OCHA in 2007
Activities and Extra-Budgetary Funding Requirements

coordination activities in the field


 

Burundi


Burundi has endured more than a decade of conflict. In 2000, the Arusha Process was initiated to address the root causes of the conflict and arrive at a power sharing agreement. After a three-year political transition the first free elections in a decade were held in 2005. However, the Front national de libération (FNL) rebels remained outside the peace process and opposed the elections. In September 2006, the rebels and the government signed a comprehensive ceasefire agreement, but a final political agreement has not yet been reached.

After its protracted conflict, Burundi is now in a phase of early recovery, inching toward a consolidation of its peace. It faces extreme structural poverty, food insecurity and declining humanitarian and development standards. The newly elected government has initiated an expansion of health and education services, and the international community has been supportive. However, capacity and execution, and therefore results, remain weak and the population requires forward movement as quickly as possible.

Capacity constraints and lack of infrastructure restrict access to basic services. Large scale population movements have stopped, but there are still 100,000 people who remain displaced. An estimated 50,000 Burundian refugees returned home in 2006, and that number could increase quickly in 2007 if the ceasefire holds and recovery speeds up. A stable ceasefire would improve the protection situation dramatically.

The humanitarian community has developed a CAP with a singular focus on humanitarian activities rather than including early recovery elements as in 2006. This approach will be aligned with government priorities to avoid duplication, and the CAP will also feed into development frameworks such as the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). Since development programmes are not expected to show impact before the end of 2007, it is crucial to maintain humanitarian programmes to reduce high levels of vulnerability.

OCHA will strengthen the capacity of the Humanitarian Partnership Team to address humanitarian issues within a more development-oriented context, and this will tie in to OCHA's effort to gradually hand over coordination capacity to the UN Country Team (UNCT) and governmental bodies at the national and provincial level.

Against this background, OCHA's key objectives for 2007 are as follows:

Strengthened in-country coordination: Accountability of each sector lead agency will be clarified and endorsed. OCHA will ensure that needs assessments are carried out for sectors using the Needs Assessment Framework, and that the OCHA handover strategy is clarified.

Greater capacities of relevant government institutions and UN agencies to coordinate humanitarian activities and mobilize resources: OCHA will support the strengthening of capacities for the National Committee for Aid Coordination (NCAC), Provincial NCAC antennas will be established and functioning. Joint OCHA/NCAC analytical reports will be issued and endorsed by UNCT and updated contingency planning will be endorsed by the government civil protection task force.

Increased linkages between humanitarian assistance, reintegration, and development programming: Stronger linkages between Humanitarian Partnership Teams and major development actors will be established, complementarities between PRSP and CAP clarified and the OCHA WWW database will be harmonized to include the activities of major development partners.

Key indicators for 2007
  • Attendance rates of heads of UN Agencies and key NGOs in Humanitarian Partnership Teams; number of sectors with common baseline data and commonly agreed targets; exit strategy and transition timeline endorsed by key partners
  • Number of sector and global coordination meetings chaired by NCAC members; number of functioning provincial NCAC antennas; number of government officials attending contingency planning review missions
  • Number of development actors engaging in CHAP; number of sectors for which the WWW database incorporates data from major development partners
 

BURUNDI

Planned Staffing
Extra-budgetary

Professional
5
National
5
Local (GS)
6
UN Volunteers
1
Total
17

Staff costs (US$)
987,021
Non-staff costs (US$)
236,509

Total costs (US$)
1,223,530


 


Central African Republic


The civil war of 2002-03 drove the Central African Republic (CAR) into an acute crisis which persists today. There have been almost no recovery programmes for the past three years and the financially troubled government remains unable to fully deploy administrative and security presence outside the capital Bangui to take control of its territory. Recovery efforts and newly established institutions have been confronted with resurgent rebellions in the North and increased banditry throughout the country. As a result, three years after the official end of hostilities, the average Central African has no access to basic health, water and sanitation, education, security, or judicial services. Highway bandits, armed groups and national security forces continue to loot and kill with total impunity

The major part of CAR remains unstable and insecure due to increased armed activities within its borders, in addition to spill-over effects from neighbouring Chad and Sudan. Progressively, CAR is becoming a regional haven for armed groups of various origin and background, contributing to a further destabilisation of the region. The violence in the northern provinces caused major displacement: the number of internally displaced tripled from 50,000 to more than 150,000 since the beginning of 2006; 50,000 Central Africans are refugees in Chad and an estimated 30,000 are in Cameroon. The vast majority of the internally displaced are in the bush without access to health and sanitation services, clean water or education. The already dire food situation is likely to deteriorate as widespread insecurity prevented most farmers from planting. Acute malnutrition reached 4 percent in early 2006 and chronic malnutrition stands at 30 percent. Every 30 minutes a child dies because s/he was not vaccinated, or lacks adequate food or drinking water; every six hours a woman dies because of complications while giving birth, and one child in five does not live to see his/her fifth birthday. Additionally, ethnic and political tensions as well as the proliferation of armed groups and the absence of a judicial system outside Bangui have plunged CAR into a widespread protection crisis.

Lack of humanitarian partners on the ground further compounds the challenge of addressing the humanitarian crisis in CAR. Because of insecurity and lack of infrastructure, travel and delivery of humanitarian assistance remain extremely difficult and expensive in landlocked CAR.

In 2007, the humanitarian country team will increase access to beneficiaries and its response to humanitarian need by enhancing its capacity and field presence. OCHA will continue to advocate for greater national and international knowledge and response to the humanitarian situation in CAR and will play a role in information management and dissemination as well as resource mobilisation at a regional level. Additionally, OCHA will support the humanitarian community by providing coordination of common humanitarian tools.

Against this background, OCHA's key objectives for 2007 are as follows:

Properly functioning and supported CERF: OCHA will support the RC/HC to maintain the timely submission of funding requests and proposals and ensure that CERF submissions meet the required criteria.

Greater engagement and coordination with national and international NGOs: OCHA will seek to ensure that the CAP reflects the views and priorities of the humanitarian community as a whole, and will work to strenghten participation of all relevant NGOs in the formulation of preparedness plans.

Strengthened in-country coordination: OCHA will work to ensure that coordination meetings become a decision making forum and that sector/cluster meetings occur on a monthly basis.

More coherent and sharpened advocacy on humanitarian issues and principles with the development and implementation of an inter-agency advocacy strategy: OCHA will seek to increase visits by senior OCHA managers, donors, and the media; awareness of the humanitarian situation in CAR will be increased through the dissemination of monthly international media articles.

Improved coordination and monitoring of IDP issues: OCHA will support IDP protection advocacy carried out by both the HC and cluster leads and will work towards the development of an IDP protection monitoring framework.

Key indicators for 2007
  • Average number of days between requests for CERF funding received by HC and request sent to ERC for approval
  • Number of NGO projects included in CAPs
  • Percentage of decisions taken in humanitarian coordination meetings that are implemented; number and percent of clusters/sectors with common data baseline and commonly agreed targets
  • Common inter-agency advocacy strategy/platform developed and implemented; number of international media articles on CAR
  • IDP protection monitoring frameworks developed
 

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

Planned Staffing
Extra-budgetary

Professional
4
National
2
Local (GS)
2
UN Volunteers
0
Total
8

Staff costs (US$)
756,689
Non-staff costs (US$)
566,270

Total costs (US$)
1,322,959


 


Chad


Chad's humanitarian crisis is made worse by regional instability in neighbouring Sudan/Darfur and the Central African Republic (CAR), and the deterioration of the Chadian security and socio-political situation. Continued refugee presence, including more than 234,000 Sudanese and 44,000 Central Africans since 2004, is a major burden for Chad, and is further compounded by a political crisis. Two attempted coups were foiled in 2006, including a rebel attack on the capital N'Djamena. Chadian military responded by concentrating resources on strategic locations, which created a security vacuum in vast areas in the east of the country. Activities by Chadian and Sudanese armed groups in the east triggered the displacement of an estimated 50,000 Chadians. Economic systems have been disrupted by the presence of displaced populations and competition for scarce natural resources has become fierce, leading to increased tensions between host communities and refugees and IDPs. Short-term prospects for an end to the crisis appear slim, and humanitarian agencies will need to devote more resources to assisting local communities as well as the displaced, and must ensure better linkages between humanitarian activities and development strategies.

Of the 234,000 Sudanese Refugees currently in eastern Chad approximately 214,000 are hosted in 12 camps along Chad's eastern border with Sudan, while an additional 20,000 refugees are living within host communities. Current malnutrition levels in refugee camps are high, and Darfur refugees will remain almost entirely dependent on international assistance for survival. In Touloum camp, for example, despite efforts of aid organisations to ensure adequate water and sanitation services, the daily water rations are below agreed standards.

Growing insecurity in the north of CAR in the last half of the year has triggered the displacement of 14,000 Central Africans into the Goré area of southern Chad, adding to 30,000 existing refugees, who have been in the area since 2003. Providing adequate assistance to refugees is seriously challenging: logistical difficulties hamper access to the affected population and chronic lack of implementing partners and resources makes the humanitarian response difficult. This has meant daily food rations are below agreed standards. Given the current instability in northern CAR, returns seem unlikely in the short-term.

Increasing violence since September 2005 has triggered the internal displacement of 50,000 civilians in eastern Chad; many have been forced to move several times. Ongoing insecurity in eastern Chad means new displacements are likely to occur in the short-term.

Refugees and IDP presence has had a serious impact on the living conditions of host communities. Disruptions to the local economy and fierce competition for access to natural resources have created tensions. To avoid further deterioration of the situation, aid agencies must ensure that humanitarian initiatives are fully integrated with longer-term development and capacity building initiatives.

Against this background, OCHAor="#37490a">4
UN Volunteers
1
Total
15

Staff costs (US$)
1,432,438
Non-staff costs (US$)
687,995

Total costs (US$)
2,120,433


 


Côte d’Ivoire


Côte D'Ivoire remains divided politically and militarily, despite four years of international efforts and negotiations. The year 2006 saw little progress in implementing the peace plan, and humanitarian and socio-economic indicators continued to deteriorate. Presidential elections scheduled for October 2006 were postponed indefinitely and the identification process has been politically contested. The military dialogue has come to a halt with no immediate compromise to be expected. The western region continues to be volatile with repeated clashes triggering new internal displacement. The conflict has displaced an estimated 700,000 people, making living and health conditions even more precarious. Public health and environmental conditions in the capital worsened in August 2006, following toxic waste dumping that affected thousands of people, some fatally. The incident sparked violent social unrest that prompted the resignation of the Ivorian government, further compromising the fragile peace process.

Human rights violations and breaches of international humanitarian law continue to be reported, mainly in the west and particularly within the Zone of Confidence (ZOC), where a culture of impunity reigns. Following an outbreak of violence in Guiglo in January 2006 against the UN peacekeeping force ONUCI, humanitarian actors have faced increased operational constraints. Street violence erupted again in July 2006 to protest the implementation of the UN-backed process to provide Ivorians with identity cards. The persistent stalling of the peace process might lead to renewed violence against the UN and humanitarian organisations, continuing to affect humanitarian operations and programming in 2007.

Funding to meet the needs of vulnerable groups remains low and uneven between sectors, affecting adequate and timely response. By the end of the calendar year, less than half of the overall requirements for the 2006 Consolidated Appeal had been received, lower than what was received last year at the same time. Côte d'Ivoire was among the first pilot countries in 2006 to access the CERF grants. In all US$ 5 million was allocated to humanitarian projects in the west through the two new CERF grant windows "life-saving emergencies" and "neglected under-funded emergencies".

The political environment in Côte d'Ivoire remains tense, with the possibility of violent outbreaks negatively impacting any consolidation of the peace process and regional stability.

Against this background, OCHA's key objectives for 2007 are as follows:

Properly functioning and supported CERF: OCHA will ensure transparency of the CERF selection process and of the implementation of related projects.

Strengthened in-country coordination: OCHA will improve humanitarian response through strengthened dialogue and coordination between humanitarian actors and key stakeholders including representatives of government technical structures, line ministries, local authorities and donors.

Improved tools and services to adapt to the humanitarian reform outcomes: Information management tools and products will be improved, diversified and better suited to serve organisational and operational needs, including those of inter-agency clusters and sector groups.

Improved and publicly profiled analysis of humanitarian trends and issues: Inter-agency humanitarian action will be made better known within and outside the humanitarian community; accountability of individual stakeholders recognised.

More coherent and sharpened advocacy on humanitarian issues and principles (in pursuit of a common humanitarian understanding and messaging): Advocacy activities on key humanitarian issues – including protection of civilians, access to basic services, safe return of IDPs to their homes, improved humanitarian access – will be strengthened and made more effective.

Key indicators for 2007
  • Percentage of CERF project proposals meeting all CERF criteria
  • Percentage of relevant recommendations jointly agreed to by humanitarian actors and key stakeholders that are implemented as planned
  • Number of priority inter-agency humanitarian actions supported with appropriate data and information tools
  • Number of analytical documents produced to raise public awareness on humanitarian challenges
  • Number and frequency of situation reports and press releases, number of advocacy activities targeting local communities, and percentage of key local media disseminating OCHA information products
 

CÔTE D ’IVOIRE

Planned Staffing
Extra-budgetary

Professional
10
National
11
Local (GS)
17
UN Volunteers
2
Total
40

Staff costs (US$)
2,857,284
Non-staff costs (US$)
1,137,311

Total costs (US$)
3,994,595


 


Democratic Republic of the Congo


The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is gradually emerging from long years in crisis and is moving toward a minimum degree of stability. After sustained armed conflict and political violence, presidential and legislative elections took place in mid-2006, a central step in the political transition process agreed upon with the signature of the Global Agreement on Transition in Pretoria in 2002. Although the political transition has been characterised by intense disagreements and confrontations between the two major contenders for the presidency, the integrity of the electoral process was preserved, thus bringing about renewed hope to the DRC for a move toward political stability and reconstruction.

Overall, the number of internally displaced persons has decreased to an estimated 1.1 million people (compared to approximately three million in 2002-2003) despite peaking waves of internal displacement resulting from military operations against armed groups in the first six months of the year. Similarly, the trends of spontaneous and assisted refugee returns increased in 2006 with approximately 23,000 returns recorded in the first 10 months of the year.

Access has expanded in the eastern provinces directly affected by the armed conflict; the population has a higher degree of mobility and isolated areas within the provinces are slowly opening up. The gradual stabilization of the situation in the eastern provinces has also led to the return of IDPs, especially in the province of Katanga. Similar trends of return are taking place in Ituri and in some areas of north and south Kivu. In the last quarter of 2006, returns were estimated at 490,000 in the Kivus and Katanga provinces.

Despite these positive trends, a number of factors continue to expose populations to recurrent and temporary displacement provincial level to ensure complementarity across sectoral programmes targeting the same groups of vulnerable populations.

The Pooled Fund mechanism, with a total contribution of US$ 120 million, has become the largest funding mechanism to support priority actions identified in the 2006 Action Plan. This contribution, combined with the two CERF allocations, were key elements in 2006. The Pooled Fund initiative has allowed for the concrete implementation of good donor practices through improved fund allocation in accordance with identified needs, and for more active donor participation in the elaboration of the 2007 humanitarian strategy.

The 2007 Humanitarian Action Plan is a strategic plan and a programme guide for the implementation of priority humanitarian actions. The Plan represents the concerted efforts of the humanitarian community in DRC to consolidate the innovations introduced, and the results obtained, during the past year.

OCHA will continue to work with its key partners, including UN Agencies, local and international NGOs, the Red Cross Movement, government authorities, and vulnerable populations. The key challenges for 2007 will be to increase access to the most vulnerable populations, particularly in the eastern provinces and to advocate for better coverage of humanitarian needs, while ensuring the international community provides sufficient support for relief and transition programmes in the country.

Against this background, OCHA's key objectives for 2007 will be:

Increased engagement, partnership and coordination with national and international NGOs and local and national authorities: The Action Plan will be prepared with the active participation of INGOs and LNGOs, including at the provincial and national workshops.

Improved tools and services: OCHA will support the strengthening of monitoring systems (qualitative, quantitative and financial) for the 2007 Action Plan.

Sharpened advocacy and improved analysis of humanitarian trends, issues and principles: OCHA will develop and disseminate publicly profiled analysis of country humanitarian trends and issues.

Improved coordination and monitoring of IDP issues: OCHA will develop standard procedures and tools for IDP and returnee data (including statistics) collection and management.

Strengthened management and administrative support: OCHA's resources will be managed in a more efficient, cost-effective and accountable manner.

Key indicators for 2007
  • Number of NGOs included in Action Plan and NGO percentage of total Action Plan requirements funded
  • Number of provincial IASC and clusters using standardised monitoring tools; percentage of Action Plan funding committed
  • Number of op-eds published; number of OCHA press releases, articles, and press briefings covering the DRC; number of international media references to OCHA articles and products; baseline documents and IDP issues and trends
  • Number of provinces utilizing standardized procedures and tools; draft national legislation on IDPs initiated; policies and Standard Operating Procedures developed, codified, and issued as administrative instructions before end 2007; number of reports provided to OCHA management on the office's financial performance; percentage of deficits locally for each budget line in the cost plan
 

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO

Planned Staffing
Extra-budgetary

Professional
18
National
27
Local (GS)
21
UN Volunteers
8
Total
74

Staff costs (US$)
6,022,346
Non-staff costs (US$)
4,604,242

Total costs (US$)
10,626,588



Eritrea


Eritrea's economy continues to be undermined by the border stalemate with Ethiopia. Stifled economic growth compounded by recurrent drought and the diversion of scarce national resources and manpower towards military efforts causes a significant segment of the population to rely on international assistance for survival.

In 2005, some 1.3 million people received food aid rations until the government suspended general food distributions in September. The drought in 2006 exacerbated an already dire humanitarian situation. In rural areas, 68 percent of the population has no access to health services, and 46 percent are without safe drinking water. Despite prospects for a good harvest in 2006, Eritrea produces a fraction of its annual food consumption needs. High malnutrition rates continue to plague the country.

The overall operating environment in Eritrea has become more constrained and less predictable. In line with its self-reliance strategy, the Government issued a Cash-For-Work (CFW) policy, shifting its focus from emergency to recovery and development interventions.

The international community needs to support this approach, while planning for emergencies during the year. As part of the self-reliance strategy, the government does not wish to enter the Consolidated Appeal Process (CAP) and will conduct its own crop assessment to better target those in need of direct assistance and those eligible for cash-for-work programmes. Lack of effective dialogue between the government and the international community on food requirements for 2007 has made it difficult for humanitarian organisations to assess the level of food shortages and plan for emergency response. The suspension of several NGO operations, withdrawal of USAID and the new restrictions on international staff travel outside Asmara have further complicated the operational environment. Fortunately, the existence of efficient local administrative structures makes it possible for humanitarian organisations to continue to implement some vital programmes, particularly in the areas of health, nutrition, water and sanitation. Furthermore, in 2006, the government, with the support of UN agencies, resettled 21,000 out of the 40,000 IDPs living in camps. Collaboration on the resettlement of the remaining IDPs is expected to continue into 2007.

In 2007, OCHA will support the humanitarian community in the priority areas of health and nutrition, water and sanitation, protection and resettlement of IDPs, expellees and returnees. Within the current context, increased efforts will be made, under the leadership of the Humanitarian Coordinator, to strengthen dialogue between the government and partners (UN, NGOs and donors) and align the use of resources toward strategic and effective emergency and recovery interventions. OCHA will support the HC in re-establishing dialogue with the government on food security activities. Increased investment will be made to prevent high levels of malnutrition, particularly among children and women. Given the uncertainty surrounding the peace process, attention will be given to preparedness and contingency planning in the event of an outbreak of hostilities. OCHA will also facilitate the development of a Common Humanitarian Action Plan (CHAP) and strengthen coordination mechanism at the central and regional levels.

Against this background, OCHA's key objectives for 2007 are as follows:

Properly functioning and supported CERF: OCHA will facilitate the timely submission of CERF projects by operational agencies and ensure projects are in line with CERF guidelines and criteria. OCHA will also ensure adequate reporting by the concerned agencies.

Greater engagement and coordination with NGOs: OCHA will support and facilitate the participation of national and international NGOs in strategic planning and coordination forums. OCHA will support the development and implementation of the Common Humanitarian Action Plan (CHAP) by the UNCT and partner NGOs. The office will facilitate inter-sectoral coordination and joint programming.

Strengthened in-country coordination: OCHA will maintain regular coordination meetings with UN agencies and partner NGOs, provide secretariat support and ensure appropriate follow up on the implementation of inter-agency decisions. The office will support sectoral working groups in establishing baseline data and agreed targets.

More coherent and sharpened advocacy on humanitarian issues and principles: OCHA will develop,. in consultation with humanitarian partners, a common advocacy strategy on maintaining access and appropriate emergency response mechanisms, and strengthening linkages to longer-term food security. The strategy will target various stakeholders including government counterparts at the federal and local level and the donor community.

Key indicators for 2007
  • Number and percent of requests received that meet all CERF criteria
  • Number of NGOs signing up to participate in clusters
  • Number of functioning coordination fora and degree of satisfaction of key stakeholders with OCHA's coordination services as assessed through surveys
  • Number of common advocacy strategies/platforms developed and implemented
 

ERITREA

Planned Staffing
Extra-budgetary

Professional
2
National
4
Local (GS)
2
UN Volunteers
0
Total
8

Staff costs (US$)
453,388
Non-staff costs (US$)
187,903

Total costs (US$)
641,291



Ethiopia


Ethiopia remains chronically food insecure. Approximately ten million subsistence agriculturalists, agro-pastoralists and pastoralists require food or cash assistance annually. The country is also prone to natural disasters and epidemics including severe annual flooding and disease outbreaks. In 2006, approximately 7.2 million people required food aid; this number is likely to increase to approximately 8.5 million in 2007.

In response to the severe drought, principally in the southern parts of the country, a Joint Humanitarian Appeal was launched in January 2006, with emergency food aid requirements of US$ 182 million and non-food requirements of US$ 112 million. Consequently, 2.8 million people were covered by emergency food aid and 1.8 million were located in the drought-affected areas in the south.

Localized inter-ethnic conflict continues to result in population displacement in several regions, including Somali, Oromiya, and Gambella regions. The dispute over border demarcation between Ethiopia and Eritrea remains unsettled and tensions along the border, where both countries have massive troop deployments, are high. New tensions along the border with Somalia have also raised concern of a large-scale refugee influx into Ethiopia.

The government has begun to implement its new food security programme, highlighted by the Productive Safety Nets Programme, which has replaced most of the food assistance provided through emergency assistance. The drought, ongoing inter-ethnic conflict and floods have demonstrated the full extent of vulnerability and underscore the need for support from the international community to help the government address acute humanitarian needs and build its capacity.

In late 2006, three million acutely vulnerable people continued to require emergency food and non-food assistance primarily due to the drought. Pastoralists and agro-pastoralists are among the most vulnerable populations and good strategies are needed to address their needs. During recurrent droughts, movements of populations across borders in search of pasture and water have resulted in conflicts and displacement. Massive nationwide flooding in August and September 2006 affected an additional 350,000 people and resulted in hundreds of deaths. Acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) affected five regions and continues to spread across the country, creating need for additional resources for its control, prevention, and the treatment of those affected. Malaria is also prevalent in the aftermath of massive nationwide flooding.

Continued tensions along the border with Eritrea, Somalia and Sudan present potential humanitarian challenges along with the need for continued preparedness in the event of cross-border conflict. Inter-ethnic conflict among tribal groups across the country continues to affect Oromiya, Gambella, Afar and Somali Regions. Approximately 200,000 people remain displaced from their homes due to these conflicts. The government lacks a policy framework to deal with IDPs and there is no clear delineation of responsibilities within the government.

There is need for reform and strengthened capacity of the disaster management structures in Ethiopia to better address humanitarian risks and vulnerability, including those in the health, nutrition, water and sanitation sectors. In addition there is need for effective response to quick on-set emergencies, conflict, urban disasters, and IDPs, as well as the need to build stronger links between humanitarian and emergency response and development. The Joint Government, UN and Partner Appeal process requires reform as well, with a need to refine assessment of non-food needs, develop a multi-year funding for predictable non-food needs, and to establish/refine contingency funding mechanisms for unpredictable emergencies. The Cluster Leadership approach has been discussed among the UNCT, UN partners and government; plans to fully implement the approach will be put in place in early 2007.

Against this background, OCHA's key objectives for 2007 are as follows:

Strengthened in-country coordination: OCHA will provide support for partner coordination at federal, regional and sub-regional levels, as well as for government capacity building for coordination and planning. Direct support will be provided to the HC, Country Team and partners in establishing and making operational the cluster approach. OCHA and UNCT will provide technical support to Ethiopia's Disaster Preparedness and Prevention Agency (DPPA) and participating partners in revising protocols for response to quick-onset emergencies.

Properly functioning Humanitarian Response Fund mechanism (HRF): Subject to donor support, OCHA will expand the HRF for use by the UN and NGOs to support the government in emergency response as well as incorporating lessons learned from the donor evaluation undertaken in 2006. OCHA also will provide support to establishing other standby and contingency funding mechanisms for emergency response.

Improved and publicly profiled analysis of country humanitarian trends: OCHA will enhance humanitarian communications with all partners on the WWW database, humanitarian maps, early warning and response matrices. Funding information will be coordinated closely with the DPPA and line ministries. This will be done with support from the IMU in establishing more systematic and automated mechanisms (through database use) for reporting relevant and critical information, defining information flow with the DPPA and other relevant government partners and providing mapping services to partners.

Strengthened and more coherent humanitarian appeal process: OCHA will support the establishment of a new framework for assessing recurrent non-food needs in order to develop a strategy for multi-year funding for those needs. The joint annual appeal, if required, will address only emergency requirements for food and non-food. OCHA will advocate for establishing contingency funds and increased stocks to address emergency requirements.

Shared policy positions on relevant issues: OCHA will develop policy positions based on appropriate analysis and consultation related to IDPs, response to emergency and transition needs in pastoral areas of the country and other relevant issues. This will be accomplished in consultation with international partners and the government.

Key indicators for 2007
  • Number and percent of clusters established and fully functioning; percentage of decisions taken in humanitarian coordination meetings that are implemented; number of regional coordination forums with defined TORs
  • Average number of days between requests for CERF funding received by HC and request sent to ERC for approval; number and percentage of requests received that meet all CERF criteria
  • Number and percentage of OCHA press releases and reports reflected in local newspapers and on public broadcast
  • Number of days from outbreak of emergency to issuance of Flash Appeal
  • Number of policy agreements reached by partners and government and percentage implemented
 

ETHIOPIA

Planned Staffing
Extra-budgetary

Professional
5
National
7
Local (GS)
7
UN Volunteers
0
Total
19

Staff costs (US$)
1,268,814
Non-staff costs (US$)
703,836

Total costs (US$)
1,972,650



Somalia


Protracted conflict, absence of a central government and widespread damage incurred over years of chaos continue to prevent stability or recovery in Somalia. The humanitarian situation has further deteriorated due to recurrent droughts and floods.

In mid-2005, the nascent Somalia Transitional Federal Institutions (TFIs) relocated to Somalia from Kenya but had no operational capacity or control over the territory. With the emergence of the Islamic Courts and the apparent end to 'warlordism' the political landscape has radically changed. The Courts are rapidly extending their influence throughout South Central areas of the country, which could bring new opportunities for humanitarian engagement. The Courts' popular support, however, has yet to be properly tested, particularly with regard to civil society, women's groups and businessmen.

Approximately 1.8 million people – including 400,000 IDPs – require urgent assistance. Approximately 880,000 people are facing an acute food and livelihood crisis, and 425,000 people – all in the south – are in a state of humanitarian emergency. Malnutrition rates continue to exceed the emergency threshold. If widespread fighting breaks out, the number of extremely vulnerable people could double.

400,000 Somalis living in settlements and public buildings remain highly vulnerable. The situation of IDPs remains below minimal acceptable standards and is one of the worst in Africa. IDPs have lost all assets, are deprived of clan protection, and are subjected to human rights violations. In some parts of the country, the authorities divert aid and obstruct humanitarian access to IDPs despite verbal commitments to the contrary. Southern minority groups continue to suffer political and economic discrimination and are denied access to basic services. Women and girls in particular are at high risk for abuse and exploitation. Human smuggling off the northern Puntland coast is a grave humanitarian concern affecting Somalis and other nationalities from the region.

In 2006, in line with global humanitarian reform, OCHA led the establishment of a Somalia IASC and relevant clusters to better respond to the humanitarian crisis. In 2007, through this mechanism, the humanitarian community will continue to address the needs of highly vulnerable Somalis and work with authorities to reinforce protection measures countrywide. In order to increase operational and response capacity, and in line with the CAP 2007 strategic priorities, the humanitarian community will shift attention, resources, and staff to South Central Somalia where the highest levels of vulnerability exist.

In 2007, OCHA will work to highlight the dire humanitarian situation in Somalia and advocate for better allocation of financial resources across all sectors. OCHA will continue to lead interagency assessments, identify priority needs, and facilitate the planning of common responses to affected populations, while providing strong field coordination to strengthen the cluster approach with clearly defined roles and responsibilities. OCHA will continue to promote humanitarian principles, drawing attention to their compatibility with Islamic values; and support local reconciliation initiatives and negotiate humanitarian access with de facto authorities, particularly in South Central Somalia. In addition, OCHA will coordinate the implementation of the joint IDP strategy, especially in Puntland, and make authorities accountable for contributing to a protection environment. Finally, OCHA will provide improved analysis on access related issues, including how the aid community delivers assistance; and will continue to provide the IASC and international community with high quality information and analysis on the evolving humanitarian situation in the country.

OCHA will seek to improve in-country coordination through strengthened, targeted field presence particularly in the South Central area. To increase leverage with relevant authorities and strengthen coordination, OCHA's presence in the country will shift: Somaliland is now entering a development phase, and OCHA's presence there will be reduced; in Puntland, OCHA presence will be bolstered to focus on IDP/protection issues; and in Islamic Courts-held areas presence will be bolstered to capitalise on new access opportunities and to facilitate coordination with the Courts.

Against this background, OCHA's key objectives for 2007 are as follows:

Strengthened coordination and sustainable access to basic humanitarian services for the most vulnerable populations, in particular 1.4 million Somalis in a state of humanitarian emergency and food and livelihood crisis, and 400,000 internally displaced: OCHA will support the effective delivery of humanitarian services by promoting inter-agency assessments that identify priority needs and enable timely responses and by supporting common strategies such as the cluster approach to maximise the use of available resources.

Improved level of preparedness of humanitarian partners and local communities to respond to natural disasters and complex emergencies: OCHA will promote emergency preparedness for natural disasters through the establishment of early warning systems and enhanced management of the Humanitarian Response Fund to improve the timeliness and effectiveness of humanitarian partners – including Somali organisations.

Increased emphasis on early recovery in parts of Somalia transitioning from an emergency phase to rehabilitation and reconstruction: OCHA will promote coordination with the various planning frameworks for Somalia, including the Joint Needs Assessment (JNA), the Reconstruction and Development Plan (RDP), and the Comprehensive Plan of Action (CPA), to ensure that links between emergency and recovery activities are maintained.

Enhanced protection of and respect for the human rights and dignity of IDPs, minorities, women, and vulnerable communities: OCHA will support the establishment of Protection Monitoring Networks in Somaliland, Puntland and South Central to collect information for an IASC protection strategy based on patterns and trends of abuse.

Strengthened advocacy through the implementation of an IASC advocacy strategy, common positions/ policies based on humanitarian principles, and improved resource mobilization: OCHA Somalia will support the development, implementation and monitoring of the IASC advocacy strategy for Somalia in cooperation with international and national stakeholders.

Key indicators for 2007
  • Degree of satisfaction of donors and other partners with the identification and prioritization of needs; percent of affected populations accessed by agencies in areas cleared by DSS for operational activities
  • Number of days between the onset of a natural disaster and the deployment of staff and resources
  • Increased funding levels for recovery activities
  • Number of community development projects/programmes with a protection and gender dimension
  • Degree of implementation of IASC advocacy strategy and strategic framework on IDPs and amount of resources raised
 

SOMALIA

Planned Staffing
Extra-budgetary

Professional
12
National
13
Local (GS)
5
UN Volunteers
2
Total
32

Staff costs (US$)
2,885,574
Non-staff costs (US$)
1,127,088

Total costs (US$)
4,012,662



Sudan


The overall implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in southern Sudan is progressing, with some delays. However, the three year-old conflict in Darfur has yet to be resolved and massive humanitarian needs are expected well into 2007 and beyond. The Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA) was signed in May 2006 by the Sudanese government and the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) faction of Minni Minnawi, militarily the largest of the three main rebel factions at the signing of the agreement; the Abdel Wahid faction of the SLM/A and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) refused to sign. This partial signing of the DPA heightened tensions and factionalism within the SLM/A, and this has increased vulnerability, ethnic divisions and human rights violations, exacerbating security conditions. Since the signing of the agreement, fighting has escalated between signatories and those who refused to sign and, as a result, access to the affected population in Darfur has decreased to its lowest level since early 2004. In addition, tensions in the Eastern Region and Abyei are a serious cause for concern for the CPA and north-south relations.

Tackling Southern Sudan's enormous post-conflict challenges and delivering peace dividends require significant and sustained efforts by the Government of Southern Sudan (GoSS), State governments and renewed and focused international support to help consolidate the CPA. In Southern Sudan, the shift from relief to recovery is promising, and expectations among the Southern Sudanese for greater stability, improved basic services and improved livelihood opportunities remain high. Although there has been relative peace, there has also been an increase in inter-communal conflict as a result of a law and order vacuum in the region. In addition, tension and intermittent insecurity prevail in the three areas of Abyei, Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile. The issue of the Abyei Boundary Commission Report has yet to be resolved.

The continued provision of massive relief is essential across Darfur as the population is almost entirely dependent on humanitarian assistance. Protection and gender-based violence remain the most significant challenges for the population of Darfur. Continued assistance cannot, however, be assumed. Tension and insecurity in the Darfur region are at their highest levels since 2004. The period since May 2006 has seen increased displacement, deadly attacks on humanitarian staff and hijacking of vehicles, vastly reducing access. Negotiations for humanitarian access are increasingly difficult due to the factionalisation of rebel groups, and growing politicization of IDPs.

OCHA will continue to work with NGOs, the diplomatic and donor communities and national authorities for the effective coordination of relief assistance in Darfur, the world's largest humanitarian operation. OCHA will work closely with the Resident Coordinator's Office to ensure a smooth and effective transition of coordination responsibilities in those locations where the focus is shifting to recovery.

Against this background, OCHA's key objectives for 2007 are as follows:

Greater engagement and coordination with national and international NGOs: This will facilitate meeting the needs of the IDP and vulnerable populations in the Darfur region. OCHA will work towards increased participation of NGOs in the UN and Partners Work Plan for Sudan and other coordination processes at the Khartoum and regional levels so as to minimize duplications and gaps and improve effectiveness of the planned humanitarian response in Sudan in 2007.

Strengthened in-country coordination and improved implementation of relevant humanitarian reform recommendations: OCHA will provide stronger analysis through the work of the IASC Country Team and will work to increase the regionalisation of sector coordination. In addition, OCHA will support strengthening the capacities of national authorities to respond to disasters and emergencies.

Timely and effective hand over of coordination responsibilities to the Office of the Resident Coordinator in relevant areas: OCHA will phase out offices and capacities from areas determined by the RC/HC to be more conducive to a primary recovery and development coordination function. OCHA will focus on areas that have humanitarian needs and where a complex emergency situation prevails.

Improved tools and services to adapt to humanitarian reform outcomes: Humanitarian information platforms for Sudan and standard information products for the humanitarian community (e.g. websites maps, WWW database, financial tracking for Sudan) will be in place as will a strengthened Emergency Preparedness and Response Capacity.

More coherent and sharpened advocacy on humanitarian issues and principles: There will be common advocacy platform and jointly implemented advocacy strategies with partners, and awareness-raising for humanitarian actors, peacekeepers, and national authorities on humanitarian policy.

Key indicators for 2007
  • Number of national and international NGOs participating in the development of the UN and Partners Work Plan for Sudan. Percentage of major NGOs participating in the IASC Country Team and Inter-Agency Management Group in Darfur
  • Number and percent of sector plans developed and coordinated at regional level, number of national authority personnel trained to better respond to disasters and emergencies, and number and coverage of Contingency Planning exercises
  • Number and percent of OCHA functions handed over to RC Office
  • Degree of satisfaction of the humanitarian community with tools and services provided by OCHA
  • Number of inter-agency advocacy strategies and platforms, and number of humanitarians and/or peacekeepers and national authorities participating in workshops and trainings
SUDAN
Planned Staffing
Extra-budgetary
Professional
44
National
49
Local (GS)
47
UN Volunteers
8
Total
148
Staff costs (US$)
9,906,194
Non-staff costs (US$)
4,765,528
Total costs (US$)
14,671,722



Uganda


The root causes of the conflict in northern Uganda lie in historical, socio-economic and political differences between the north and the south. At independence in 1962, southern Uganda was better developed economically, while northern Uganda understood its role in national politics to be through the military, which it dominated. The accession of President Museveni, a southerner, to power through the military deprived the north of this role. As a result, the late 1980s saw the emergence of a series of northern-based resistance movements, the most long lasting being Joseph Kony's Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). Due to widespread LRA attacks on civilians, the Uganda People's Defense Force removed people into 'protective villages' ostensibly to cut rebels' food supply and reduce abduction and forced recruitment of children.

The first ever direct and sustained peace talks between the Government of Uganda and the LRA in Juba, South Sudan, have given rise to cautious optimism that a durable political solution can be reached. The parties signed a declaration of cessation of hostilities which stopped the fighting and is a positive first step in a still fragile process. Five LRA senior commanders were indicted by the International Criminal Court, (ICC); the ultimate impact of this on the peace process is difficult to determine at this stage.

The northern sub-region of Karamoja presents a different scenario where socio-cultural, economic, political and environmental factors have intensified inter-clan and cross-border conflicts. Scarce natural resources, poor economic environment, and the proliferation of arms have contributed to fragile food security.

An estimated 1.7 million Ugandans are internally displaced and live in camps. However, if the security situation continues to improve, half could return home in the next year. Since the start of 2006, improved security has led to enhanced humanitarian access, and by July, 66 percent of IDP camps could be accessed without military escorts, compared to 13 percent at the same time the previous year. Population movements are on-going, mainly motivated by the need to access arable land. Return of IDPs varies by region, and the largely positive trend could reverse, and therefore requires a flexible approach to assistance. The continued insecurity and environmental degradation in Karamoja means an estimated 500,000 people will require emergency food assistance for at least six months in 2007.

OCHApolicy advice to HC, cluster leads and cluster members: OCHA will provide timely, concise and meaningful briefs to Humanitarian Community on relevant issues.

Improved facilitation for the transition from emergency to recovery in return areas: OCHA will ensure that general coordination is maintained through return and early recovery phases.

Key indicators for 2007
  • Range and number of cluster/sector meetings per location
  • Number of functioning clusters and percent of clusters using available and appropriate coordination tools
  • Number of briefing notes on each issue circulated
  • Percent of coordination structures properly transitioned from OCHA to UNDP in recovering areas

UGANDA

Planned Staffing
Extra-budgetary

Professional
11
National
9
Local (GS)
10
UN Volunteers
0
Total
30

Staff costs (US$)
2,366,148
Non-staff costs (US$)
1,194,297

Total costs (US$)
3,560,445



Zimbabwe


The humanitarian situation across southern Africa is characterized by the 'triple threat' of HIV/AIDS, food insecurity and declining capacity for social service provision. In Zimbabwe, the situation is made even more dire by the political circumstances, economic decline, disruptions in the agriculture sector and a high level of migration.

A significant portion of Zimbabwe's population of nearly 12 million is considered vulnerable, including: orphans and vulnerable children; people living with HIV/AIDS; the chronically ill; people with severe disabilities; populations with disputed citizenship and refugees; food insecure communities; and those directly affected by Operation Murambatsvina/Operation Restore Order.

The maize harvest for the 2005/2006 season was well below the annual consumption needs of the population. While insufficient, this harvest represented an improvement from the 2004/2005 season, but it still means that an estimated 1.4 million people will not be able to meet their food requirements without assistance between December 2006 and March 2007.

HIV/AIDS continues to take a heavy toll on the Zimbabwean population. An estimated 3,000 Zimbabweans die every week because of AIDS, and life expectancy has dropped to 34 years for women and 37 years for men. The economic situation, which is characterized by high inflation, high unemployment and lack of foreign exchange, has negatively impacted quality, and access to, basic services such as health, education and shelter. The response capacity in the basic services sectors is further eroded by a 'brain drain' caused by population exodus.

For 2007, the humanitarian community in Zimbabwe has agreed to a joint strategy with a dual focus on immediate, life-saving assistance and the strengthening of coping mechanisms, livelihoods and early recovery. This strategy will be reflected in the 2007 Consolidated Appeals Process. OCHA will support the humanitarian response by further strengthening the coordination mechanism and the sharing of information.

Against this background, OCHA's key objectives for 2007 are as follows:

Properly functioning and supported CERF: OCHA Zimbabwe will work to ensure that CERF processes are in place and that the Zimbabwe Humanitarian Partnership Team meets required criteria for submissions. The members will be made fully aware of the timelines, procedures and criteria for support from the CERF.

Fully deployed, functioning, and funded cluster system in all relevant areas: OCHA Zimbabwe will ensure that support mechanism for clusters will be established.

Greater engagement and coordination with national and international NGOs: OCHA Zimbabwe will facilitate greater participation of NGOs in the humanitarian coordination mechanism, with the aim of increasing NGO participation in processes including the CAP, the CERF and the cluster/sector working groups.

Strengthened coordination of the humanitarian community in Zimbabwe: OCHA Zimbabwe will continue to support the humanitarian coordination mechanism and facilitate Humanitarian Partnership Team meetings, donor consultations, and a forum for dialogue between UN agencies, donors, NGOs and CBOs.

Strengthened consolidated appeals processes: OCHA Zimbabwe will seek to improve the CAP through analysis and resource mobilization, and work towards further increased participation by all stakeholders in the process. It will also seek to increase understanding and awareness among key stakeholders concerning IASC processes including the CAP and the Flash Appeal and to advocate for adequate funding from donors.

Key indicators for 2007
  • Percentage of proposals submitted by HC that are approved for CERF funding by ERC

  • Number of relevant clusters established and fully functioning
  • Number of NGO projects included in the CAP
  • Number and percentage of sectoral committees/clusters that meet at least on a monthly basis (to include ad-hoc meetings)
  • Percent of funding for CAPs and possible Flash Appeals

ZIMBABWE

Planned Staffing
Extra-budgetary

Professional
11
National
6
Local (GS)
4
UN Volunteers
0
Total
21

Staff costs (US$)
2,141,721
Non-staff costs (US$)
476,521

Total costs (US$)
2,618,242