Armed conflict and violence, protracted displacement, inequality, marginalization and poverty remain prevalent across Somalia. More than half of the population live below the poverty line, surviving on less than US$2 per day, while around one fifth of households live on overseas remittances.
Among poor agropastoral, marginalized and displaced communities, huge food and nutrition gaps exist. Severe acute malnutrition rates among children are high, with some areas having global acute malnutrition rates higher than 20 per cent (above the WHO emergency threshold of 15 per cent).
Some 2.6 million internally displaced persons living in 2,000 sites face a serious risk of evictions, marginalization and exclusion, and lack access to essential services such as shelter, water and sanitation. People with disabilities – an estimated 15 per cent of the population – are more at risk from violence and abuse.
Climate-related shocks have exacerbated the situation. The rapid shifts from severe droughts to flooding is a reminder that Somalia is increasingly vulnerable to climate change. It also highlights the importance of supporting the Federal Government’s recovery and resilience framework, which is at the centre of efforts to break the cycle of recurring and cyclical humanitarian crises in Somalia.
Since 1990, Somalia has experienced 30 climate-related hazards – 12 droughts and 18 floods – thus tripling the number of climate-related hazards experienced in the country between 1970 and 1990. Climate-related hazards have a particularly devastating impact in areas of Somalia where chronic poverty and conflict have made people so vulnerable that even minor shocks can seriously affect their well-being and livelihoods.
In 2020, an estimated 5.2 million people need humanitarian assistance. The humanitarian community has prioritized the delivery of assistance and will target 3 million of the most vulnerable. The 2020 Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) seeks US$1.03 billion to provide life-saving assistance and livelihood support to those most affected.
The HRP focuses on four core objectives: reduce the prevalence of acute malnutrition and health needs; meet the basic needs of people across 74 districts; strengthen protection, right to safety and dignity; and enhance the capacity of IDPs and non-IDPs to cope with significant shocks. Apart from addressing the underlying causes of Somalia’s crises, the 2020 HRP aims to build long-term durable solutions thereby laying a foundation for increased focus on the humanitarian-development-peace nexus.
OCHA contributes to principled and effective humanitarian response in Somalia through coordination, advocacy, policy development, information management, and humanitarian financing tools and services. With a country head office in Mogadishu, OCHA Somalia operates through 8 sub-offices located across the entire country and a sub-office in Nairobi, Kenya.