FIELD OFFICES - AFRICA

Field Offices - Africa (map)

Burundi (map)

Improved stability in Burundi has provided great hope for progress towards the consolidation of peace and economic recovery for 2008. Following the signing of the 2006 ceasefire agreement between the Government of Burundi and the last remaining rebel faction, the National Liberation Forces (FNL), several meetings were held in 2007 to start its implementation. However, the situation will continue to remain fragile – as reflected by the withdrawal of the FNL delegates from the ceasefire implementation framework in July 2007. The United Nations Peacebuilding Commission’s involvement in Burundi has been an important element in maintaining progress towards peace and recovery.

Burundi continues to be in a post-conflict and early recovery phase, characterized by structural poverty, food insecurity and stagnating development standards. Accordingly, the Government of Burundi and its humanitarian partners unanimously agreed not to have a Consolidated Appeal Process (CAP) in 2008. Priorities for 2008 will centre around:
continued monitoring of the repatriation of refugees living in camps in Tanzania; the long-term reintegration of vulnerable and displaced persons; improved access to basic services; and the promotion of alternative incomegenerating activities to offset the scarcity of land. Given these priorities, the United Nations’ Integrated Peace Consolidation Support Strategy, which was developed in 2007, includes joint community recovery programmes which will be implemented in 2008.

Planned Staffing  
Professionals
3
National Officers
3
General service
9
United Nations Volunteers
1
Total
16
   
Total Costs  
Staff Costs
502,106
Non-Staff Costs
242,442
Total Requested (US$)
744,548

Burundi remains vulnerable to natural disasters, such as the torrential rains of December 2006 and January 2007, and humanitarian action will continue to focus on disaster preparedness and the reduction of vulnerability resulting from lack of access to basic services.

With the planned closing of the OCHA office by mid 2008, OCHA will focus on a seamless shift to early recovery through a staged handover to appropriate national and United Nations actors. To ensure a sustainable transition, OCHA will sponsor a small support unit of national staff in the office of the Resident Coordinator/Humanitarian Coordinator (RC/HC) until the end of 2008 to assist in the coordination of early recovery and remaining humanitarian activities.

 

Key Objectives, Outputs and Indicators

A strategy enabling seamless transition and early recovery
Outputs Indicators
Existing sectoral coordination mechanisms reviewed in light of transition to early recovery. Government’s coordination capacity improved, including GIS and disaster preparedness and response. RC/HC’s early recovery coordination capacity supported as OCHA phases out. Sectoral coordination mechanisms reviewed by April 2008. Number of national and provincial coordination training workshops held. Percentage of Government-led field assessment missions. Number of OCHA activities successfully handed over to the RC/HC’s office. Number of staff who will remain in the RC/HC’s office trained in early recovery and transition.

Improved management practices for ‘one OCHA’
Outputs Indicators
Website and relevant Ffield Document Management System transferred to the United Nations Integrated Office in Burundi and OCHA Regional Office for Central and East Africa websites. Content identified and procedures transferred by April 2008.

Accountable and transparent human resources planning and management
Outputs Indicators
OCHA withdrawal and staff reduction plan communicated to staff in a timely manner. Staff briefed on withdrawal plan.

Central African Republic (map)

As 2008 begins, almost 300,000 displaced Central Africans are still too afraid to return to their homes. Some have been displaced for two years, internally in the north of the country or as refugees in neighbouring Chad and Cameroon. Others have fled from more recent violence, when their houses were burned for allegedly supporting the armed opposition, or when criminal gangs attacked them. One million civilians, a quarter of the country’s population (already one of the world’s poorest), remain directly affected by the conflict. The arrival of 2,700 refugees from south Darfur in May 2007 made it clear that the Central African Republic (CAR) is also at high risk of being affected by the humanitarian consequences of the Darfur crisis.

Planned Staffing  
Professionals
7
National Officers
3
General service
9
United Nations Volunteers
-
Total
18
   
Total Costs  
Staff Costs
1,334,964
Non-Staff Costs
818,685
Total Requested (US$)
2,153,649

Displacement patterns are becoming increasingly complex: internally displaced persons (IDPs) are scattered throughout the north in small groups living in the bush, often only a few kilometres away from their burned villages. They continue to fear for their safety and are sometimes forced to flee further away from accessible roads where they could be assisted through mobile clinics and relief items. In 2007, 62,000 additional civilians became internally displaced, more than 5,000 fled to Chad and Sudan and several thousand civilians sought refuge in Cameroon. While some refugees return spontaneously, many become IDPs. The total number of IDPs in the Central African Republic is now estimated at 212,000, while 80,000 Central Africans live as refugees in Chad, Cameroon and Sudan. Above all, the rural population of northern Central African Republic continues to face a severe protection crisis.

The number of organizations responding to the complex humanitarian crisis in the north of the country is increasing, and those that were already present have augmented their programmes and increased their presence in the field. The number of international NGOs working in the country reached 22 by the end of 2007, from just five in mid 2006 – and this trend is expected to continue. Currently, the United Nations has eight sub-offices functioning outside Bangui and in October 2007, OCHA opened a joint United Nations/NGO office in Paoua in the north-west. The Humanitarian and Development Partnership Team (HDPT, or the IASC team in the Central African Republic) responded to the increased number of organizations by improving information sharing, standardizing assessment tools and providing more coordination. In 2008, OCHA will continue to support the cluster approach established in CAR in August 2007.

In 2008 OCHA will support the HDPT to consolidate capacity for ensuring timely and appropriate delivery of humanitarian response, with a view to helping create an environment conducive to the safe and voluntary return of IDPs and refugees. Information management processes will be strengthened in support of integrated monitoring and evaluation mechanisms, with an emphasis on the protection of civilians. OCHA, along with HDPT partners, will reinforce its continuous presence on the ground, increasing capacity to reach the most vulnerable. OCHA will also appoint a civil–military coordination officer based in Abéché, eastern Chad, to serve as an interface between the humanitarian community and the forthcoming multidimensional mission in eastern Chad and north-eastern CAR.

Key Objectives, Outputs and Indicators

A predictable and needs-based humanitarian financing system
Outputs Indicators
Allocation of CERF grants well managed. Fast, accessible and predictable funding for humanitarian action by the United Nations and NGO community provided by locally administered Emergency Response Fund (ERF). Number of days for processing CERF and ERF project submissions. Percentage of CERF project submissions accepted by the CERF Secretariat for support.

Improved coordination structures at country, regional and international levels
Outputs Indicators
Coordination services improved in the north. A second joint United Nations office in the north fully operational and accessible to United Nations and non-United Nations partners.

Greater incorporation of disaster risk reduction approaches and strengthened preparedness in humanitarian response
Outputs Indicators
Comprehensive, inter-agency contingency plan up to date. Frequency of contingency plan updating with the participation of all relevant stakeholders.

More strategic advocacy of humanitarian principles and issues
Outputs Indicators
Humanitarian access to some conflict areas secured and humanitarian space increased. Percentage of field missions for which OCHA negotiates access. Number of conflict locations where humanitarian agencies are present and operational.

Improved coordination structures at country regional and international levels
Outputs Indicators
Fully operational and effective clusters. Percentage of organizations actively engaged in cluster coordination processes. Number of clusters providing effective comprehensive sector coordination. Number of emergencies benefiting from comprehensive and coherent response to identified needs.

 

Chad (map)

Since 2003, unrest in neighbouring Sudan’s Darfur region has spilled over the border, along with hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees. Insecurity and armed conflict in northern Central African Republic (CAR) have led to further refugee movements from CAR to Chad. The current humanitarian situation is compounded by fighting between the army and rebel groups, as well as by violence between ethnic Arab and ethnic African Chadians, triggering additional internal displacements. As of December 2007, the internally displaced person (IDP) and refugee caseload stood at 239,700 Sudanese and 45,300 CAR refugees, and an estimated 180,000 IDPs.

In mid 2007 the OCHA Office in Chad began to strengthen its presence in the capital and in the east of the country, coordinating the implementation of the cluster approach in Abéché and N’Djamena and the drafting of a common long-term strategy on IDPs. The deteriorating security environment will continue to hamper the efficient delivery of humanitarian assistance in affected areas – mainly in eastern Chad and to a lesser extent the south of the country.

As no major returns of displaced populations are foreseen in 2008, the humanitarian community will focus on meeting the critical needs of refugees, IDPs and host communities affected by insecurity, while – if security improves – exploring long-term solutions for these vulnerable people. OCHA will support these efforts through strengthening coordination structures and consolidating humanitarian reform.

Planned Staffing  
Professionals
14
National Officers
8
General service
18
United Nations Volunteers
1
Total
41
   
Total Costs  
Staff Costs
3,197,536
Non-Staff Costs
1,520,415
Total Requested (US$)
4,717,951

The main priorities and challenges for OCHA in Chad in 2008 include:

    1. assisting humanitarian partners in the delivery of humanitarian aid and the securing of improved access to the most affected populations – through increased capacity, leadership and participation in needs assessments, advocacy and information management;
    2. strengthening OCHA’s operational capacity in the capital and eastern Chad to reinforce humanitarian reform delivery, in particular the cluster approach;
    3. assisting in the smooth transition towards early recovery and return when appropriate; and
    4. ensuring neutral and impartial humanitarian programming in the context of the forthcoming United Nations/European Union multilateral force.

Key Objectives, Outputs and Indicators

Improved coordination structures at country, regional and international levels
Outputs Indicators
Inter-agency assessments (involving operational clusters in areas of displacement) conducted on an as-needs basis in support of a timely response to the needs of displaced and host populations. Number of inter-agency assessment missions conducted. Number of displaced and host population families targeted by emergency assistance delivery.

A strategy enabling seamless transition and early recovery
Outputs Indicators
Transition, early recovery and protection strategies developed. Number of early recovery and protection activities targeting displaced populations implemented.

More strategic advocacy of humanitarian principles and issues
Outputs Indicators
The aid community in Chad made aware of the mandate and activities of the European force. Humanitarian space maintained for all actors. Number of workshops on humanitarian principles and civil–military coordination held. Number of bulletins and press releases on humanitarian principles produced. Number of complaints by humanitarian agencies about lack of humanitarian space.

Strengthened information management based on common standards and best practices
Outputs Indicators
Efficient flow of information and feedback between field level (clusters) and central level (IASC) ensured, enabling informed decision-making. Number of missions equipped with maps and other information products.

 

Côte d’Ivoire (map)

The political context in Côte d’Ivoire has changed significantly following the signing of the Ouagadougou Political Agreement (OPA) in March 2007 – putting an end to five years of political conflict in a country that plays a key role in the West Africa region.

Although some progress has been made in implementing the Government’s road map of the OPA, key actions are still incomplete and behind schedule. Crucial issues such as citizenship and land ownership, which are at the core of the Ivorian conflict, are yet to be addressed. The creation of the Integrated Command Centre has not yet improved military dialogue – necessary for progress in key areas such as the disarmament and demobilization of combatants and reform of the security sector. Public hearings on the identification of Ivorian citizens resumed in September 2007, but they are currently stalled.

Increasing numbers of formerly displaced people are spontaneously returning to their villages. Local authorities strongly encourage return movements, while humanitarian actors underline the need for such movement to be voluntary and for compliance with the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement that guarantee durability, dignity and security of return.

The fragile political situation in Guinea Conakry could deteriorate in 2008, and OCHA will continue to monitor the situation along the border and to update the contingency planning related to concerns in Guinea.

The donor community, which showed some fatigue in financing relief activities in early 2007, reconsidered its position and supported the revised 2007 CHAP. Future CERF allocations will continue to be used to ensure the implementation of priority actions identified jointly by stakeholders.

Planned Staffing  
Professionals
9
National Officers
14
General service
29
United Nations Volunteers
1
Total
53
   
Total Costs  
Staff Costs
3,151,287
Non-Staff Costs
1,318,820
Total Requested (US$)
4,470,107

In line with post-Ouagadougou developments and the scenario envisaged for 2008, it will be crucial to ensure flexibility and continuity in the process of transitioning from relief assistance to early recovery, and to identify the most appropriate window of opportunity for the handover of sustainable activities reinforcing communities’ livelihoods and capacities over the medium and longer term. In 2008, OCHA will ensure that joint coordination mechanisms with the Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery (BCPR) are established at both field and national levels to facilitate the transition from humanitarian relief to recovery and development. It will also advocate for resource mobilization among humanitarian actors (CAP) and recovery actors (UNDP trust funds for early recovery and elections).

Changes in the humanitarian strategy for Côte d’Ivoire call for a strengthening of OCHA’s field presence and serviceability within the broader humanitarian coordination context and during the transition to recovery. The size of the OCHA office in Abidjan will be reduced slightly, and staff roles are being adapted to take into account the need to remain engaged in supporting coordination processes, including those related to protection, and contributing to effective information management. OCHA’s field presences, with the support of the BCPR, will become the hubs for coordination of the overall international response to humanitarian and recovery needs at the field level.

Key Objectives, Outputs and Indicators

A predictable and needs-based humanitarian financing system
Outputs Indicators
Humanitarian financing systems (CAP, CERF and ERF) effectively supported and implemented. Percentage of CERF and ERF projects submitted that comply with requirements and are in line with specified criteria.

Improved coordination structures at country, regional and international levels
Outputs Indicators
Humanitarian coordination mechanisms strengthened, with improved dialogue between key stakeholders (representatives of Government, line ministries, local authorities and donors). Cluster approach supported in new emergencies and contingency planning, taking advantage of the training on humanitarian reform provided to stakeholders in December 2007. Number and level of participants representing the different stakeholders. Number of decisions agreed upon.

Action-oriented analysis of humanitarian trends and emerging policy issues
Outputs Indicators
Focused and strategic analytical briefings provided to the Inter-Agency Humanitarian Coordination Committee, OCHA’s senior management team and visiting missions. Frequency of operational briefings used to inform decisions by senior management.

Protection agenda advanced at country, regional and international levels
Outputs Indicators
Protection improved through reinforced protection cluster and the provision of information, analysis, training and information tools. Decrease in number of violations of human rights and international humanitarian law in key protection sectors (internal displacement, sexual and gender-based violence and child protection).

 

Democratic Republic of the Congo (map)

Following successful elections in 2006, a democratically elected government was established in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in 2007. With the support of the United Nations Mission in the DRC (MONUC), security has been restored to most of the country; however, given the legacy of four decades of economic decline and a decade of almost continuous conflict, humanitarian and development needs will remain acute in 2008. Needs are concentrated in the east (particularly in north and south Kivu), while in the west there are also significant issues which development actors have been slow to address.

In 2008, the humanitarian situation in DRC will continue to be characterized by:

    1. population displacements and violence against civilians linked to the ongoing armed conflict in the east, particularly
      in north and south Kivu;
    2. acute needs in some non-conflict areas where structural problems have resulted in malnutrition, high levels of vulnerability, child mortality and in-hospital maternal mortality; and
    3. natural catastrophes (including flooding and epidemics) that each year overwhelm the capacity of communities and Congolese authorities, and require the intervention of humanitarian actors.

There are 1.3 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) in DRC. With the exception of about 25,000 displaced by flooding, these IDPs have been forced to flee their homes as a direct result of the armed conflict. Of particular note, in the last quarter of 2007, 170,000 were displaced by conflict in the east of the country. In 2008, protection will continue to be a major focus of humanitarian work. Efforts are ongoing to combat the range of violent acts committed against civilians, including torture, forced labour, child recruitment, rape, mutilation and kidnapping. At the same time, significant numbers of IDPs have been able to return home as parts of Katanga Province and Ituri District have stabilized. While these returns are likely to continue in 2008, new displacements arising from Government efforts to reign in dissidents in the Kivus are almost inevitable.

Planned Staffing  
Professionals
23
National Officers
32
General service
75
United Nations Volunteers
6
Total
136
   
Total Costs  
Staff Costs
8,046,369
Non-Staff Costs
5,465,922
Total Requested (US$)
13,512,291

Substantial efforts are needed to intensify reintegration activities in order to break this cycle of displacement.

In 2008, with OCHA’s support, cluster lead agencies and NGOs will continue to strengthen the cluster coordination architecture. The humanitarian community will also focus on developing contingency plans, building local disaster response capacity and taking steps to prevent new emergencies.

The pooled fund and the CERF have resulted in higher levels of funding in DRC for humanitarian activities; however, the sheer magnitude of needs requires significant prioritization. In many recent cases, the humanitarian response has been insufficient because of lack of resources and restrictions on access, particularly in areas of insecurity and extremely poor road infrastructure. It is hoped that the relative stability in most of the country will be sufficient for development actors to re-engage in DRC and begin meeting long-neglected development needs.

In 2008, OCHA DRC’s priority work in support of United Nations Agencies, NGOs and DRC authorities will focus on:

    1. ensuring a well-coordinated, properly targeted and timely response to emergency humanitarian needs, including
      those of IDPs, refugees, returnees and other vulnerable Congolese;
    2. greater participation and buy-in with regard to the implementation of key humanitarian reforms such as the cluster approach, the pooled fund and the CERF;
    3. improved monitoring and evaluation of humanitarian activities throughout DRC, based on the Humanitarian Action
      Plan impact indicators;
    4. better information management tools for assessments, reporting and information sharing;
    5. humanitarian advocacy in support of protecting vulnerable populations and ensuring humanitarian access; and
    6. mobilizing adequate financial resources to cover humanitarian needs in DRC.

The establishment of a new, democratic government in DRC has resulted in a potentially viable partner in building national and local disaster response capacity. In 2008 OCHA and its partners will work closely with a range of Government interlocutors to ensure a conducive and enabling environment for humanitarian initiatives.

Key Objectives, Outputs and Indicators

A predictable and needs-based humanitarian financing system
Outputs Indicators
Use of the Humanitarian Action Plan as a tool for prioritizing humanitarian funding (pooled fund and CERF). Percentage of pooled fund, CERF and bilaterally funded activities that are cluster endorsed and target priorities in the Humanitarian Action Plan.

Improved coordination structures at country, regional and international levels
Outputs Indicators
Promotion of inclusive humanitarian partnerships and joint planning with traditional partners (NGOs and United Nations Agencies, including MONUC) and new partners (private sector, governments, charity organizations). Percentage increase in the number of traditional and new partners participating in humanitarian coordination and joint planning mechanisms (such as clusters and Provincial Iinter-agency committees).

More strategic advocacy of humanitarian principles and issues
Outputs Indicators
Delivery of humanitarian aid improved and the work of humanitarian organizations facilitated by reinforcing Congolese legislation (currently under development with various ministries, parliamentarians and legal experts) in accordance with national laws and international conventions. Percentage decrease in the number of administrative ‘tracasseries’ suffered by humanitarian organizations.

A common approach to needs assessments and impact evaluation
Outputs Indicators
Monitoring and evaluation practices improved. Percentage of reporting that uses standardized cluster indicators.

Strengthened information management based on common standards and best practices
Outputs Indicators
Leadership on information management support to clusters and other humanitarian coordination mechanisms provided. Percentage of identified information management needs for which OCHA provides an appropriate solution.

 

Eritrea (map)

In a 1993 referendum supported by Ethiopia, Eritreans voted almost unanimously for independence, leaving Ethiopia landlocked. Since then, unequal trade terms and issues of Ethiopian access to the Eritrean ports of Massawa and Assab have soured relations between the two countries. In 1998, a border dispute over the town of Badme erupted into open conflict, for which a resolution was attempted through the June 2000 Algiers ‘cessation of hostilities’ deal. In December 2000, the Eritrea–Ethiopia Border Commission was established to mark the border, exchange prisoners and return displaced people. The unresolved border issue and the country’s focus on defence priorities compound other pressing problems, including poor economic progress.

Located in one of the driest parts of Africa, Eritrea suffers frequent food shortages due to cyclical droughts. In a good year, the country produces only about 60 per cent of its total annual cereal needs, while production is as low as 25 per cent in bad years. Only 58 per cent of the rural population have access to protected water sources and less than 2 per cent have access to improved sanitation facilities. Malnutrition accounts for over 60 per cent of the under-five morbidity rate, while poor access to safe water is also a major contributing factor. Diarrhoea is one of the leading causes of illness in this age group, along with other diseases such as acute respiratory infections. The country has successfully reduced morbidity and mortality due to malaria in recent years; however, the United Nations Country Team continues to prioritize food security, health, nutrition, water and sanitation in its allocation of emergency resources, including the CERF funds.

Despite these problems, the Eritrean Government has a policy of phasing out international humanitarian assistance and focusing on development and recovery activities, while continuing to call on relevant agencies when it requires assistance for emergency response in pockets of the country. A ‘Who does What Where’ survey undertaken by OCHA in July 2007 indicated that humanitarian projects accounted for 18.5 per cent of funding for assistance programmes (US$ 74.7 million in 2007), while the recovery and development assistance proportions of total funding were 27.7 per cent and 53.9 per cent respectively.

Planned Staffing  
Professionals
2
National Officers
2
General service
4
United Nations Volunteers
-
Total
8
   
Total Costs  
Staff Costs
335,834
Non-Staff Costs
196,229
Total Requested (US$)
532,063

OCHA Eritrea’s key partners include United Nations Agencies, donors, NGOs, the Red Cross Movement, Government agencies and regional administrations. Challenges that OCHA expects to face in 2008 are:

    1. national authorities’ disinclination to acknowledge the existence of a humanitarian situation in the country;
    2. a substantial reduction in the number of humanitarian partners (especially NGOs) following the 2005 ‘NGO
      proclamation’ which imposed restrictions on NGO operations;
    3. the Eritrean Government’s insistence that all humanitarian activities must be implemented through local government structures, despite significant capacity challenges faced by regional administrations; and
    4. the lack of Government permission to conduct inter- agency assessments – making it difficult to gain a
      comprehensive picture of the humanitarian situation in Eritrea.

In light of the Government’s position on the humanitarian situation, OCHA plans to reduce its presence in Eritrea in mid 2008 and focus on providing support to the Resident Coordinator/Humanitarian Coordinator. If the humanitarian situation worsens, OCHA will re-consider this course of action.

Key Objectives, Outputs and Indicators

Improved coordination structures at country, regional and international levels
Outputs Indicators
IASC country team introduced and streamlined. Percentage of decisions and policies agreed on by the IASC country team. Number of partnership meetings held.

Improved coordination structures at country, regional and international levels
Outputs Indicators
Improved preparedness for a range of potential hazards. Inter-agency contingency plan developed and regularly updated. Percentage of new emergencies responded to within the first 48 hours.

A strategy enabling seamless transition and early recovery
Outputs Indicators
Coordination services provided to Resident Coordinator/Humanitarian Coordinator adjusted to address recovery and residual humanitarian needs. Transition strategy developed and agreed upon by all partners.

Action-oriented analysis of humanitarian trends and emerging policy issues
Outputs Indicators
Information management tools (‘Who Does What Where’ database and maps) strengthened. Improved analytical humanitarian reports available. Number of partners using information management tools. Number of analytical reports produced.

 

Ethiopia (map)

A cycle of disasters – droughts, floods and disease outbreaks – persists in Ethiopia, while conflict increasingly causes the loss of life and hampers livelihoods. Parts of the country face recurrent complex emergency situations arising from inter- and intra-ethnic conflict, insurgencies against the State and clashes based on religious ideologies. The Somali region in south-eastern Ethiopia remains one of the poorest in the country, with frequent droughts and floods impacting on food security and livelihoods. The security situation in the region resulting from intensified military action against the Ogaden National Liberation Front continues to deteriorate, impeding emergency response.

During 2006–07 Ethiopia hosted nearly 100,000 refugees, mainly from Sudan, Somalia and Eritrea. Disputes over border demarcation between Ethiopia and Eritrea remain unsettled and tensions between the two countries are high.

In 2008, OCHA will continue to work closely with the Ethiopian Government – which is committed to addressing recognized humanitarian priorities but lacks the adequate capacity and resources to do so. OCHA will also work with the Government and other partners to update emergency preparedness and response systems.

Approximately 10 million subsistence agriculturalists and pastoralists in Ethiopia require food or cash assistance annually. These needs are responded to through the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) and through emergency response (funded through the CAP in 2007). Based on a United Nations assessment in September 2007, a six-month response plan was developed to address acute emergency needs in Ogaden, and the Government has indicated its willingness to support the humanitarian effort. Strong coordination will be required to ensure that humanitarian action is effective and to prevent the feared major humanitarian crisis in the region. To achieve this, OCHA, jointly with United Nations Agencies, has established sub-offices in Kebredahar and Degahabur in Ogaden, and it is pressing for greater agency and NGO presence.

Planned Staffing  
Professionals
7
National Officers
14
General service
20
United Nations Volunteers
1
Total
42
   
Total Costs  
Staff Costs
1,886,831
Non-Staff Costs
1,001,259
Total Requested (US$)
2,888,090

African Union Liaison Office

Planned Staffing  
Professionals
2
National Officers
1
General service
1
United Nations Volunteers
-
Total
4
   
Total Costs  
Staff Costs
466,609
Non-Staff Costs
151,666
Total Requested (US$)
618,275

In 2008, a deeper analysis of the drivers of complex emergencies and natural disasters in Ethiopia will be undertaken by the United Nations jointly with the Government. Clusters working with Government-led sector taskforces and working groups will contribute to strengthened coordination between humanitarian partners, as well as to humanitarian planning, resource allocation, project implementation and continued joint assessments. An inter-cluster plan on early recovery will be operationalized, and a newly established protection cluster will lobby for a Government counterpart on protection issues.

OCHA will be proactive in enhancing cooperation, with the establishment of a joint board on Humanitarian Response Fund (HRF)/CERF financing which includes representatives from United Nations Agencies, NGOs and the Government. OCHA will also continue to support the Pastoralist Communication Initiative – a project encouraging pastoralists, the Government and humanitarian and development partners to cooperate in analysing the root causes of crises in pastoral areas, tracking the changing situation and fostering innovative solutions. Furthermore, advocacy on the critical and positive role of NGOs in Ethiopia’s humanitarian situation will be undertaken.

Key Objectives, Outputs and Indicators

A predictable and needs-based humanitarian financing system
Outputs Indicators
Adequately funded and effectively functioning HRF. Percentage of US$ 15 million HRF target budget raised.

Improved coordination structures at country, regional and international levels
Outputs Indicators
Fully functioning Government-led sectoral taskforces established, providing predictable support for clusters. Effective coordination structures established in response to the humanitarian situation in the Ogaden. Percentage of sectoral taskforces with active work plans. Number of United Nations Agencies and NGOs operational in the Somali region.

More strategic advocacy of humanitarian principles and issues
Outputs Indicators
Action-oriented coordination of advocacy on IDP priorities and the potential impact of natural disasters, conflict and disease epidemics undertaken. Respect for humanitarian principles enhanced at regional and local levels. Inter-agency advocacy strategy completed.

Protection agenda advanced at country, regional and international levels
Outputs Indicators
Strengthened advocacy on the need for a Government counterpart to the protection cluster. Government counterpart on protection identified.

 

Guinea (map)

The current phase in Guinea’s humanitarian crisis has arisen through a combination of the devastating effects of violent demonstrations during labour-led strikes in early 2007, a collapsing economy, rapidly deteriorating social services, and the cumulative demands of over ten years hosting an estimated 1 million refugees from Liberia and Sierra Leone.

Deteriorating living conditions, serious economic hardship and growing open social discontent sparked two nationwide strikes in January and February 2007: violence rocked the entire country leaving 139 people dead and over 1600 injured. Despite the formation of a new Government, calls for the strike’s resumption continue. The President’s failing health and the lack of a clear successor in the event of his sudden exit from Government have fuelled fears of instability in Guinea which would have far-reaching destabilizing effects, including the potential for an increase in ethnic tensions.

These unresolved political, military and socio-economic issues, and the Government’s lack of capacity to address them, pose great risks for the country and the sub-region in 2008. The worsening humanitarian situation in Guinea requires immediate action to avoid a large-scale humanitarian crisis with serious cross-border implications. The most critical issues are health, water and sanitation, food security and nutrition, and protection of civilians. Furthermore, to ensure lasting success in these areas, humanitarian initiatives must be complemented by longerterm programmes aimed at restoring the country’s own ability to provide these services, which will initially depend to a large extent on adequate contributions from the international community.

Planned Staffing  
Professionals
2
National Officers
3
General service
3
United Nations Volunteers
-
Total
8
   
Total Costs  
Staff Costs
490,397
Non-Staff Costs
317,657
Total Requested (US$)
808,054

The Prime Minister has appealed to international partners including the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the United Nations for assistance in implementing the Government’s priorities as outlined in its minimum emergency development programme. In 2008, OCHA will support the United Nations Country Team to strengthen strategic and sector coordination with all Government, NGO and donor partners in Conakry, Guinée Forestière and Haute Guinée through the convening of regular coordination meetings and improved analysis and dissemination of information. Under the leadership of the Resident Coordinator/Humanitarian Coordinator (RC/HC), increased efforts will be made to implement the cluster approach in order to strengthen the overall humanitarian response. OCHA will enhance early warning and emergency preparedness measures in the country, while strengthening the capacity of the Government to respond to recurring epidemics (including cholera) and natural disasters (such as floods). Given the precarious socio-political situation, particular attention will be paid to preparedness and contingency planning in the event of further violent demonstrations – with the aim of creating a robust, cooperative environment among all actors and reinforcing the capacity of the Guinean Government.

More broadly, OCHA will work to ensure that appropriate links exist between the response to humanitarian concerns and efforts in recovery and transition. Along with its partners (the Red Cross Movement, national and international NGOs and United Nations Agencies), it will focus on crisis prevention, mitigation and longer-term recovery programmes aimed at achieving the Millennium Development Goals across the country.

Key Objectives, Outputs and Indicators

A predictable and needs-based humanitarian financing system
Outputs Indicators
Efficient and timely access to CERF, inclusion in the regional consolidated inter-agency appeal (CAP) for West Africa, emergency cash grants and pooled funds ensured. Eevaluation and needs assessment mechanisms established. Number and percentage of requests that meet CERF criteria. Amount and percentage of funding made available by donors within the CAP context.

Improved coordination structures at country, regional and international levels
Outputs Indicators
Support provided to the RC/HC, United Nations Country Team and partners, involving NGOs and the ICRC (as a standing invitee), in establishing and making operational the cluster approach. Degree of support to RC/HC provided, including number of clusters fully functioning and using appropriate coordination tools. Number and percentage of NGOs and other partners participating in IASC/Comité Permanent Inter-Agences; percentage of decisions implemented.

Greater incorporation of disaster risk reduction approaches and strengthened preparedness in humanitarian response
Outputs Indicators
Preparedness activities and early recovery components incorporated into United Nations Country Team contingency plan. Advocacy and support for national disaster risk reduction capacity strengthened. Number of early warning measures taken by the United Nations Country Team. Implementation of national natural disaster strategy.

Action-oriented analysis of humanitarian trends and emerging policy issues
Outputs Indicators
Capacity and outcomes for ascertaining humanitarian trends and their implications improved. Humanitarian communications with all partners improved through the OCHA Guinea website, humanitarian maps and early warning and response matrices. OCHA’s humanitarian briefing and information dissemination to the wider humanitarian community improved by reporting relevant and critical information through database use, situations reports and press releases. Level of accuracy of analysis and data. Number of information gaps filled.

A common approach to needs assessments and impact evaluation
Outputs Indicators
Remaining humanitarian needs assessed through joint (United Nations, NGOs, Government counterparts) assessment missions. Vulnerability levels and basic social indicators analysed. Percentage of responses to humanitarian needs by cluster. Nneeds assessment reports validated and number of recommendations implemented.

 

Kenya (map)

According to the 2006 UNDP Human Development Report, Kenya experiences significant imbalances in developmental equity. Child malnutrition rates in the north-east of the country remain consistently high, with acute malnutrition rates in the range of 15–30 per cent (alongside lagging immunization rates). Infrastructure development is extremely poor, which has grave implications for humanitarian access during heavy rain or flooding. Drought and disaster-prone districts in eastern, northern, north-eastern and coastal areas remain dependent on pastoral or agro-pastoral livelihoods – which are highly vulnerable to a number of threats. The strong links between poverty and vulnerability in Kenya, and the tendency for minor hazards to turn into humanitarian emergencies, illustrate the lack of development in these areas.

Kenya’s porous borders with Somalia and Sudan have facilitated large-scale refugee flows. While incoming refugee numbers diminished considerably following the closure of the Kenya–Somalia border, contingency planning for emergency response is being maintained in relation to the unresolved political situation in Somalia. Periodic cattle raids and inter-communal conflict due to resource scarcity along the borders with Ethiopia and Uganda also put thousands of people at risk. The forthcoming presidential and parliamentary elections are escalating tension, conflict and displacements throughout the country, the most significant being the displacement of about 66,000 people in Mt Elgon district.

OCHA’s work in Kenya in 2008 will focus primarily on strengthening structures and mechanisms for disaster preparedness and response. The development of contingency and emergency preparedness plans and support to national and United Nations coordination structures are critical elements of this work. Enhanced networking between humanitarian and development information management systems will add value and strengthen national coordination efforts. Furthering the protection agenda for the large but poorly defined caseload of internally displaced persons (IDPs) is also a critical issue.

Planned Staffing  
Professionals
1
National Officers
3
General service
2
United Nations Volunteers
-
Total
6
   
Total Costs  
Staff Costs
410,710
Non-Staff Costs
253,346
Total Requested (US$)
664,056

OCHA will also continue to focus on supporting a Joint Team approach to humanitarian response and disaster management. This combines elements of the cluster system with the United Nations’ concept of ‘Delivering as One’. The Joint Team interacts with an IASC-like structure of NGOs, civil society organizations and the Government as well as with humanitarian and development partners for coordinated assistance.

Key Objectives, Outputs and Indicators

Improved coordination structures at country, regional and international levels
Outputs Indicators
Resident coordinator’s lead role in humanitarian response and disaster management supported. Expanded disaster management team strengthened and links to national coordination structures clarified. National coordination structures for disaster management strengthened. Inter-agency action plan for humanitarian response and disaster management implemented. OCHA presence within national coordination structures ensured.

Greater incorporation of disaster risk reduction approaches and strengthened preparedness in humanitarian response
Outputs Indicators
Policy, technical and institutional capacities for disaster management strengthened in line with the Hyogo Framework for Action Priority 5. Number of workshops organized on disaster management or contingency planning.

Protection agenda advanced at country, regional and international levels
Outputs Indicators
Inter-agency protection network on IDPs strengthened. Protection strategy developed.

Protection agenda advanced at country, regional and international levels
Outputs Indicators
Humanitarian information management system within Resident Coordinator’s office strengthened. Number of humanitarian information products released by Resident Coordinator’s office.

Niger (map)

OCHA has had a presence in Niger since the locust crisis that affected the region in 2004. In 2008, it is again reinforcing its presence in response to the deteriorating humanitarian situation due to a lethal combination of armed conflict, the use of landmines (for the first time since the 1950s), floods, a lean harvest, poor infrastructure and a vicious cycle of food insecurity. Of particular concern is the increased insecurity in northern Mali and northern Niger and potential implications for nearby countries including Chad, Sudan, Libya, Algeria, Mauritania and Nigeria. Critical issues for humanitarian actors working in northern Niger in 2008 will include:

    1. ensuring safe and unhindered access in high-risk locations;
    2. mobilizing resources to respond to identified needs;
    3. reconfiguring existing coordination and response mechanisms to adequately address both emergency and
      development needs; and
    4. identifying appropriate mine action capacity to support the delivery of aid.
Planned Staffing  
Professionals
4
National Officers
5
General service
7
United Nations Volunteers
-
Total
16
   
Total Costs  
Staff Costs
896,872
Non-Staff Costs
432,715
Total Requested (US$)
1,329,587

The significant escalation of violence towards the end of 2007, including an increase in landmine incidents and attacks by the Niger Movement for Justice against Government military positions and foreign interests in northern Niger, has led to the scaling down of humanitarian activities in the north – in addition to the displacement of about 80 per cent of the 6,500 inhabitants of Iférouane. The lack of dialogue between the Government and the Movement for Justice foreshadows the likelihood of a military option being used to resolve the matter. The situation is likely to remain tense and volatile, requiring close monitoring and strong advocacy to encourage all parties to do what they can to avoid the loss of civilian lives.

OCHA Niger’s key partners include: the national Food Crisis Prevention and Mitigation Mechanism (Early Warning System, Food Crisis Cell); the Government of Niger (specifically the Ministry of Religious Affairs and Humanitarian Action); NGOs; United Nations Agencies; civil society organizations; and donors. Its key challenges in 2008 are expected to be:

    1. limited humanitarian space due to the Government’s political sensitivity with regard to humanitarian issues;
    2. difficulties in the use of emergency resource mobilization tools due to this political sensitivity; and
    3. the lack of common understanding of the humanitarian situation between the Government and humanitarian actors

Key Objectives, Outputs and Indicators

Improved coordination structures at country, regional and international levels
Outputs Indicators
National capacities in complex emergency and natural disaster preparedness improved. Humanitarian coordination mechanisms and responses supported. Number of coordination mechanisms and contingency plans established and updated.

Competent management cadre effectively leading teams and accountable for results
Outputs Indicators
Regular early warning activities carried out when required. Standard data collection to support preparedness and response action undertaken. Effective management of resources (staff and non-staff) ensured. Availability of standard data. effective management of resources.

 

Somalia (map)

Somalia’s long-standing complex emergency continues to deteriorate, with escalating political and ongoing clan conflict, high levels of related displacement, a worsening nutrition and food security situation, and recurrent floods and drought.

For 16 years, Somalia has lacked a credible and effective central government. Hopes that law and order would be established in January 2007 were quickly dashed as the outbreak of conflict between the Transitional Federal Government forces, its allies and anti-government elements resulted in the death and injury of countless civilians, human rights abuses and massive displacements from Mogadishu. The security situation in the capital continued to deteriorate throughout the year, with a sharp increase in political assassinations, violent attacks (including the use of suicide bombs, hand grenades and improvised explosive devices) and harassment and killing of journalists – the impact of which will continue to be felt throughout the coming year.

The humanitarian environment is now characterized by widespread violations of international humanitarian law, with civilians often caught in the crossfire of military operations and victimized by disproportionate response and arbitrary arrest and detention. By early December 2007, around 600,000 people had been displaced from Mogadishu; 200,000 fled the capital during November alone. This brought the total number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Somalia to 1 million – 400,000 long-term and 600,000 due to the conflict.

Furthermore, 2007’s poor spring rainy season (resulting in the worst cereal harvest in 13 years) and diarrhoeal diseases have severely exacerbated the food security situation, particularly in regions to which a large number of conflictrelated IDPs had fled. Malnutrition rates are at or above emergency thresholds (and in what were formerly the most food-secure areas of South Central Somalia).

Planned Staffing  
Professionals
14
National Officers
17
General service
16
United Nations Volunteers
1
Total
48
   
Total Costs  
Staff Costs
3,868,880
Non-Staff Costs
1,275,173
Total Requested (US$)
5,144,053

In 2008, around 1.5 million people are expected to be in need of assistance and protection – a 50 per cent increase compared to the beginning of 2007. OCHA’s primary focus will be to facilitate the efficient delivery of humanitarian assistance to alleviate the suffering of those in need. It will also help to develop local capacity for emergency preparedness and response, supporting transitional and early recovery activities where appropriate. It will advocate with donors and the international community to support NGOs with start-up costs and capacity building, ensuring that the required expertise and experience are present on the ground in Somalia.

Among OCHA’s strengths in undertaking this work are its field presence, effective partnerships with international and local NGOs and United Nations Agencies, and active information, advocacy and protection units. The primary obstacle facing OCHA is limited access to populations in need due to extortion, piracy, road blocks and general insecurity in South Central Somalia. The fact that Somalia is not well covered by the international media is also a negative factor.

In 2008, OCHA will continue to strengthen its field presence in terms of seniority and breadth of coverage, and it will reinforce the cluster approach as well as supporting inter-cluster coordination. It will work with donors to ensure flexible, longer-term funding for NGOs, aiming at building local capacity and increasing operations in underserved areas, and more broadly it will advocate for the application of the principles of humanity, neutrality and impartiality in day-to-day humanitarian operations in order to improve conditions for the provision of assistance and protection.

Key Objectives, Outputs and Indicators

A predictable and needs-based humanitarian financing system
Outputs Indicators
Well-managed Consolidated Appeals Process (caP) preparatory, review and monitoring processes throughout the funding cycle, together with the widest possible range of partners. Well-coordinated and coherent CERF applications and projects developed in consultation with the Somalia IASC. Generously funded Humanitarian Response Fund (HRF) accessible to the United Nations and international and local NGOs. Percentage of CERF- and HRF-funded projects. Number of NGOs, both local and national, benefiting from the HRF. Timely replenishment of the HRF by donors. Funding disparities among the sectors of the 2008 CAP reduced.

Improved coordination structures at country, regional and international levels
Outputs Indicators
Local- and country-level clusters and coordination structures supported by OCHA staff. Decision-making decentralized to field level. Number of clusters functioning effectively.

More strategic advocacy of humanitarian principles and issues
Outputs Indicators
Joint Operating Principles guiding humanitarian operations developed, broadly disseminated and adhered to by aid workers. number of aid organizations that sign on and adhere to the Joint Operating Principles.

Protection agenda advanced at the country, regional and international levels
Outputs Indicators
Action in priority humanitarian areas increased, based on updated IDP strategy and expanded protection monitoring network in South Central Somalia. Number of areas of displacement benefiting from implementation of the idP strategy. Number of protection monitoring reports produced.

Strengthened information management based on common standards and best practices
Outputs Indicators
Cclusters supported by OCHA information management products, contributing to the effectiveness of humanitarian action. Use of the ‘Who does What Where’ database to identify gaps and make strategic decisions on response. number of maps requested and produced. timeliness of new information management products after the onset of new emergencies.

Sudan (map)

In 2007, violence in Darfur continued to displace people into camps and rural locations, while also challenging sustained humanitarian access to populations in need and further eroding people’s coping mechanisms and livelihoods. Around 270,000 people were newly displaced or re-displaced during 2007, and by year end there were approximately 2.2 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Darfur.

Humanitarian indicators that had stabilized after the massive humanitarian action of 2004 and 2005 have again begun to decline in some areas. In September 2007 it was estimated that over 4.2 million people (compared to 3.5 million in December 2006) were heavily reliant on humanitarian aid. In 2008, protection will remain a major concern as a result of armed elements operating throughout Darfur. The increased politicization (and sometimes the militarization) of IDP camps will pose further challenges in an already difficult environment, and negotiations are likely to be hampered by the fragmentation of armed groups and intra-tribal tensions. Banditry and armed splinter factions will continue to pose serious security threats to humanitarian workers and operations. Insecurity and attacks against humanitarians have continued to rise in recent months: twelve humanitarian aid workers were killed and 116 vehicles of humanitarian organizations were hijacked or stolen between January and October 2007. This trend is expected to continue in 2008.

Planned Staffing  
Professionals
47
National Officers
38
General service
168
United Nations Volunteers
3
Total
256
   
Total Costs  
Staff Costs
11,496,599
Non-Staff Costs
5,911,176
Total Requested (US$)
17,407,775

While the number of direct military confrontations has decreased in north Darfur, they will remain a major source of insecurity in south and west Darfur. Increased instability on both sides of the borders with Chad and the Central African Republic, and the reported presence of Chadian opposition groups inside Darfur, have all added to the volatile security environment where up to 500,000 people during 2007 were, at one point or another, beyond the reach of humanitarian assistance.

In this context, it is possible that displaced youths will become increasingly radicalized as their prospects for a dignified life are often absent. The forced recruitment of child soldiers is an ongoing concern in some regions, along with the abduction of children and, to some extent, women.

Gender-based violence appears to be widespread in many areas.

Despite increased Government pressure on IDPs to return, the situation across Darfur in 2008 is unlikely to be conducive to large-scale returns unless the political situation stabilizes and the root causes of the conflict are addressed. The new United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur is expected to provide better protection in a number of IDP areas as it deploys; however, the Mission’s ability to provide physical security will be limited during the initial start-up phase. Given this, and the wide spectrum of security challenges across Darfur, rural areas are expected to remain volatile and humanitarian access limited. If the security situation continues to deteriorate, even the best possible relief efforts may not be able to match the extent of the humanitarian needs.

While in South Sudan humanitarian needs are gradually giving way to recovery and development, and most agencies are shifting their focus from humanitarian to development activities, it will be necessary to maintain a humanitarian presence in 2008 in order to respond to localized needs. There are continuing concerns about the implementation of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement. In the rest of the country, humanitarian needs are mainly likely to arise in connection with natural disasters (as with the 2007 floods) and disease outbreaks. In this context, responsibilities for supporting the Government in emergency preparedness and response have been handed over to the Resident Coordinator’s office at the field level, which OCHA will continue to support through its small emergency preparedness and response unit in the coming year.

Key Objectives, Outputs and Indicators

Improved coordination structures at country, regional and international levels
Outputs Indicators
Response more effectively coordinated with partners – enhancing their participation management in IDP areas. Humanitarian community’s capacity to advocate for humanitarian principles and negotiate access with growing number of armed factions strengthened. Increased number of national and international NGOs participating in the United Nations and Partners Work Plan for Sudan. IASC Country Team active on all levels of coordination and advocacy.

Strengthened OCHA emergency response capacity
Outputs Indicators
Small emergency preparedness and response capacity maintained in Khartoum. Action-oriented analysis of humanitarian trends and emerging policy issues provided. Emergency preparedness and response capacity supporting the Resident Coordinator’s office maintained. Emergency preparedness and response unit ready and able to mobilize capacities aimed at ensuring immediate and coordinated humanitarian response to emergencies.

More strategic advocacy of humanitarian issues and principles
Outputs Indicators
Joint Communiqué between the Government and the United Nations supported. IASC Country Team supported through advocacy and fundraising. Streamlined advocacy strategies with common messaging from the United Nations and the IASC increases humanitarian space and the ability of partners to operate.

Strengthened information management based on common standards and best practices
Outputs Indicators
Information management practices, systems and tools made available to the humanitarian community to aid coordination and decision-making through the best possible means of dissemination. Number of humanitarian updates and maps. Solicited suggestions from clients and stakeholders incorporated into OCHA’s information services.

Uganda (map)

As Uganda emerges from more than two decades of conflict, it will continue to face a number of challenges in 2008 – not least of which will be shifting northern Uganda out of a state of conflict and disaster into recovery and development.

The roots of the conflict in northern Uganda are historical, socio-economic and political. None of the northern and north-eastern districts have been mainstreamed into Ugandan political and economic life, as is needed for sustainable development and stability. In 2008, the implementation of the Government’s comprehensive Peace, Recovery and Development Plan for Northern Uganda (launched on 15 October 2007) could lead to real advances for all regions of concern. OCHA will work closely with partners to ensure the effective provision of humanitarian assistance while recovery programming is stepped up.

Across northern Uganda, the civilian population continues to express guarded optimism about the prospects for peace. In the Lango sub-region, where the impact of the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) was shorter lived, the majority of the formerly displaced population has returned to their villages of origin, leaving only residual humanitarian concerns to be addressed. However, the increased mortality and malnutrition rates observed in 2007 highlight the importance of ensuring that early recovery and recovery mechanisms are strengthened in Lango and established in Acholi region in 2008, prior to any further mass population return there.

In Acholi, return movement has been more cautious, with approximately one third of internally displaced persons (IDPs) opting to leave the camps for intermediate transit sites, from which they can increase their agricultural production but continue to access camp-based basic services not available in their villages of origin. Overall, an estimated 1.3 million IDPs are expected to still be in camps and transit sites at the start of 2008, with only 35 per cent expected to return home by the end of the year.

Planned Staffing  
Professionals
12
National Officers
10
General service
22
United Nations Volunteers
-
Total
44
   
Total Costs  
Staff Costs
2,923,971
Non-Staff Costs
1,063,511
Total Requested (US$)
3,987,482

In Karamoja, insecurity as a result of the Uganda People’s Defence Force’s ongoing forced disarmament operations, cattle rustling and environmental degradation will continue to perpetuate a fragile security environment. Human and food insecurity remain high, while development and livelihood diversity remain low. As underscored by the impact of flooding in 2007, disaster preparedness and reduction throughout Uganda are severely under-resourced and have been identified as a priority for 2008.

The strengths of the current situation include: ongoing interest in and support for the Juba peace talks among the parties to the conflict, donor governments and the international community; and the increasingly cohesive nature of the cluster approach to humanitarian coordination which has gained much ground in Uganda. The primary weaknesses of the situation include: uncertainty regarding the ultimate mechanism by which to ensure accountability for International Criminal Court indictees; and the lack of sufficient early recovery and recovery activities in return areas. The key challenge in 2008 will continue to be the provision of appropriate humanitarian assistance to populations at three different stages of the return process, while at the same time strengthening recovery and disaster preparedness and advocating for greater investment in the marginalized Karamoja region.

Key Objectives, Outputs and Indicators

Improved coordination structures at country, regional and international levels
Outputs Indicators
Clusters implemented in all areas of humanitarian response. Inter-cluster coordination promoted. Cluster approach implemented in all locations of humanitarian response. Number of lessons learned and best practices documented and disseminated. Percentage of decisions taken in humanitarian coordination meetings implemented.

A strategy enabling seamless transition and early recovery
Outputs Indicators
Operational gaps in humanitarian and recovery activities minimized or eliminated. Benchmarks to guide eventual handover of coordination to Government and development-oriented actors in northern uganda established. Humanitarian indicators, particularly mortality and morbidity, do not descend to emergency levels during transition. Benchmarks established and endorsed. Chairmanship of heads of clusters at district level handed over when recovery is identified as the primary response and humanitarian action as the secondary response.

A predictable and needs-based humanitarian financing system
Outputs Indicators
Humanitarian financing mechanisms (Consolidated Appeals Process, CERF and an Emergency Response Fund) used in a coherent and complementary manner to maximize the impact of available funding – ensured through quality reporting, monitoring, evaluation and needs assessment. Participation and buy-in of humanitarian partners implementing and supporting these mechanisms promoted. Creation of a joint monitoring strategy between cluster leads, the iasc Working Group and Ocha. number of recipient agencies’ reports on the use of cerf funds released. Establishment of a field-based emergency response fund. Percentage of Ocha staff trained on all mechanisms.

Strengthened OCHA emergency response capacity
Outputs Indicators
UNDAC preparedness mission requested by OCHA to assess national capacity to respond to large-scale natural and environmental emergencies. Percentage of recommendations implemented.

Greater incorporation of disaster risk reduction approaches and strengthened preparedness in humanitarian response
Outputs Indicators
Better preparation ensured for response at all levels to both natural hazard and man-made emergency situations. Percentage of risks identified that are covered by cluster preparedness and contingency plans, including plans for building capacity of national counterparts.

 

Zimbabwe (map)

The humanitarian situation in Zimbabwe became increasingly challenging in 2007, characterized by both acute humanitarian needs and chronic vulnerability. The situation is expected to further deteriorate in 2008, with growing humanitarian needs in every sector. The upcoming elections are an uncertain element in the overall picture, while accelerating inflation is expected to place further strain on households and communities: by August 2007 inflation had risen to 7,635 per cent, compared to about 1,500 per cent in January 2007.

A number of factors have contributed to the current humanitarian crisis in Zimbabwe, including: a controversial land reform programme disrupting agricultural production, accompanied by two years of inadequate rainfall leading to country-wide food insecurity; a severe HIV/AIDS pandemic; eviction campaigns; increased migration; and declining capacity for social service provision.

The Government of Zimbabwe declared 2007 a year of drought, and Zimbabwe’s overall production was further hampered by insufficient agricultural inputs and a crumbling irrigation system. Prices set by the Government discouraged many farmers from producing surplus cereals for sale. Food insecurity increased sharply in all parts of the country, and the Food and Agriculture Organization/ World Food Programme Crop and Food Supply Assessment Mission determined that 2.1 million people would face food shortages by the third quarter of 2007, with the number of people in need of food assistance expected to peak at 4.1 million in the first quarter of 2008.

Data from the June 2007 Zimbabwe National Vulnerability Assessment Committee survey indicates continued deterioration in the overall nutrition situation. Chronic malnutrition will continue to be a problem throughout the country, with eight districts showing rates above 30 per cent (the global emergency threshold stands at 27 per cent). Several areas also show acute malnutrition rates over the internationally recognized emergency threshold of 10 per cent. In some of these areas, acute malnutrition has doubled since November 2006, despite the recent harvest. The situation is expected to worsen through the peak hunger season of January to March 2008.

Planned Staffing  
Professionals
7
National Officers
8
General service
12
United Nations Volunteers
-
Total
27
   
Total Costs  
Staff Costs
2,192,331
Non-Staff Costs
458,825
Total Requested (US$)
2,651,156

The continued deterioration in access to basic social services and infrastructure, coupled with the HIV/AIDS pandemic, mass unemployment (currently more than 80 per cent) and ‘brain drain’ will severely impact the livelihoods and coping mechanisms of vulnerable populations. The health sector has experienced a serious decline, with several strikes undertaken by health workers since late 2006. A breakdown of water supply and sanitation systems will further compound the problems facing Zimbabwe in 2008.

Humanitarian space continues to be limited and is expected to be reduced even further with the upcoming elections – planned for March 2008. Access remains restricted, especially for NGOs which experience difficulties in obtaining work permits. Furthermore, the absence of comprehensive assessments places limitations on humanitarian planning and response. For 2008, the humanitarian community in Zimbabwe has agreed to a two-pronged approach, focusing on emergency relief while at the same time addressing chronic vulnerabilities through transitional support.

Key Objectives, Outputs and Indicators

A predictable and needs-based humanitarian financing system
Outputs Indicators
Humanitarian financing mechanisms (including the CERF, Emergency Response Fund [ERFf] and Consolidated Appeals Process [CAP]) managed in a timely manner according to established procedures and guidelines. Percentage of CERF/ERF applications supported by needs assessments. Percentage of CERF proposals submitted in a timely manner in accordance with established criteria. Percentage of funding for appeals. Amount of new funding available for ERF.

Improved coordination structures at country, regional and international levels
Outputs Indicators
Continuous support provided to the Humanitarian Coordinator and IASC Country Team on humanitarian issues. Cluster system rolled out and supported. Field presences established in provinces with serious humanitarian needs. Percentage of United Nations Agencies and NGOs participating in established coordination mechanisms, including clusters. Number of sub-offices established.

Greater incorporation of disaster risk reduction approaches and strengthened preparedness in humanitarian response
Outputs Indicators
Planning and preparedness mechanisms (disaster management, contingency planning, inter-agency assessments) put in place. Disaster risk reduction initiatives incorporated in the CAP. Number of IASC members engaged in preparedness measures. Number of inter-agency and rapid needs assessments conducted. Percentage of CAP projects that include disaster risk reduction initiatives.

More strategic advocacy of humanitarian principles and issues
Outputs Indicators
Joint advocacy platform established by IASC Country Team; strategy developed, implemented and reviewed. Humanitarian principles, including unhindered access to populations affected by crisis, promoted. Number of common key messages developed and implemented by the inter-agency advocacy platform. Percentage of vulnerable population accessed.

A common approach to needs assessments and impact evaluation
Outputs Indicators
Needs Assessment Framework operationalized. Joint Needs Assessment database established and updated regularly. Percentage of sectors completing the Needs Assessment Framework. Percentage of sectors maintaining data in the database.