The Emergency Relief Coordinator actively facilitates, including through negotiation if needed, the access by the operational organizations to emergency areas for the rapid provision of emergency assistance by obtaining the consent of all parties concerned, through modalities such as the establishment of temporary relief corridors, days and zones of tranquility and other forms where needed. [A/RES/46/182]
Humanitarian access, mandated by the GA resolution 46/182, refers to a two-pronged concept, comprising:
- Humanitarian actors’ ability to reach populations in need
- Affected populations’ access to assistance and services.
Full and unimpeded humanitarian access is a fundamental prerequisite to effective humanitarian action, especially in situations of armed conflict, such as Somalia, the DRC or Sudan (Darfur), but also in the context of natural disasters (e.g. Haiti, Pakistan) or civil unrest.
Yet, multiple constraints impinge on access. The 2010 Report of the Secretary-General on the Protection of Civilians identifies the following:
- Bureaucratic restrictions imposed by State and non-State actors on personnel and humanitarian supplies. This includes donor governments’ funding restrictions on engaging with Al-Shabaab in Somalia and Hamas in Gaza; and domestic legislations criminalizing the provision of “material support” to designated foreign terrorist organizations
- Intensity of hostility in civilian areas
- Attacks on humanitarian personnel and theft of assets
Humanitarian access is a principled and negotiated business. In Resolution 1894 (S/RES/1894), the Security Council underscored the importance of upholding the humanitarian principles of neutrality, impartiality and independence.
Compliance – or non-compliance - with these principles affects humanitarian actors’ acceptance, and their ability to engage in negotiations with State and non-state actors with the aim of reaching affected populations. In particular, perceived alignment with political and military objectives results in increased threats on humanitarians and further restrictions on access.
OCHA develops tools and provides guidance to Humanitarian Coordinators and Humanitarian Country Teams (HCTs) to address access-related issues, including humanitarian engagement with non-State armed groups; and respect for humanitarian principles. More specifically, OCHA has developed an Access Monitoring and Reporting Framework, including a database and handbook, based on a typology of access constraints, in order to facilitate better data collection and analysis, and to inform policy and field operations access.
|Oxford Guidance on the Law Relating to Humanitarian Relief Operations in Situations of Armed Conflict - Conclusions|
|Cross-border relief operations - A legal perspective|
|Arbitrary withholding of consent to humanitarian relief operations in armed conflict|
|Glossary of Terms: Pauses During Conflict , June 2011 - OCHA|
|Humanitarian Access, OCHA on Message, April 2017 [Click here to see Arabic, French and Spanish versions|
|Humanitarian Negotiations with Armed Groups, June 2008 - OCHA|
|Fact Sheet: To Stay and Deliver - Good practice for humanitarians in complex security environments, 2011 - OCHA|