Mid-Year Review of the Flash Appeal for Haiti 2010
The 2010 Humanitarian Appeal for Haiti aims to provide for the immediate humanitarian needs of more than 2 million earthquake-affected people and to contribute to the foundations for longer-term recovery.
The situation in Haiti continues to be one of large-scale displacement and acute humanitarian emergency. The January 12 earthquake displaced around 2.1 million people, of whom 1.3 million went to spontaneous settlements in the affected areas, and 600,000 to host families outside the affected areas. Additionally, many people who already lived in poverty and vulnerability before the earthquake have since fallen into humanitarian need. In the months since the earthquake, the humanitarian situation and response have largely stabilized into continuous provision of basic needs. The Government and partners are now faced with the challenge of defining and implementing durable solutions to the high levels of displacement alongside ongoing and urgent relief operations. To this end, the Government, with the humanitarian community’s support, has developed a ‘Safer Shelter Strategy’ that lays out the axioms for long-term solutions to displacement, shelter, livelihoods, health, education, protection, the environment and other vital needs. The humanitarian community is already working on the detailed operationalization and implementation of the strategy. However, for the strategy to be successful, critical conditions still need to be met, such as resolving the issue of land tenure and availability, and effective coordination between the humanitarian and reconstruction efforts under the Government’s National Plan.
The initial Flash Appeal for US$562 million for humanitarian response was issued three days after the January 12 earthquake. In a review a month later, the appeal was revised to $1.4 billion and its planning and budgeting horizon extended through 2010. Now at mid-year, the Humanitarian Country Team (HCT) and cluster leads, in close collaboration with partners, have reviewed needs, revised the overall strategy and response plans in line with Government priorities, demonstrated gaps, and updated project requirements accordingly until the end of the year. After this Mid-Year Review (MYR), the appeal amounts to $1.488 billion, of which 64% is funded. The MYR process consisted of a thorough update of response gaps and funding. Old and new projects were screened through a three-phase approach (clusters, Inter-Agency Committee, Humanitarian Coordinator) to ensure that only projects that are time-critical and that respond to the identified gaps remain in the MYR. UN agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were systematically approached to provide their latest funding updates. Some of the existing NGO funding gaps were found to be closed based on the information that yet-unallocated private funding would be sufficient to cover their projects in the appeal.
The humanitarian community’s four strategic objectives stated in the February Humanitarian Appeal have been met to varying degrees. The short-term target of providing a range of humanitarian support to at least 1.5 million earthquake-affected people has been largely achieved, including the relocation of people living in 21 priority high-risk sites to safe sites before the rainy season. The funding with respect to requirements for nutrition (95%), water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) (88%), education (94%), protection (66%) and health (66%) has led the way, although needs still remain to be covered in these areas. Coordination and information management structures have been established on national and sub-national levels capable of supporting the Government in immediate and effective relief. Further funding will be necessary to continue working closely with government partners to build national coordination capacity and close the information gap on needs and responses.
Despite these overall positive developments, achievement of strategic and cluster-specific priorities in other important areas of humanitarian action has been badly affected by insufficient funding and/or by external conditions. A time-critical response gap lies in the provision of shelter in view of the hurricane season, which officially started on June 1. The greatest challenge here is a lack of available land on which to build, as well as a continued funding shortfall (66% of requirements covered) considering that this activity is considered high priority. Meanwhile, alternative measures are being put in place, including dedicated 24-hour humanitarian rapid-response teams in case of rain or hurricane-related incidents in spontaneous sites, and basic early warning system capacities within the Haiti Centre National de Météorologie (CNM). Camp coordination and camp management (CCCM) also suffers from inadequate funding (45%). Consequently, about 46% of camps have no managing organization. According to an MIT/USAID study, camps without a managing organization have less access to latrines and waterproof shelter items. Mid-year funding of early recovery has also lagged behind that for direct relief. The low funding of the Early Recovery (36%) and Agriculture (50%) Clusters has delayed physical rubble removal (approximately 20 million cubic metres of rubble is still where it was five months ago) and livelihood creation, including short-term agriculture re-launch and cash-for-work (CFW). In the case of the Food Cluster, funded at 52%, general food distribution (GFD) has reached the targeted caseload and the Government mandated the cessation of GFD at end of March. However, needs still exist in terms of targeted food distribution and cash/food-for-work (FFW) activities. Furthermore, for preparedness, the Food Cluster and the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement are pre-positioning emergency food rations in 31 locations across Haiti. Also in preparation for this year’s hurricane season, the Logistics Cluster is taking concrete measures to better respond in case of road failure by mapping alternative access routes, prepositioning essential logistical assets and maintaining minimum air assets to reach the most remote areas of Haiti.
The one general area of February’s plan in which little has so far been implemented is support to affected people in host communities outside the cities and towns.