Mid-Year Review of the Consolidated Appeal for Chad 2012
As anticipated, erratic rainfall in 2011 led to below-average harvests in Chad, causing significant food security concerns in 2012. The Comité d’Action pour la Sécurité Alimentaire et la Gestion des Catastrophes (Action Committee for Food Security and Disaster Management) has raised serious concerns about the resilience of affected families. An estimated 1.6 million people already suffering from food insecurity and malnutrition also face longer-term resilience problems. In total, an estimated 3.6 million people are at risk of food insecurity. After two years of continued shocks, the pastoralist communities are facing difficulties in overcoming additional challenges.
In the Sahel belt, the rate of acute malnutrition has been above the acceptable threshold for several years (the average in Greater Kanem region is above 22%). Now, however, admissions to nutritional centres for severe acute malnutrition spiked in the first four months of 2012—43,000 people, three to four times more cases than the same period in 2011 and 2010.
The country is experiencing a resurgence of communicable diseases such as poliomyelitis, measles and guinea worm. Fortunately no cholera cases have been confirmed in Chad yet in 2012; however the rainy season has yet to begin.
Displacement and population movements remain a significant cause of concern. Because of the Libyan crisis, more than 90,000 Chadian migrant workers returned to their regions of origin or settled in transit zones, mostly in and around Faya, N’Djamena and the Sahel belt, an area already vulnerable to food crisis. In addition to the 125,000 internally displaced people (IDPs), there are still 281,311 Sudanese refugees in eastern Chad and 54,573 Central African refugees in the southeast of the country.
Although the Government estimates that another 30,000 IDPs are ready to return to their homes, lack of basic social services, the absence of rule of law and the lack of a functioning justice system in return areas prevent many IDPs from returning. A joint effort by the Chadian authorities, United Nations agencies and the humanitarian community was launched through the Early Recovery Cluster, resulting in a common strategy for durable solutions for IDPs that focuses on return, local integration and relocation. In addition, communities suffer a lack of livelihoods, worsened by inflation and the degradation of the environment (deforestation, over-exploitation of groundwater and pressure on scarce natural resources). The survival strategies of host communities often depend on climate conditions characterized by frequent natural disasters such as floods and droughts that greatly affect their vulnerability.
The Government of Chad has assumed full responsibility for the protection of civilians and the safety and security of humanitarian actors since the 2010 withdrawal of the Mission des Nations Unies en République Centrafricaine et au Tchad (United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad / MINURCAT). Arrangements have been implemented to reinforce security conditions in eastern and southern Chad, including additional deployments of the national police and gendarmerie, the Garde National et Nomade du Tchad (National and Nomadic Guard of Chad - GNNT), the Détachement Intégré de Sécurité (Integrated Security Unit / DIS), and the continued deployment of joint Chad-Sudan mixed forces along the border. As the situation in eastern Chad continues to slowly improve, humanitarian access to vulnerable people and returnee villages has increased. Nonetheless, UN agencies still require armed escorts by DIS to carry out humanitarian actions in eastern Chad and in certain areas in southern Chad. The judicial system remains weak overall and impunity prevails.
Political instability in the Sahel, particularly in Niger and Mali, may well increase the risk of criminal activities in northern Chad in the second half of 2012. Additionally, armed clashes in the southern Libyan cities of Kufra and Sabha remain a serious concern. This increased threat of criminality affects both civilians and humanitarian actors. The presence of unexploded ordnance in the north and east and the proliferation of small arms amongst the civilian population are further security threats impeding the effective delivery of humanitarian aid.
In 2012, the strategic objectives of the humanitarian community focus on durable solutions while maintaining life-saving assistance to the most vulnerable (IDPs, refugees, returnees and local populations). The transition from emergency assistance to recovery is of fundamental importance and funds are required to support multidimensional activities and eventual medium- to long-term development projects in order to boost sustainable growth. Strengthening the capacity of national actors and local communities to prevent, respond to, and manage crisis situations and their humanitarian consequences remains an important strategic priority. Through the consolidated appeal process (CAP), the humanitarian community supports the Government of Chad in its efforts to respond to emergencies. For example, in response to the 2012 food security crisis, the Government prepositioned 24,918 tons of cereal country-wide through its National Office for Food Security and expects to deliver 53,000 tons of cereals through subsidized sales to vulnerable people in response to the food security and nutrition crisis in 2012.
As of June 30, the 2012 Chad Consolidated Appeal has received 57% of required funding. Some sectors remain largely underfunded, including Protection 7%, Education 11%, Health 14%, and Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) 15%. Food security and nutrition are essential, but require clean water and protection elements to succeed. Balanced funding among the different sectors of humanitarian action is essential to ensure complementarity and a comprehensive humanitarian response. This revised consolidated appeal identifies as priorities the humanitarian needs in six areas: malnutrition/food insecurity, epidemics, water, sanitation and hygiene, protection, population movements and the impact of the Libyan crisis. To implement the projects submitted in this appeal, nine United Nations agencies, the International Organization for Migration and 19 non-governmental organizations in consultation with the Chadian Government and local actors are appealing for $572 million.