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Common Operational Datasets
Administrative Boundaries | Population Statistics


Key Figures | Reference Map | General Information | Demography | Geography | Political Background | Economy | Disaster and response preparedness measures | Humanitarian response operations | History of Disasters | Sources

Key Figures  
Total population : 98.3 Million (2018)
Area : 1,001,450 km²
Major languages : Arabic (official), English, French
Number of provinces : 27 provinces (Governorates)
GDP : $235.37 billion USD
GDP per capita : 2,412.73 USD
Average life expectancy : 73.2 years
Human Development Index : Index - 0.696, Rank - 115
Literacy rate : 80.8%, (age 15 and over can read and write), male: 86.5%, female: 75% (2017 est.)
Currency : Pound


Egypt Interactive Humanitarian Map


General information
Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, and often assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Persian, Roman, Arab, Ottoman Turkish, and Nubian. Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was largely Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. The sovereign state of Egypt is a transcontinental country considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, and a middle power worldwide. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

Algeria is inhabited mostly by Arab-Berber people, with 90% of the population living in the coastal area of the north with the people in the Sahara desert concentrated in oases. There are about 1.5 million remaining nomadic and semi-nomadic people in the country. Algeria is a young country, with 1 in 4 people under the age of 15. Interestingly, women play an important role here, making up 70% of Algeria's lawyers and 60% of its university students.

Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, and across the Mediterranean lie Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt.

Political background
Egypt adopted the semi-presidential system following the Egyptian Revolution of 2011. The Parliament of Egypt, commonly referred to as the House of Representatives, is the oldest legislative chamber in Africa and the Middle East. It is unicameral and its members are elected to serve five-year terms. The President of Egypt is elected for a four-year term that can be renewed once. The President can appoint up to 5% of the total number of seats in Parliament. The President can dissolve the Parliament, declare state of emergency and declare wars, but the Parliament must approve any law. The Parliament can impeach the President, and then hold a public referendum to either approve or disapprove the impeachment.

Egypt is one of the most diversified economies in the Middle East with sources of income ranging from agriculture, media and IT services, petroleum imports, natural gas, and tourism. Egypt has a developed energy market based on coal, oil, natural gas, and hydro power. The information technology sector has expanded rapidly in the past few years. However, Egypt's economy mainly relies on tourism, remittances from Egyptians working abroad and revenues from the Suez Canal. Despite Egypt’s mixed record for attracting foreign investment over the past two decades, poor living conditions and limited job opportunities have contributed to public discontent. These socioeconomic pressures were a major factor leading to the January 2011 revolution. The uncertain political, security, and policy environment since 2011 has restricted economic growth and failed to alleviate persistent unemployment, especially among the young. In late 2016, persistent dollar shortages led the Government to turn to the IMF for a 3-year, $12 billion loan program. To secure the deal, Egypt floated its currency, introduced new taxes, and cut energy subsidies - all of which pushed inflation above 30% for most of 2017.

Disaster and response preparedness measures
Institutional Arrangements: A Crisis Management Affairs (CEMA) entity was established in 2000. In addition, a National Committee for Crisis Management and Disaster Risk Reduction (NCCMDRR) was also established in 2006, and a comprehensive National Plan to Manage Disasters of Flash Floods in Egypt and its risk reduction was adopted in 2007. The Crisis Management and Disaster Reduction Sector (CMDRS) is the national body in charge of coordinating all issues related to DRR and DM all through the disaster cycle in close cooperation with all concerned authorities and, to act as a technical secretariat for the NCCMDRR. At the local level, Crisis Management Committees (CMCs) were established at the local level in all governorates, ministries, agencies and institutions. However, strengthening capacity and resources at the local level is required. Legal Frameworks: Although a legal framework for DRR exists in Egypt, there is a need for revised legislation and their enforcement, and to institutionalize the legal structures. Interagency Cooperation: Locally, there are several protocols between relevant agencies and institutions pertaining to Disaster Management and Risk Reduction including but not limited to the Ministry of Interior, the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, the Academy of Scientific Research and Technology (ASRT), the Ministry of Housing, Utilities and Urban Communities, the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency and the Armed Forces. These protocols intend to organize and coordinate the participation of these agencies in disaster management and reduction and elaborating codes and plans for protecting humans and facilities in case of disastrous accidents. Financing and Resources Mobilization: Some ministries (e.g. Ministry of Social Solidarity), institutions and agencies (e.g. Civil Protection Authority) have some limited funds for preparedness but it is often rather allocated to respond. People affected by disasters are compensated through Committees of the Social Solidarity Directorate. Alternatively, the relevant governorate assesses and evaluates the damages and losses and later reimburse people in need of support. Private sector and civil society, such as the Egyptian Red Crescent, also provide financial support or in-kind donations to affected people.

Humanitarian response operations
Egypt is a destination country along the central Mediterranean refugee route with people arriving from both the Middle East and east Africa. A growing population of concern is stranded in the most overcrowded and poorest neighbourhoods of its largest cities such as Cairo and Alexandria as a result of an upward trend of new arrivals and tightened control measures aimed at curbing irregular outflows towards Europe. According to UNHCR (2018), Egypt hosts 242,873 asylum seekers (80%) and refugees (20%); out of which 132,553 are Syrians and 110,320 from other nationalities. Egypt continues to see a steady increase of refugees and migrants. Newly-arrived refugees and asylum seekers mix with an urban refugee population as well as with stranded migrants, and are heavily reliant on humanitarian assistance. Refugees reside in overcrowded and impoverished urban centres, where local communities already struggle with difficult living conditions, high unemployment rates and poor access to critical services such as healthcare and education. This coincides with Egypt’s worst economic recession in decades, which has seen dramatic price hikes in food and utilities. In addition, refugees from African countries have no or limited access to formal education and suffer linguistic barriers and discrimination, further contributing to their marginalization. Almost 90% of the Syrian refugee’s population is considered severely or highly vulnerable. In 2018, the European Commission provided €4 million in humanitarian aid funding to Egypt in close coordination with other EU financial instruments, notably the Regional Development and Protection Programme (RDPP), the EU-Africa Trust Fund, and the EU Regional Trust Fund for the Syria Crisis, i.e. the Madad Fund. EU assistance targets Syrian refugees and the most vulnerable among other refugee groups and their hosting communities. The EU funds humanitarian projects that focus on three main priorities: protection, health, and education in emergency (EiE).

History of disasters
Egypt is vulnerable to several hazards such as flash floods, earthquakes, droughts, landslides, windstorms, and sandstorms. Extreme temperature, wind storm and epidemics were also witnessed within the past few decades. Seismic hazard in Egypt is highest in the southern end of the Gulf of Suez, the northern Red Sea and around the Gulf of Aqaba. In October1992, a 5.8 magnitude quake occurred 35 km south of Cairo causing 545 deaths, injuring 6,512 and making 50 thousand people homeless. It was the most damaging event to affect Cairo since 1847. The worst natural disaster during the past fifteen years in Egypt was the November 1994 flash floods affected 134 villages in Upper Egypt where 600 killed, 302 injured, 140 thousand became homeless after destruction of more than twenty thousand houses and buildings. A total of six significant natural disasters due to severe weather events like extreme temperature waves, storms and flash floods have reported over the past three decades since 1987 resulting in 853 deaths.

Central Intelligence Agency Factbook, Wikipedia, The World Bank, World Population Review