United Nations and Partners: 2008 Work Plan for Sudan
The dynamics of peace, recovery and conflict continue to determine the direction of UN and Partners interventions in Sudan. Within the complexities and challenges present, there are real opportunities for sustained recovery with Darfur being a notable exception. The UN and Partners 2008 Work Plan for Sudan outlines Humanitarian, Early Recovery and Recovery and Development programmes to support the continued peace processes.
Key indicators demonstrate a significant percent of the population is vulnerable to the long-term impacts of man made and natural disasters. Overall, under five mortality is 90 per 1,000. An estimated 24 percent of the population is undernourished while 30 percent are without access to safe drinking water. The adult literacy rate in Southern Sudan is 24 percent. Sudan ranks in the bottom 20th percentile of nations on the Human Development Index (HDI).
Three years after the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) progress towards a sustainable peace continues. It is within this variable context that the first post-conflict census and elections are being prepared for Sudan. The delivery of services is crucial to demonstrate tangible benefits assisting the people of Sudan. UN and Partners are investing in Early Recovery efforts which according to Planning Region and Sector priorities demonstrate incremental recovery transition.
Valued at $US 2.29 billion, the 2008 Work Plan is a significant commitment on behalf of Sudanese stakeholders. Of the total requirement $US 447 million has already been secured for some operations. The net appeal to meet 2008 needs in Sudan is $US 1.84 billion. Programmes in Darfur and Southern Sudan represent approximately 2/3 of the total requirement in 2008.
A number of CPA benchmarks are important to programme delivery in 2008: resolution to the boundary demarcation process, census and elections preparations for 2009. The progress of these steps and milestones creates an events calendar which affects UN and Partner schedules. This schedule has a short window as the rainy season limits programme delivery to the first half of the year. Further, political and social risk may increase as significant benchmarks approach. Delays in CPA and protocol implementation have been cited since the 2005 Work Plan. The instability and pressures these delays place on political systems make programme delivery difficult in sensitive areas. This is particularly evident in the Three Areas.
The complex political and security environment in Darfur is characterised by uncertainty, continued displacement and increased violence against aid workers. As such Darfur remains a significant humanitarian challenge and major concern for the international community. UN and Partners deliver humanitarian services and, as possible, support opportunities for foundational activities which promote recovery. UNAMID deployment is facing delays thus potential benefits from this mission are not expected in the immediate to short-term.
The Darfur programme represents 2/3 of the total Humanitarian requirement for Sudan. Conversely, Southern Sudan represents an equal percent of the Early Recovery requirement. The difference in programme focus belies the extreme variation of operational context in which UN and Partners operate; making service delivery complex and challenging.
UN and Partners assess need in the rest of Sudan to have equal focus between humanitarian and development requirements. The challenge will be to mobilise resources as these regions represent significantly smaller portfolios when compared to Darfur and Southern Sudan.
Lessons learned in previous years indicate flexible funding mechanisms are important. The challenge of delivery during the rainy season requires precise timing in the service chain. Humanitarian pooled funding mechanisms such as CHF and CERF are fairly successful in allocating funds for humanitarian efforts. Mechanisms such as MDTF are designed for long-term multi-year development efforts. In 2008, early recovery and recovery efforts require mechanisms that are able to respond to priorities within limited windows of opportunity.
Building government counterpart capacity is a strategic priority as Sudanese society shifts focus to recovery and development. Government and Sudanese NGO counterparts continue facing basic service delivery implementation and cost-sharing constraints. UN and Partners support this shift through Early Recovery. A key support in preparation of the UN Development Assistance Framework (2009-2012) includes baselines studies and surveys in collaboration with Ministry and State counterparts.
In the past few years, collaboration and inclusion with Sudanese counterparts increased. This improved UN and Partners ability to deliver basic services and address emergencies while enabling transfer of knowledge and capacity. Combined with timely support from the international community and donor engagement, the Work Plan process represents a significant collaborative effort. This document is developed by stakeholders to permit common expression of direction manifested in practical actions to address needs and opportunities for the betterment of Sudan.