Mid-Year Review of the Consolidated Appeal for Somalia 2011
Somalia is sliding deeper into crisis due to the combination of drought, rising food prices and conflict, leading to population displacement and increased vulnerability. The epicentre of the crisis is in the south where 1.75 million people, approximately 61% of those most in need, are faced with severe food insecurity. The number of people in need has already increased from two million at the time of drafting the CAP 2011 in November 2010, to 2.85 million by the end of June – a 30% increase since mid-2010. This number is expected to increase further during the second half of the year.
Since January, more than 100,000 people have been displaced within Somalia and 60,000 more outside the country, due to drought and increasing conflict in the south. This is in addition to the existing 1.46 million internally displaced people (IDPs) in the country. In February, the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) launched an offensive against other armed groups, affecting people in Mogadishu, Gedo and other southern regions. The escalation in conflict has further exacerbated the suffering caused by the drought. The impact of the failed Deyr rains (October to December) was more severe than expected, causing livestock deaths and an unprecedented increase in local cereal prices. The performance of the Gu rains (April to June) has been patchy and poorer than anticipated, with only a 50% harvest projected from August.
Lack of food in the south – due to limited stocks caused by the drought and no food aid because of the WFP suspension – is the biggest challenge that the humanitarian community faces. Local cereal prices in the south have skyrocketed, with a 270% price increase in some areas compared to the same time last year. In addition, all imported commodities on average cost 29% more than in mid-2010 due to local food shortages and an increase in global oil and food prices. Malnutrition rates reported in January by the Food Security and Nutrition Analysis Unit (FSNAU) reached an alarming 30% in parts of the south. From June until the next rains in November, the food security situation in the south is expected to remain critical or worsen if food availability is not addressed. As of mid-year, alarming malnutrition levels and mortality rates among refugee children under five have been recorded in camps on the Kenya and Ethiopian borders, indicating the severity of the crisis.
In this deteriorating context, humanitarian actions in the first half of 2011 achieved mixed results primarily due to funding, access and capacity challenges. In some areas, humanitarian actors could deliver as they had both access and funding; in other areas where access was possible, funding was insufficient; in the south of Somalia, access and funding continued to be a challenge, particularly for the delivery of food. Over the last three years, new funding available by mid-year has decreased by more than half. This steady decline in funding continues in 2011, even as the needs continue to increase.
Despite the challenges, the humanitarian community reached a substantial proportion of the population in crisis during the first half of 2011 with life-saving interventions. Approximately one million people were reached with food assistance. Some 145,000 acutely malnourished children and pregnant and lactating mothers were assisted through nutrition interventions. Over 250,000 people gained access to at least five litres of water per day and benefited from emergency agriculture and livelihoods assistance. Emergency health activities reached nearly 40% of the two million people in need and approximately 42,000 pupils and teachers received emergency education assistance.
In response to the deepening crisis, the humanitarian community will adopt a more focused strategy for the remainder of the year. The strategy will concentrate on addressing the effects of the drought and conflict, and providing urgent humanitarian aid to prevent the situation from getting worse, while addressing the needs of those who have already been displaced. Aid organizations will build on opportunities from the expected normal rains in October to increase food availability in the south. Access will be monitored and will remain a high priority for the Humanitarian Country Team (HCT), and where access opportunities emerge, response will be swift. Geographical areas where people are most in need will be targeted: in the south, Gedo, the Jubas, Bay and Bakool, the Shabelles, Mogadishu town, and the whole of central, particularly Hiraan. Greater emphasis will be placed on the protection of civilians.
Despite the increase in humanitarian needs, the HCT has retained its disciplined approach and agencies’ revised requirements reflect what they can realistically implement for the remainder of the year. At the beginning of the year, the Somalia 2011 CAP requested US$529.5 million. The revised appeal requests $561.5 million to address the needs of 2.85 million people. Just under half (47%) of those requirements have been met ($265.3 million), leaving a shortfall of $296.1 million.