Consolidated Appeal for Nepal 2005-2006
Since the Communist Party of Nepal/Maoist [CPN (Maoist)] started its ‘people’s war’ in 1996, more than 12,000 people have been killed and many tens of thousands forced to leave their homes. Although Nepal is not currently facing a humanitarian crisis in the classic understanding of the term, the worsening situation is giving rise to serious humanitarian and human rights concerns.
This is the first time that a Consolidated Appeal (CA) has been prepared for Nepal and this appeal presents a variety of new projects to address current humanitarian gaps not covered by planned development interventions, particularly the needs of the most vulnerable conflict affected populations and the building of an in-country emergency and disaster response capacity. It also includes the on-going humanitarian actions for refugee and asylum-seekers in Nepal, as well as the resources necessary for the establishment of the Nepal Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR).
The political situation shows no imminent signs of improving with a hardening of positions by the three main protagonists - the Communist Party of Nepal/Maoist [CPN (Maoist)], the Government and the mainstream political parties. Analysts suggest that neither the Royal Nepalese Army (RNA) nor the CPN (Maoist) can secure an outright military victory. Following the royal takeover of 1 February 2005 and the clampdown on political party activism, the seven major parties have hardened their positions against the King’s executive rule. The monarchy retains control of the RNA. As this appeal was being finalised the CPN (Maoist) announced a unilateral ceasefire for three months, from 3 September. The initial Government response has been highly sceptical of the announcement.
Several critical indicators in Nepal have bordered on emergency levels for years, with largely structural root causes. This appeal has been put together to prevent Nepal sliding into a full-blown complex humanitarian emergency.
There have been widespread human rights abuses by both parties to the conflict. These have been universally condemned. Following intense international pressure, an agreement was signed on 10 April 2005 between the Nepali Government (His Majesty’s Government of Nepal [HMGN]) and the OHCHR to establish a major human rights monitoring mission in the country.
In addition to the humanitarian challenges emerging out of the conflict, Nepal’s mountainous terrain means that it continues to be vulnerable to natural disasters including landslides, floods, and earthquakes.
Mitigation and response efforts to these disasters are becoming increasingly difficult in the present environment.
Nepal is in a unique situation. Many long-standing development programmes supported by bilateral and multilateral donors and frequently implemented through the government, continue with some success despite the deteriorating situation. Many have undergone ‘conflict sensitivity’ reorientation. Despite this, there are significant response gaps in providing essential assistance to conflict-affected populations. Every effort has been made to ensure that the activities proposed here are complementary to, and supportive of, other ongoing longer-term development activities.
The Common Humanitarian Action Plan (CHAP) forms the basis of this appeal, and is hinged on the four strategic priorities of:
- improving access to vulnerable groups and expanding operational space for humanitarian and development activities;
- improving monitoring of and responses to human rights protection concerns;
- providing basic humanitarian services to those in greatest need - where possible, linked to longer-term initiatives; and,
- developing systems for common assessment, needs analysis, and the coordination of emergency preparedness and response.
This plan covers the period October 2005–December 2006 and is for a total of almost US$ 65 million with projects presented by 25 different organisations. It has been developed in a collective manner with organisations within the United Nations system, international and local NGOs, the Red Cross Movement, government representatives, and the many donor organisations that have a significant operational presence in Nepal. Over 40 representatives of these different organisations joined a three-day workshop at the end of June 2005 to agree on the core elements of the CHAP. Additional planning and preparatory works have been conducted in sectoral working groups in close liaison with government and donor representatives.