emergency Humanitarian Response Plan for Kenya 2010
Duration: January to December 2010
February-March, Short Rains Assessment
July-August, Long Rains Assessment
417,238 refugees and host populations; 4,456,000 food-insecure people; 60,000 IDPs; + urban vulnerable (unspecified number) = 4,933,238 people
Funding request per beneficiary: $103
Total funding request: $508,466,127
The emerging signs of drought and the growing humanitarian crisis in Kenya have worsened since mid-2008. Four consecutive failed rains, sustained high food and commodity prices, the economic and social impacts of post-election violence (PEV), livestock diseases, and an ever-increasing level of vulnerability have converged to precipitate a serious food and livelihoods crisis. Since the end of 2008, the estimated number of people requiring food assistance has leapt from 1.4 million to more than 3.8 million.
The cycle of drought in Kenya has dramatically accelerated in recent years. Underlying these regular episodes is an ever-increasing level of vulnerability in Arid and Semi-Arid Land (ASAL) areas, and among the poor in cities. The combination of chronic need and acute shocks is mutually reinforcing, requiring an integrated response that seeks to address immediate and structural needs. Pastoralist communities inhabit 80% of Kenya’s land mass and are the custodians of dryland environments. Despite providing such value, pastoralist areas have the highest incidence of poverty and the least access to basic services compared with other areas.
There is also an increasing awareness of a humanitarian crisis developing in urban areas. The proliferation and expansion of informal settlements reflect ongoing economic migration to cities, as well as population growth. According to projections made in 2003 by the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN HABITAT), 42.9% of the population will live in urban areas by 2010. Populations living in slum areas endure deplorable living conditions and are at high risk due to exposure to poor sanitation and hygiene, and a lack of access to potable water. This will ultimately result in a declining health and nutrition status. High youth unemployment levels, market dependence and sustained high commodity prices have also fuelled the ongoing rise in criminality, and other negative and high-risk coping strategies.
While there has been a steady return of those displaced by post-election violence, an estimated 35,000 people remain in transit sites, and 25,000 are in self-help groups that require support to establish sustainable living conditions and livelihoods. The continued delays in pursing the reforms and commitments laid out in the National Accord and Reconciliation Act (NARA), and the need for widespread peace and reconciliation efforts have also raised concern over the possibility of violence leading up to the elections in 2012. Upcoming political processes, such as constitutional reform, Mau Forest evictions and ongoing discussions around perpetrators of post-election violence, could potentially trigger renewed tensions.
The growing number of refugees arriving from Somalia is an additional major area of need. The crisis precipitated by persistent insecurity and drought has seen an average of 250 people crossing into Kenya each day, despite the continued closure of the Kenya/Somalia border. The growing number of refugees has far exceeded the available capacity to assist them. This is particularly relevant to the three Dadaab camps, where more than 283,000 refugees are accommodated in facilities designed to assist a maximum of 90,000 people.
The escalation in needs in ASAL areas and among the refugee population necessitated a scale-up of activities during 2009. The original appeal had requested US$ 389 million, which was later revised to $576 million to respond to increased needs. With donors’ generous support, the 2009 appeal has, to date, received $370 million (64%) of the total funds requested. Funding shortfalls have constrained response, particularly in sectors such as Coordination, Education, Health, Early Recovery and Food Security, each of which has received less than 35% of requirements. Four allocations from the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) have provided $25.85 million for rapid-response activities and in support of under-funded sectors.
Due to the continued increase in humanitarian need, the Kenya Humanitarian Partnership Team has unanimously agreed on the ongoing necessity for an Emergency Humanitarian Response Plan (EHRP) in 2010. The EHRP presents strategic response plans in 11 key sectors and requirements for 37 organizations, including eight United Nations agencies and 29 non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The total amount requested under the appeal is $508.5 million.