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Madagascar, with a population of 24.4 million, faces several humanitarian challenges. Madagascar is increasingly vulnerable to the climate crisis through rising temperatures, erratic rain patterns, and more frequent and severe extreme weather events.

The Grand Sud of Madagascar is facing its most acute drought in 40 years, accentuated by the effects of sandstorms, due to three consecutive years of failed rains, army worms and locusts. Between October 2020 and January 2021, less than 50 per cent of the normal rainfall was received in the Grand Sud, causing devastating damages to agricultural production during the main harvest in May-June 2021, with losses of up to 60 per cent in three of the most populated districts (Amboasary, Ambovombe and Ampanihy).

An average of 1.5 cyclones affect Madagascar yearly, the highest number in Africa, and each strong cyclone on average affects 700,000 people.

Disease outbreaks, such as the bubonic and pneumonic plague, are recurrent in some remote parts of Madagascar. Plague outbreaks normally register around 400 cases (mainly bubonic plague) in rural areas over the period of September to April.

Humanitarian needs are exacerbated by chronic poverty: about 9 out of 10 people in Madagascar live on less than $2 per day. Maternal mortality rates are among the highest in the world. More than 50 per cent of children under age 5 are chronically malnourished, and access to clean drinking water is ranked in the bottom four for Africa.