The Republic of Nauru is the world's smallest republic, covering just 21 km² of land and with a population of less than 10,000 people.

Nauru is considered a low risk to natural disasters, however it is also considered to have a low capacity to respond to disasters because of its small population and isolation. Nauru is most vulnerable to drought due to its close proximity to the equator. During the wet season, from November to April, strong winds, sea swells and tropical cyclones sometimes occur.

No major rapid onset natural disasters have occurred in Nauru. However climate-change related disasters are of increasing concern. Due to the low level of the island, Nauru is vulnerable to the effects of tidal surges and sea level rises.