Revision of the Indonesia Earthquake Response Plan 2006
Summary of the crisis
At 05:53 hours on 27 May 2006, an earthquake measuring 5.9 on the Richter scale (BMG) struck Indonesia’s central island of Java. The epicentre was located approximately 37 kilometres south of the culturally and historically important city of Yogyakarta. The earthquake impacted five districts within Yogyakarta province and six within neighbouring Central Java province, together home to 6.9 million people, severely damaging infrastructure and particularly housing. The two worst-affected districts were Bantul in Yogyakarta, and Klaten in Central Java (see map on p. iv). 5,744 people were killed immediately with more than 45,000 injured. Over 350,000 houses were damaged beyond repair and 278,000 suffered lesser damage, directly affecting 2.7 million people and rendering 1.5 million of them homeless, three times the number in Aceh after theTsunami (26 December 2004). The total damage and losses are estimatedat $3.1 billion,comparable to the devastating earthquakes in Gujarat and Kashmir.
The national response to the earthquake was decisive and swift, not least because attention and resources were already focused on Mt. Merapi Volcano which had started erupting the previous month and which still threatens the population that lives on its slopes. The Government of Indonesia (GoI) National Coordinating Board for the Management of Disaster (BAKORNAS PB), along with provincial and district authorities, took a lead role in coordinating emergency response on the ground.
The international community took a lesser but still significant part, bringing to bear both personnel and stockpiled materials already in Indonesia, and also new relief assistance, particularly foreign medical teams and supplies. In line with the Humanitarian Reform Agenda, the Humanitarian Coordinator and the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Country Team applied the cluster approach to ensure greater predictability and accountability in the response. As such, each key area of work has a clear lead amongst UN agencies and non-UN partners. One of their first actions was rapid needs assessment, carried out 27-29 May, which was the basis for the development of the Indonesia Earthquake 2006 Response Plan (ERP), launched on 2 June 2006.
The ERP helped to bring agencies together around a common agenda and guide the overall response but, as the initial state of emergency draws to a close, there is a need to refocus it so that it remains relevant over the remaining five months of its life, based on the assessments now conducted. The aim of the ERP is both to highlight critical emergency needs that have not yet been met due to lack of funding, and to catalyse early recovery efforts in certain key areas in order to transform the situation of the most vulnerable affected people. The clusters will also help the GoI formulate strategies that will move the response beyond the emergency phase. Each cluster group has therefore reviewed its component of the ERP, and determined their overall goals as follows:
- Emergency Shelter: To complement GoI and civil society efforts in providing all earthquake-affected people with adequate, appropriate, and habitable emergency shelter materials in safety and dignity.
- Early Recovery – ‘Rumah Cikal’Materials Support: To complement GoI and civil society efforts in providing a durable temporary housing solution to the most vulnerable homeless households.
- Early Recovery – Livelihoods: To lay the foundations for a sustainable recovery process by supporting planning, coordination, monitoring, and building government capacity at all levels; restoring livelihoods through grants to restart business; rehabilitation planning for key cultural heritage sites; and incorporating disaster risk reduction into the overall recovery effort.
- Health: To prevent excess morbidity and mortality and improve the health status of the affected population.
- Water and Sanitation: To prevent water and sanitation-related diseases as well as enhancing the well-being and dignity of the affected population by ensuring availability of water and basic sanitation facilities.
- Food and Nutrition: To ensure that food and nutritional requirements of the most needy and vulnerable people are supported to facilitate their recovery.
- Protection: To ensure the protection of earthquake-affected people and to strengthen local capacities to protect that population
- Education: To support the Education Departments of affected provinces in providing immediate and medium-term assistance to re-establish child friendly temporary learning spaces.
- Agriculture: To recover the food security and livelihoods of farming communities in the earthquake-affected districts with an aim to reduce their overall dependency on external food aid.
- Logistics: To provide logistical coordination and operational support, with storage capacity and efficient delivery of food and non-food items (NFIs) to affected areas.
- Emergency Telecommunications: To provide enhanced telecommunications support to enable efficient coordination and delivery of assistance to affected communities.
- Coordination and Security: To support the GoI’s relief and recovery efforts to ensure that humanitarian needs are met in a timely, effective, comprehensive, and coordinated fashion and ensure the safety and security of UN staff working in the affected areas.
Based on thorough assessment and planning in each cluster area, the total requirement of the revised ERP is $80,111,735. $21,536,369has been contributed or committed to projects in the ERP, bringing the total remaining requirements to $58,575,366 that is urgently required for projects that will address these critical objectives over the coming five months.
This is obviously neither sufficient time nor money for the affected people to recover from a disaster as devastating as the recent earthquake. Significant assistance will need to come from the GoI and its development partners over a period of years, particularly to rectify the losses in the areas of housing, schools and health infrastructure. The IASC Country Team will work with the World Bank and others to support the GoI in formulating a longer-term Recovery Plan, with the recent “Preliminary Damage and Loss Assessment – Yogyakarta and Central Java Natural Disaster” as its start point.
Analysis Of The Response
One month after the earthquake, the response has concentrated on the immediate relief to the affected population. To date, funds for over $20 million have been committed towards the original ERP and agencies have concentrated their efforts in critical life-sustaining areas as Emergency Shelter, Water and Sanitation, Food and Nutrition, and Health. The ERP, while it is a multi-cluster/sector document that effectively addresses the unmet emergency relief needs of the most vulnerable amongst the affected population, does not seek to address all the needs. The amount requested and spent to date represents only a small portion of all the needs.
The affected people themselves, who have strong communal coping mechanisms, the GoI, and a significant national civil society effort, are already handling the largest share of the response. The international community is therefore playing a secondary role in the emergency response to these main actors. The UN Agencies, the IFRC and NGO partners are helping people impacted by the earthquake by supporting the national efforts in three ways:
- Concentrating their limited resources on meeting the urgent unmet relief and early recovery needs of the most vulnerable to achieve a greater collective impact;
- Bringing technical capacity to improve the quality of the response (both international and national) – for instance, in helping to define and publicize messages about better building practices; and,
- Coordinating the international response with the national response to achieve a greater collective impact.
To date, 122,313 households have received 141,796 tarpaulins or tents, distributed by the humanitarian community (national and international) and GoI, reaching 35% coverage of the most needy whose households are unusable. In the area of water and sanitation, 300,000 litres of water on average are trucked per day (sufficient for about 20,000 people), more than 300 wells have been cleaned and/or repaired, and over 807 emergency toilets have been constructed. Hygiene promotion is ongoing, with 150 promoters having reached out to 25,000 people with key messages on safe water, toilet use, hand washing, and food hygiene.
The current food coverage, with more than 6,000 MT of various food commodities distributed by the GoI, national and international NGOs and WFP,has reached more than 1.7 million beneficiaries in all affected villages and urban areas. WFP has provided 115,000 beneficiaries with 877 MT of fortified biscuits and noodles, reaching 96% of its planned caseload for June. In the health area, a surveillance system covering 11 diseases has been set up in 26 Puskesmas (local primary health centre) in Bantul district, 34 Puskesmas in Klaten district, 9 Puskesmas in Municipality, 6 Puskesmas in Sleman as well as 4 Puskesmas in Kulonprogo and several Puskesmas in Gunungkidul district. The amount of medical supplies seems sufficient at this moment and the coverage of measles immunization (with concurrent vitamin A supplementation) is 76.6%, and 45.3% for tetanus toxoid immunization. Over 1,500 pregnant women in the seven most affected subdistricts of Bantul district have received multivitamin supplements adequate for the remainder of their pregnancy (daily dosage).
Nearly 100,000 households have still not received any form of emergency shelter assistance and therefore a further 100,000 tarpaulins are still urgently required. Taking into account what has already been provided, an additional $8.0 million is required to address this urgent need, plus associated shelter and household NFIs. The current water and sanitationassistance is only fulfilling a fraction of the objectives of the cluster and an additional $3.4 millionis required to address urgent needs in this area.
Based on WFP assessment data, at least 112,000 people out of the 1.5 million homeless are in need of extra support to fulfil their unmet food needs. The injured patients being treated in the hospitals are also in need of food. However, WFP’s food pipeline is assured only till the end of July due to a lack of funding and/or firm commitments from donors. Taking into account the assistance already provided and the funds committed, an additional USD 4.5 millionis required to address urgent needs in Food and Nutrition.
In the area of health, temporary place for medical services in Puskesmas are needed and permanent rehabilitation needs are under assessment. Nine Puskesmas in Klaten and 15 Puskesmas in Bantul are severely damaged, and basic medical equipment is needed. The number of diseases such as diarrhoea and respiratory infection are still high, and surveillance and public health efforts are still needed to prevent the outbreak. Physical rehabilitation is needed for those patients with permanent impairments.
Unmet needs that have to be promptly addressed exist also in other areas:
- Social, economic, physical and mental problems that may hinder or delay physical or psycho-social recovery, and have long-lasting adverse effects on the cohesion of families and communities, if current cramped, insecure and unsanitary shelter conditions persist;
- Economic recovery could falter, if more durable transitional shelter/housing needed to bridge the gap between emergency shelter and permanent housing is not provided;
- Lengthening the dependence of farming families on government hand-outs and reducing incomes for small-scale landowners, if the agriculture sector does not recover its productivity quickly;
- Overall lower health status and ability to resist disease of already vulnerable groups, if young children, pregnant and breastfeeding women do not receive the recommended dietary allowances of key micronutrients;
- Increased risk of outbreaks of water-related diseases, if the provision of water and sanitation is inadequate.
Source : BAKORNAS National Forward Coordinating Centre, at Yogyakarta Airport, as at 22 June 2006.
Source: Joint Preliminary Damage and Loss Assessment – Yogyakarta and Central Java Natural Disaster, from BAPPENAS, the Provincial and Local Governments of D.I. Yogyakarta and Central Java, and International Partners, dated 14 June 2006.
All dollar figures in this document are United States dollars. Funding for this plan should be reported to the Financial Tracking Service (FTS, email@example.com), which will display its requirements and funding, continually updated, on the CAP 2006 page.
Emergency Shelterrefers to temporary physical structures that provide basic but adequate shelter security for people and possessions in conditions of safety, protection, and dignity. The term is not limited to infrastructure alone, but includes related non-food items (NFIs).
Literally ‘seed housing’ in Bahasa Indonesia, it conveys the concept of giving people the material inputs and technical guidance to create a structure that is more than emergency shelter but which can be further developed into a permanent house over time when funds are available.
The SPHERE standard is 15 litres per person per day.