Recurrent drought and the residual  effects of the border conflict with Ethiopia are underlying causes of vulnerability in Eritrea. The country is largely semi-arid, exhibiting a varied topography, rainfall and climate, with altitudes that range from 60 meters below sea level to over 3,000 meters above sea level. The mean annual rainfall ranges from less than 300 mm in the coastal areas to a wider range from 400 mm to 1,000 mm in the highlands and the western lowlands. There are two major periods of precipitation; one from June to September (Kremti rains), covering both the western lowlands and the highlands, which is important for crop farming, and the second between October and February (Bahri or Coastal rains) covering the eastern lowlands, which is important for pastoral livelihoods.

The economy is largely agrarian. Two thirds of the population is engaged in subsistence farming and pastoralism for livelihoods, rendering them vulnerable to climate variability. It is estimated that in a year of good agricultural production, Eritrea can produce a maximum of 70 to 80 per cent of the annual cereal requirements, and in a bad year, as little as 20 to 30 per cent (ADB, 2011).

 Vulnerable groups include small-scale rural farmers, pastoralists, the urban poor, people living with HIV/AIDS, and refugees. 


The United Nations Resident/Humanitarian Coordinator (R/HC) in Eritrea is the designated representative of the Secretary-General and is responsible for coordinating UN activities in Eritrea. This is achieved through forging unity and coherence of the UN Country Team in support of plans, priorities and strategies of the country. Collaboration with Government in this process is key. UN operational presence in Eritrea comprises of: WHO, UNICEF, UNHCR, UNFPA, UNAIDS, FAO, OCHA and UNDSS. Additionally, WFP maintains a liaison office. Non-resident UN Agencies (IFAD, IAEA, UNIDO, ILO & UNEP), with programmes in Eritrea, are represented by the R/HC. The UN supports programmes through the Strategic Partnership Cooperation Framework (SPCF, 2013 -2016) jointly signed with the Government of the State of Eritrea and which replaces the UNDAF. The SPCF requests 188m USD for the period of four years and was 66 per cent funded as of September 2015.  The SPCF highlights the key strategic priorities as below,



Basic Social Services

SPCF Outcome 1: Access and utilization of quality and integrated health and nutrition services improved among the general population with particular emphasis on children under five, youth, women and other vulnerable groups. 

SPCF Outcome 2:Children, including refugees have equitable access to quality basic education in the hard to reach areas of Anseba, Gash-Barka, Southern Red Sea (SRS), Northern Red Sea (NRS) and Debub.  

SPCF Outcome 3: Strengthened protection and participation of vulnerable children, adolescents, young people, women, and people with special needs, including refugees, from the impact of poverty, harmful practices, exploitation and injuries in high prevalence areas. 

      US$ 66,031,000

National Capacity Development

SPCF Outcome 4:Selected government institutions have the capacity to effectively and efficiently deliver services to all. 

SPCF Outcome 5:Strengthened national and sectoral disaster risk management. 


      US$ 12,376,200

Food Security and Sustainable Livelihoods

SPCF Outcome 6:Poor and vulnerable households have improved access to, and   utilization of quality food and enhanced livelihoods opportunities.  

US$ 41,220,000

Environmental Sustainability

SPCF Outcome 7:Eritrea is on track towards the achievement of MDG targets for environmental sustainability (MDG 7).  

US$ 66,206,000

Gender Equity and Advancement of Women

SPCF Outcome 8:National institutions have gender responsive sector plans and policies and promote empowerment of women.

US$ 2,060,000


US$ 187,893,200


Funding to OCHA Eritrea


Donors USD
Requirements for 2017 0
Earmarked Contributions 0
Opening Balance ** 0
Total (Contributions + Opening Balance) *** 0
Funding (%) 0%
* In 2017 OCHA received unearmarked contributions from the following donors:

Korea, Republic of
Unearmarked contributions (or commitments) are those for which the donor does not require the funds to be used for a specific project, sector, crisis or country, leaving OCHA to decide how to allocate the funds.
** May include unearmarked and earmarked funding with implementation dates beyond the calendar year
*** Excludes miscellaneous income (e.g. adjustments, gain/losses on exchange rate etc.)
Funding information from the OCHA Contributions Tracking System