CERF Allocations by Type of Emergency
Climate-related emergencies, such as those linked to drought, floods and storms, expose the poor and most vulnerable to hazards that often have lasting consequences for the health, livelihoods and well-being of people who have the least capacity to cope with and mitigate the effects of natural disasters. In 2011, CERF stepped up its support to Humanitarian Country Teams grappling with climate-related events through allocations of $149 million, making climate-related disasters the top category of CERF grants in 2011.
Drought-related emergencies in eight countries were allocated $98 million, almost a quarter of CERF funds, in 2011.
Projects responding to floods and storms in 11 countries received $51 million. In the wake of unprecedented floods in Sri Lanka, humanitarian partners received $6 million of rapid response funds in January, which helped more than 1 million people. For example, CERF support enabled WFP and its partners to immediately provide assistance by purchasing local rice and other foods for distribution. CERF funds allowed FAO to help flood-affected farmers rapidly restart paddy farming, enabling the livelihoods of 7,200 households to be restored. Some 622,000 flood-affected people also gained access to safe water supplies and adequate sanitation facilities, and practiced good hygiene. CERF-supported UNICEF interventions prevented an outbreak of waterborne disease and reduced the spread of communicable diseases in flood-affected areas. Mobile health clinics were set up in areas where most of the health facilities were flooded or could not be reached. Apart from a slight increase in the number of diarrhoea cases, no outbreaks of waterborne or communicable diseases were reported during the floods.
In the fourth quarter, after flooding displaced over 150,000 people in Cambodia, humanitarian partners received more than $4 million and targeted the most vulnerable people.
Assisting refugees and IDPs
CERF allocated more than $144 million - more than one-third of CERF grants - to 19 countries to assist refugees and internally displaced persons in 2011. Of this amount, $89 million, slightly more than 60 per cent, was given through the rapid response window. Some $5 million was allocated in response to humanitarian needs in areas along the Tunisian border hosting displaced populations from Libya. In Yemen, almost $15 million went to five humanitarian agencies to provide shelter materials, non-food items, and emergency food to displaced people and East African migrants left stranded in Yemen by the crisis in Libya. Mozambique received three rapid response grants totalling $1.4 million to provide food, transport and other support to refugees and asylum seekers in June 2011.
Complex humanitarian emergencies receive support
CERF allocated $93 million to countries presenting a complex set of humanitarian needs in 2011. This category includes CERF grants to 14 countries and territories through the underfunded and rapid response windows.
Colombia received some $6 million from the underfunded window in the first and second rounds, to support 200,000 people affected by armed conflict, floods and storms. CERF funds were used to improve living conditions for the most vulnerable families in conflict-affected regions, as well as to help households reinstate productive activities and develop the resilience to provide for their basic food needs in the future. Burundi also received $4 million in the first underfunded round to help support the priority protection, health and food needs of more than 2 million people, including refugees, displaced and repatriated persons.
CERF provided more than $22 million in rapid response grants to five countries in this category. The largest allocation of rapid response grants - $10 million - was given to the Humanitarian Country Team in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) for some nine million people facing major food shortages after a harsh winter. WFP in DPRK received $7 million, the largest rapid response grant in this category. CERF also gave the country $5 million in the first underfunded round earlier in the year. The second largest grant - $5 million - was given to UNHCR in Pakistan in response to displacement.
Also in this category, more than $2.2 million of rapid response funds was given to UNHCR, UNFPA and WHO in Yemen, two-thirds of which went to the health sector, and one-third for protection activities. A further $3.6 million was given to seven UN agencies and IOM in Syria, $1.2 million of which was allocated to the health sector and $877,000 to IOM, UNICEF or United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) for protection activities.
Preventing and combating disease and pests
More than $32 million - 8 per cent - of CERF funds were allocated to combat and prevent the outbreak of diseases in 2011. In January 2011, a grant of $10.3 million helped humanitarian agencies in Haiti respond to the most severe cholera outbreak in the country’s history, made worse by the humanitarian situation resulting from the January 2010 earthquake, structural poverty, and poor water, sanitation and hygiene conditions.
In July, $4 million of CERF funds went to humanitarian agencies combating cholera in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). As the disease spread westward, CERF allocated $1.3 million to UNICEF and WHO in November, to respond to outbreaks in communities along the Congo River.
In Mauritania, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever with 68 human cases confirmed and 41 cattle deaths reported, prompted CERF to provide more than $679,000 to WHO and FAO to quickly control the epidemic and reduce the risk of exposure through trade to neighbouring countries. Following a locust infestation in Madagascar, CERF provided a $2 million rapid response grant to FAO in November to reduce the locust population and protect crops, for the benefit of 2 million people.
CERF Allocations by Sector
In line with historical trends, the food sector was the largest recipient of CERF funds, accounting for 23 per cent of all funds disbursed in 2011. The health and nutrition sectors were the second and third top recipients, each accounting for slightly more than 14 per cent of allocations. The top three sectors totalled $220 million - more than 50 per cent of all 2011 allocations - largely due to drought and food insecurity in the Horn of Africa.
With the exception of a United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA) funded food distribution project in oPt, in 2011 all grants to the food sector in 27 countries were given to WFP. More than $33 million of food allocations were given in support of refugee and IDP emergencies in 11 countries. Drought accounted for $27 million of food allocations, while floods and storms accounted for $18 million.
CERF funded 53 nutrition projects in 27 countries, of which 28 were rapid response grants in 18 countries, totalling $39 million. The largest nutrition grant - $10 million - was given in August to UNICEF in Somalia for child nutrition and supplementary feeding interventions benefiting 2.3 million people; more than one-fifth included children under age 5. The second largest nutrition allocation was given to WFP in Kenya for emergency food distribution and cash-for-food programmes benefiting 2.2 million people, including 660,000 children under age 5. Smaller nutrition allocations were also made, for example a grant of $60,000 was given to UNICEF for children, pregnant and breastfeeding women living in shelters after Tropical Depression 12-E hit Nicaragua, and a $99,000 grant was provided to reduce the impact of floods and landslides on the nutritional status of children under age 5 in Bolivia.
The health sector received more than $8.5 million for maternal and reproductive health services, with $5.6 million going to UNFPA projects in 19 countries. Health sector allocations declined compared to 2010, while CERF grants for nutrition interventions increased due to the food and nutrition crises in the Horn of Africa.
Funds for multisectoral projects primarily supporting refugees and displaced populations have increased steadily since 2006, and accounted for 12 per cent of CERF allocations in 2011. Thirty-one multisectoral projects were funded, ranging from a $6.5 million grant to IOM to support the transport costs of highly vulnerable IDPs returning from Khartoum to South Sudan, to a $600,000 grant to the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) to provide emergency assistance and protection to IDPs in the Central African Republic. UNHCR in Nepal also received $999,000 to provide care to refugees from Bhutan.
There were noticeable declines in allocations to shelter and non-food items and coordination and support services, with the latter receiving the lowest amount of CERF allocations - $12.5 million - since the Fund’s inception. This decline may be explained by the smaller number of natural disasters such as earthquakes and floods, which traditionally require more shelter and non-food relief and support services, including logistics and humanitarian air service.
CERF Allocations by Agency
Eleven UN agencies and IOM received funding from CERF in 2011. As in previous years, WFP remained the top funded agency and was given $127 million - close to 30 per cent of all CERF funds - due to its role in providing emergency food aid. CERF was the eighth largest donor to WFP in 2011.
UNICEF was the second highest funded agency in 2011, receiving $109 million for 130 projects in 38 countries and territories - over a quarter of all CERF funding. The Fund was UNICEF’s top humanitarian donor in 2011.
More than 40 UNICEF water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) projects amounting to some $40 million in 28 countries and territories were supported, representing more than two-thirds of all WASH projects funded by CERF in 2011. UNICEF also received $47 million for 37 nutrition projects in 24 countries, and $14 million for 21 projects in 14 countries.
UNICEF and UNHCR received their highest ever allocations in 2011 due to their response to the Horn of Africa crisis. In keeping with previous years’ trends, WFP, UNICEF and UNHCR allocations together represented more than two-thirds of all allocations in 2011.
IOM received its largest ever annual funding from CERF, partly due its role in responding to major population movements in Libya, Sudan and South Sudan, among other countries. Nine percent of 2011 grants funded 44 IOM projects in 23 countries. UNFPA also received its highest allocation ever, largely due to an increase from 43 to 48 in the number of gender-based violence and reproductive health projects funded by CERF.
As no funding requests were submitted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), UN Women, the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNOHCHR) and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) in 2011, these agencies did not receive any funds.